Table of contents for Fundamentals of thermodynamics / Richard E. Sonntag, Claus Borgnakke, Gordon J. Van Wylen.


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SOME INTRODUCTORY COMMENTS
1.1  The Simple Steam Power Plant, 1
1.2  Fuel Cells, 2
1.3  The Vapor-Compression Refrigeration Cycle, 5
1.4  The Thermoelectric Refrigerator, 7
1.5  The Air Separation Plant, 8
1.6  The Gas Turbine, 9
1.7  The Chemical Rocket Engine, 11
1.8  Other Applications and Environmental Issues, 12
2 SOME CONCEPTS AND DEFINITIONS
2.1   A Thermodynamic System and the Control Volume, 14
2.2  Macroscopic Versus Microscopic Point of View, 15
2.3   Properties and State of a Substance, 16
2.4   Processes and Cycles, 17
2.5   Units for Mass, Length, Time, and Force, 18
2.6   Energy, 21
2.7   Specific Volume and Density, 23
2.8   Pressure, 25
2.9   Equality of Temperature, 31
2.10 The Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics, 31
2.11 Temperature Scales, 32
Problems, 34
3 PROPERTIES OF A PURE SUBSTANCE
3.1   The Pure Substance, 44
3.2  Vapor-Liquid-Solid-Phase Equilibrium in a Pure Substance, 44
3.3  Independent Properties of a Pure Substance, 51
3.4  Tables of Thermodynamic Properties, 51
3.5  Thermodynamic Surfaces, 59
3.6   The P-V-T Behavior of Low- and Moderate-Density Gases, 61
3.7   Computerized Tables, 69
Problems, 72
4 WORK AND HEAT
4.1   Definition of Work, 84
4.2   Units for Work, 86
4.3   Work Done at the Moving Boundary of a Simple Compressible System,
4.4   Other Systems that Involve Work, 96
4.5   Concluding Remarks Regarding Work, 98



4.6   Definition of Heat, 100
4.7   Heat Transfer Modes, 101
4.8   Comparison of Heat and Work, 103
Problems, 105
5 THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS
5.1   The First Law of Thermodynamics for a Control Mass Undergoing
a Cycle, 116
5.2   The First Law of Thermodynamics for a Change in State of a Control Mass,
5.3  Internal Energy-A Thermodynamic Property, 124
5.4   Problem Analysis and Solution Technique, 126
5.5   The Thermodynamic Property Enthalpy, 130
5.6   The Constant-Volume and Constant-Pressure Specific Heats, 133
5.7   The Internal Energy, Enthalpy, and Specific Heat of Ideal Gases, 135
5.8   The First Law as a Rate Equation, 141
5.9   Conservation of Mass, 143
Problems, 145
6 FIRST LAW ANALYSIS FOR A CONTROL VOLUME
6.1   Conservation of Mass and the Control Volume, 162
6.2   The First Law of Thermodynamics for a Control Volume, 165
6.3   The Steady-State Process, 167
6.4   Examples of Steady-State Processes, 169
6.5   The Transient Process, 183
Problems, 195
7 THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS
7.1   Heat Engines and Refrigerators, 214
7.2   The Second Law of Thermodynamics, 220
7.3   The Reversible Process, 223
7.4  Factors that Render Processes Irreversible, 224
7.5   The Camot Cycle, 227
7.6   Two Propositions Regarding the Efficiency of a Carnot Cycle, 229
7.7   The Thermodynamic Temperature Scale, 230
7.8   The Ideal-Gas Temperature Scale, 233
7.9  Ideal versus Real Machines, 236
Problems, 240
8 ENTROPY
8.1   The Inequality of Clausius, 251
8.2  Entropy-A Property of a System, 255
8.3  The Entropy of a Pure Substance, 257
8.4  Entropy Change in Reversible Processes, 259
8.5  The Thermodynamic Property Relation, 263



