Table of contents for Thought & knowledge : an introduction to critical thinking / Diane F. Halpern.


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1        Thinking: An Introduction                                   1
The Need for Critical Thinking Skills 2
Empirical Evidence That Thinking Can Be Improved 10
Learning to Think Critically: A Four Part Model 14
Intelligence and Thinking Skills 21
Learning to Be Intelligent 25
Becoming A Better Thinker: The Quick and Easy Way 26
Thinking about Thinking 27
Critical Thinking: Hollywood Style 32
A Framework for Thinking 34
Chapter Summary 37
Terms to Know 38
2        Memory: The Acquisition, Retention,
and Retrieval of Knowledge                                39
Memory As the Mediator of Cognitive Processes 40
Acquisition 49
Retention 59
Retrieval 63
Working Memory 66
Metamemory 69
Mnemonics 71
Biases in Memory 79
Long-Term Accuracy Is Sometimes Excellent 80
Applying the Framework 81
Chapter Summary 83
Terms to Know 84
3        The Relationship Between Thought and Language             87
Thought and Language 88
Words and Their Meanings 100
Language: Tool or Master of Thought? 106
Comprehension: The Reason for Language 118
Applying the Framework 132
Chapter Summary 134
Terms to Know 134



4        Reasoning: Drawing Deductively Valid Conclusions          137
Logical and Psychological 138
Linear Ordering 141
If, Then Statements 146
Combinatorial Reasoning 155
Syllogistic Reasoning 156
Probabilistic Reasoning 173
Reasoning in Everyday Contexts 174
Reasoning Gone Wrong 176
Applying the Framework 177
Chapter Summary 178
Terms to Know 179
5        Analyzing Arguments                                       182
The Anatomy of an Argument 183
Diagramming the Structure of an Argument 189
Actively Open-Minded Thinking 193
Evaluating the Strength of an Argument 195
How to Analyze an Argument 204
A Template for Writing Sound Arguments 205
Persuasion and Propaganda 207
Explaining as Knowing 209
Applying the Framework 226
Chapter Summary 227
Terms to Know 228
6        Thinking as Hypothesis Testing                            231
Understanding Hypothesis Testing 232
Inductive and Deductive Methods 233
Populations and Samples 236
Science versus Science Fiction 241
Determining Cause 243
Thinking About Errors 253
Self-Fulfilling Prophecies 254
Occult Beliefs and the Paranormal 256
Thinking as an Intuitive Scientist 257
Applying the Framework 259
Chapter Summary 260
Terms to Know 261
7        Likelihood and Uncertainty:
Understanding Probabilities                               264
Probabilistic Nature of the World 265
Factors Affecting Judgments about
Likelihood and Uncertainty 270
Using Probability 272
Expected Values 282



Subjective Probability 285
Making Probabilistic Decisions 288
Risk 296
Statistical Use and Abuse 300
Applying the Framework 303
Chapter Summary 305
Terms to Know 306
8        Decision Making                                           308
Making Sound Decisions 309
Pitfalls and Pratfalls in Decision Making 315
Evaluating Consequences 327
Elimination by Aspects 330
Preparing A Worksheet 331
Postdecision Commitment and Evaluation 339
Applying the Framework 343
Chapter Summary 345
Terms to Know 345
9        Development of Problem-Solving Skills                     348
What Is A Problem? 349
Anatomy of A Problem 350
Stages in Problem Solving 352
Well-Defined and Ill-Defined Problems 355
Problem Planning and Representation 356
Problem-Solving Strategies 372
Problem-Solving Problems 387
Applying the Framework 391
Chapter Summary 392
Terms to Know 393
10       Creative Thinking                                        396
Defining Creativity 397
Creativity as a Cognitive Process 404
Encouraging Creativity 412
Strategies for Creative Thinking 416
Applying the Framework 425
Chapter Summary 427
Terms to Know 428
11       The Last Word                                            430








Library of Congress subject headings for this publication: Critical thinking