Table of contents for History of the treatment of renal failure by dialysis / J. Stewart Cameron.

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1 Why a history of dialysis? 1
2 Replacement of body function by mechanical means 8
3 The science of dialysis: 'uraemic toxins' 15
4 The science of dialysis: osmosis, diffusion and semipermeable
membranes 24
Osmosis diffusion and dialysis 24
Dialysis membranes in the laboratory 28
5 Anticoagulants and extracorporeal circuits: the first
haemodialysis 32
The beginnings of anticoagulation 32
In vivo dialysis in animals 33
6 The search for new dialysis membranes: the peritoneum and the
beginnings of peritoneal dialysis 44
The search for better dialysis membranes 44
The use of the peritoneal membrane in situ for dialysis 46
7 The first haemodialyses in humans: the introduction of heparin and
cellophane 61
The work of Georg Haas 61
Heparin and its controversial discovery: the disputed role of Jay
Maclean 64
Howell's role in the discovery of heparin 66
The first use of heparin for haemodialysis 67
A new membrane: cellulose 68
8 The first practical dialysis machines: Kolff, Murray and Alwall 74
Willem Kolff 74
Gordon Murray 80
Nils Alwall 87
9 Peritoneal and intestinal dialysis after the Second World War 95
Peritoneal dialysis 95

Intestinal dialysis 103
Dialysis be other routes 105
10 The rise of the concept of acute renal failure; the flame photometer,
urologists and nephrologists 110
11 The spread of dialysis treatment for acute renal failure
(1947-1960) 120
Europe 120
Latin America 131
North America 133
Peritoneal dialysis in the 1950s 141
Intestinal dialysis in the 1950s 146
Dialysis treatments at the end of the 1950s 147
12 New designs of artificial kidney 157
Many new dialysers 157
New materials determined the new designs 160
The twin-coil kidney 161
Involvement of industry 163
Flat-plate parallel-flow dialysers: the Skeggs-Leonards, MacNeill and
Kill kidneys 164
Capillary dialysers 171
13 The role of dialysis technology in the founding of nephrology 179
14 New materials and new methods of access I: long-term haemodialysis
becomes possible 187
The external arteriovenous shunt 187
The arteriovenous fistula 193
The growth of dialysis units 194
Home haemodialysis 195
The beginning of dialysis monitoring 196
15 New materials and methods II: long-term peritoneal dialysis becomes
possible 200
The beginnings of long-term peritoneal dialysis 200
New catheters and cycling machines 202
Clinical use of peritoneal dialysis in the 1960s 205
Peritoneal dialysis for acute renal failure in the 1960s 205

16 Dialysis patients in the 1960s and 1970s: old and new
complications 209
Long-term dialysis patients in the 1960s and 1970s 209
Complications of patients on long-term dialysis from uraemia and
other causes 211
The hepatitis plague: blood-borne viruses 216
The psychology of long-term dialysis 219
Summing up long-term dialysis in the 1960s and 1970s 219
Patients going into acute renal failure 220
17 The 1970s and 1980s: new technical advances and some new
problems 229
Dialysis dysequilibrium 229
Dialysis leukopaenia 229
Access for haemodialysis 230
New membranes for haemodialysis 231
New haemodialysis strategies: shorter or longer? More or less
frequent? 233
Sequential ultrafiltration 236
Back to bicarbonate 236
Dialysate regeneration 236
Haemoperfusion using adsorbent materials 237
Ultrafiltration and haemodiafiltration 239
Clinical uses of haemofiltration techniques 242
The 'middle molecule' hypothesis 245
The quantification of dialysis: the dialysis index, URR and urea
Kt/V 245
Dialysis for conditions other than uraemia 247
18 A detective story: the rise and fall of aluminium poisoning-and a
penalty of halfway technology: the rise and rise of dialysis
amyloidosis 258
Aluminium posioning: dialysis dementia 258
The rise and rise of dialysis amyloidosis 263
19 Peritoneal dialysis transformed: CAPD 273
Peritoneal dialysis 1970-1978 273
CAPD 273

CAPD becomes the major treatment choice 276
Social and fiscal aspects of CAPD 277
Peritonitis - a continuing problem 279
How much CAPD? New styles of CAPD 280
Sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis 281
New dialysis fluids 282
20 Good news and bad news: treatment of renal anaemia, the rising
tide of diabetics with end-stage renal failure and withdrawal from
dialysis 287
The treatment of renal anaemia 287
The rising tide of diabetic nephropathy 293
Prevention at last? 299
Suicide during dialysis and withdrawal from dialysis 300
21 The growth of long-term dialysis for long-term renal failure in its
fiscal and sociopolitical context 309
The United States 311
The United Kingdom 317
22 Conclusions: dialysis today-and tomorrow? 328
Basic dialysis technology: more of the same 328
Dialysis: social and financial context and the 'dialysis industry' 330
Dialysis patients then and now 336
Has dialysis a future? 338
Can we prevent renal failure? 341
Envoi 342
Index 347