8.6  Entropy Change of a Control Mass During an Irreversible Process,
8.7  Entropy Generation, 266
8.8   Principle of the Increase of Entropy, 268
8.9   Entropy Change of a Solid or Liquid, 272
8.10  Entropy Change of an Ideal Gas, 273
8.11  The Reversible Polytropic Process for an Ideal Gas, 278
8.12  Entropy as a Rate Equation, 282
Problems, 285
9 SECOND LAW ANALYSIS FOR A CONTROL VOLUME
9.1   The Second Law of Thermodynamics for a Control Volume, 302
9.2   The Steady-State Process and the Transient Process, 304
9.3   The Reversible Steady-State Process, 313
9.4   Principle of the Increase of Entropy, 316
9.5   Efficiency, 317
9.6   Some General Comments Regarding Entropy, 323
Problems, 325
10    IRREVERSIBILITY AND AVAILABILITY
10.1 Available Energy, Reversible Work, and Irreversibility, 343
10.2 Availability and Second-Law Efficiency, 355
10.3 Exergy Balance Equation, 363
Problems, 370
1 POWER AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS
11.1 Introduction to Power Systems, 382
11.2 The Rankine Cycle, 384
11.3 Effect of Pressure and Temperature on the Rankine Cycle, 388
11.4  The Reheat Cycle, 393
11.5 The Regerative Cycle, 396
11.6 Deviation of Actual Cycles from Ideal Cycles, 403
11.7  Cogeneration, 409
11.8 Air-Standard Power Cycles, 410
11.9 The Brayton Cycle, 411
11.10 The Simple Gas-Turbine Cycle with a Regenerator, 418
11.11 Gas-Turbine Power Cycle Configurations, 421
11.12 The Air-Standard Cycle for Jet Propulsion, 424
11.13 Reciprocating Engine Power Cycles, 426
11.14 The Otto Cycle, 427
11.15 The Diesel Cycle, 431
11.16 The Stirling Cycle, 433
11.17 Introduction to Refrigeration Systems, 434
11.18 The Vapor-Compression Refrigeration Cycle, 435
11.19 Working Fluids for Vapor-Compression Refrigeration Systems, 438



11.20 Deviation of the Actual Vapor-Compression Refrigeration Cycle
from the Ideal Cycle, 439
11.21 The Ammonia Absorption Refrigeration Cycle, 441
11.22 The Air-Standard Refrigeration Cycle, 442
11.23 Combined-Cycle Power and Refrigeration Systems, 446
Problems, 450
12    GAS MIXTURES
12.1 General Considerations and Mixtures of Ideal Gases, 473
12.2 A Simplified Model of a Mixture Involving Gases and a Vapor, 480
12.3 The First Law Applied to Gas-Vapor Mixtures, 485
12.4 The Adiabatic Saturation Process, 488
12.5 Wet-Bulb and Dry-Bulb Temperatures, 490
12.6 The Psychrometric Chart, 491
Problems, 494
13    THERMODYNAMIC RELATIONS
13.1 The Clapeyron Equation, 511
13.2 Mathematical Relations for a Homogeneous Phase, 515
13.3 The Maxwell Relations, 516
13.4 Thermodynamic Relations Involving Enthalpy, Internal Energy,
and Entropy, 519
13.5 Volume Expansivity and Isothermal and Adiabatic Compressibility, 524
13.6 Real Gas Behavior and Equations of State, 527
13.7 The Generalized Chart for Changes of Enthalpy at Constant
Temperature, 532
13.8 The Generalized Chart for Changes of Entropy at Constant
Temperature, 535
13.9 Developing Tables of Thermodynamic Properties from Experimental
Data, 538
13.10 The Property Relation for Mixtures, 540
13.11 Pseudopure Substance Models for Real-Gas Mixtures, 543
Problems, 550
14    CHEMICAL REACTIONS
14.1 Fuels, 561
14.2 The Combustion Process, 564
14.3 Enthalpy of Formation, 572
14.4 First-Law Analysis of Reacting Systems, 574
14.5 Enthalpy and Internal Energy of Combustion; Heat of Reaction, 581
14.6 Adiabatic Flame Temperature, 585
14.7 The Third Law of Thermodynamics and Absolute Entropy, 587
14.8 Second-Law Analysis of Reacting Systems, 589
14.9 Fuel Cells, 596
14.10 Evaluation of Actual Combustion Processes, 599
Problems, 604



15    INTRODUCTION TO PHASE AND CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM
15.1  Requirements for Equilibrium, 617
15.2  Equilibrium Between Two Phases of a Pure Substance, 619
15.3  Metastable Equilibrium, 623
15.4  Chemical Equilibrium, 625
15.5  Simultaneous Reactions, 634
15.6 Ionization, 638
Problems, 643
16    COMPRESSIBLE FLOW
(available on the website: www.wiley.com/college/sonntag)
16.1  Stagnation Properties, WI 6-1
16.2  The Momentum Equation for a Control Volume, W16-3
16.3  Forces Acting on a Control Surface, W16-6
16.4  Adiabatic, One-Dimensional, Steady-State Flow
of an Incompressible Fluid Through a Nozzle, WI 6-8
16.5 Velocity of Sound in an Ideal Gas, W16-10
16.6  Reversible, Adiabatic, One-Dimensional Flow of an Ideal Gas through
a Nozzle, W1 6-12
16.7 Mass Rate of Flow of an Ideal Gas through an Isentropic Nozzle, W16-16
16.8 Normal Shock in an Ideal Gas Flowing through a Nozzle, W16-20
16.9 Nozzle and Diffuser Coefficients, W16-26
16.10 Nozzle and Orifices as Flow-Measuring Devices, W16-28
Problems, W16-37








Library of Congress subject headings for this publication: Thermodynamics