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1 Introduction: A New Approach to Foreign Policy 1 In This Chapter 1 A Tangled Tale of Tibet 1 The New Foreign Policy 8 Selecting Entrance Points: Levels of Analysis 11 Worldviews and Theories 14 Realism 19 Liberalism 20 Marxism 21 Time to Back Up and Consider the Subject: Foreign Policy 25 The Bridge between International and Comparative Politics 26 A New Millennium 32 A Road Map of The New Foreign Policy 33 Review: Important Observations about Foreign Policy 34 For Further Study 34 2 The Individual Level of Analysis: Leaders, Rational Choices, Cognition, and Morality 37 In This Chapter 37 On the Definition of "Leaders" 42 Rational Choice 44 Rationality, Deterrence, Game Theory, and "Irrationality" 51 Cognition: A Different View of Rationality 55 Belief Sets, Images, and Cognitive Structure 58 Moral Positions and Value Stands: A Departure 66 Can We and How Might We Study Morals and Values? 67 Leaders Who Put Broader Principles before National Interests 68 Review 70 Some Key Ideas from This Chapter 71 For Further Study 72 3 The State Level of Analysis: National Culture, Institutions, Domestic Politics, and Society 75 In This Chapter 75 National Self-Image 80 Culture and Institutions of Governance 84 Culture, Institutions, and the Democratic Peace 86 Domestic Political Opposition 88 Russia as Illustration 88 A Model of the Forces at Play 89 The Palestinian-Israeli Conflict as Illustration 93 Partisan Politics and Intragovernmental Divisions 98 Public Opinion 104 In Nondemocratic Systems 109 In Democratic Systems 112 Interest Groups 113 Media 114 Review 119 Some Key Ideas from This Chapter 120 For Further Study 120 4 The System Level of Analysis: Power, Position, and Foreign Policy Behavior 123 In This Chapter 123 Position, Power, and Foreign Policy 126 The Elusive Concept of Power 128 Who Gets to Be a Great Power? 132 Great Powers 135 The Unique Case of the United States 142 American Foreign Policy under George W. Bush 147 A Cautionary Word on American Foreign Policy in the Twenty-first Century 153 Secondary Powers 154 Small Powers 157 A Complex, Multilevel Game: The Case of the Middle Powers 163 Constructivism: An Alternative Lens 168 "Middle Power" as a Constructed Role 169 The Case of Australia 170 Does Constructivism Help Us Understand 176 Middle Power Diplomacy? Review 181 Some Key Ideas from This Chapter 181 For Further Study 182 5 Conclusion: A Nested Game with Many Players 185 In This Chapter 185 A Tangled Tale of Pinochet 185 Between Domestic and International Politics in an Era of Globalization 192 Nonstate Actors on the Rise 197 Global Rage 200 Concluding Thoughts 203 Notes 207 Glossary 225 Index 231 About the Author 243