Table of contents for Diagnosis and risk prediction of periodontal diseases / Per Axelsson.


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Preface vii
Chapter 1      Etiology of Periodontal Diseases 1
Oral Environment 3
Formation of Plaque Biofilms 5
Amount of Plaque 26
Rate of Plaque Formation 31
Nonspecific Plaque Hypothesis 39
Ecological Plaque Hypothesis 42
Specific Plaque Hypothesis 48
Oral Microbiology Tests 70
Conclusions 91
Chapter 2      External Modifying Factors Involved in Periodontal Diseases 95
Definition of Terms 96
Role of Tobacco Products 98
Role of Low Socioeconomic Status 119
Role of Lifestyle, Compliance, and Dental Care Habits 129
Role of Acquired Systemic and Infectious Diseases 135
Conclusions 141
Chapter 3      Internal Modifying Factors Involved in Periodontal Diseases 145
Role of Genetic and Hereditary Factors 146
Role of Chronic Systemic Diseases 163
Role of Aging 180
Role of Local Oral Conditions 181
Periodontal Disease As a Modifying Factor for Other Diseases or Abnormalities 203
Conclusions 217



Chapter 4      Prediction of Periodontitis Risk and Risk Profiles 219
Definition of Terms 219
Risk Groups 222
Individual Risk 224
Key-Risk Teeth and Surfaces 226
Risk Profiles 227
Conclusions 234
Chapter 5      Classification and Pathogenesis of Periodontal Diseases 237
Classification of Periodontal Diseases 237
Pathogenesis of Periodontal Diseases at the Clinical and Cellular Levels 251
Pathogenesis of Periodontal Diseases at the Cellular and Molecular Levels 257
Factors Affecting Rates of Periodontal Disease Progression 282
Arrest and Control of Periodontal Diseases 284
Conclusions 312
Chapter 6      Diagnosis of Periodontal Diseases 317
Diagnosis of Clinically Healthy and Inflamed Gingiva (Gingivitis) 318
Diagnosis of Periodontal Attachment Loss 325
Radiographic Diagnosis 336
Assessment of Periodontal Treatment Needs 349
Diagnosis of Periodontal Status of Individual Teeth 350
Assessment of Tooth Mobility 351
Recording of Clinical Examinations 352
Diagnosis of Diseased Periodontal Pockets and Active Lesions 354
Conclusions 369
Chapter 7      Epidemiology of Periodontal Diseases 373
Prevalence of Periodontal Diseases: Probing Attachment Loss 375
Incidence of Periodontal Diseases: Annual Loss of Periodontal Support 393
Periodontal Treatment Needs 398
Conclusions 406
References 409
List of Abbreviations 447
Index 449