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SOME INTRODUCTORY COMMENTS 1.1 The Simple Steam Power Plant, 1 1.2 Fuel Cells, 2 1.3 The Vapor-Compression Refrigeration Cycle, 5 1.4 The Thermoelectric Refrigerator, 7 1.5 The Air Separation Plant, 8 1.6 The Gas Turbine, 9 1.7 The Chemical Rocket Engine, 11 1.8 Other Applications and Environmental Issues, 12 2 SOME CONCEPTS AND DEFINITIONS 2.1 A Thermodynamic System and the Control Volume, 14 2.2 Macroscopic Versus Microscopic Point of View, 15 2.3 Properties and State of a Substance, 16 2.4 Processes and Cycles, 17 2.5 Units for Mass, Length, Time, and Force, 18 2.6 Energy, 21 2.7 Specific Volume and Density, 23 2.8 Pressure, 25 2.9 Equality of Temperature, 31 2.10 The Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics, 31 2.11 Temperature Scales, 32 Problems, 34 3 PROPERTIES OF A PURE SUBSTANCE 3.1 The Pure Substance, 44 3.2 Vapor-Liquid-Solid-Phase Equilibrium in a Pure Substance, 44 3.3 Independent Properties of a Pure Substance, 51 3.4 Tables of Thermodynamic Properties, 51 3.5 Thermodynamic Surfaces, 59 3.6 The P-V-T Behavior of Low- and Moderate-Density Gases, 61 3.7 Computerized Tables, 69 Problems, 72 4 WORK AND HEAT 4.1 Definition of Work, 84 4.2 Units for Work, 86 4.3 Work Done at the Moving Boundary of a Simple Compressible System, 4.4 Other Systems that Involve Work, 96 4.5 Concluding Remarks Regarding Work, 98 4.6 Definition of Heat, 100 4.7 Heat Transfer Modes, 101 4.8 Comparison of Heat and Work, 103 Problems, 105 5 THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS 5.1 The First Law of Thermodynamics for a Control Mass Undergoing a Cycle, 116 5.2 The First Law of Thermodynamics for a Change in State of a Control Mass, 5.3 Internal Energy-A Thermodynamic Property, 124 5.4 Problem Analysis and Solution Technique, 126 5.5 The Thermodynamic Property Enthalpy, 130 5.6 The Constant-Volume and Constant-Pressure Specific Heats, 133 5.7 The Internal Energy, Enthalpy, and Specific Heat of Ideal Gases, 135 5.8 The First Law as a Rate Equation, 141 5.9 Conservation of Mass, 143 Problems, 145 6 FIRST LAW ANALYSIS FOR A CONTROL VOLUME 6.1 Conservation of Mass and the Control Volume, 162 6.2 The First Law of Thermodynamics for a Control Volume, 165 6.3 The Steady-State Process, 167 6.4 Examples of Steady-State Processes, 169 6.5 The Transient Process, 183 Problems, 195 7 THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS 7.1 Heat Engines and Refrigerators, 214 7.2 The Second Law of Thermodynamics, 220 7.3 The Reversible Process, 223 7.4 Factors that Render Processes Irreversible, 224 7.5 The Camot Cycle, 227 7.6 Two Propositions Regarding the Efficiency of a Carnot Cycle, 229 7.7 The Thermodynamic Temperature Scale, 230 7.8 The Ideal-Gas Temperature Scale, 233 7.9 Ideal versus Real Machines, 236 Problems, 240 8 ENTROPY 8.1 The Inequality of Clausius, 251 8.2 Entropy-A Property of a System, 255 8.3 The Entropy of a Pure Substance, 257 8.4 Entropy Change in Reversible Processes, 259 8.5 The Thermodynamic Property Relation, 263 8.6 Entropy Change of a Control Mass During an Irreversible Process, 8.7 Entropy Generation, 266 8.8 Principle of the Increase of Entropy, 268 8.9 Entropy Change of a Solid or Liquid, 272 8.10 Entropy Change of an Ideal Gas, 273 8.11 The Reversible Polytropic Process for an Ideal Gas, 278 8.12 Entropy as a Rate Equation, 282 Problems, 285 9 SECOND LAW ANALYSIS FOR A CONTROL VOLUME 9.1 The Second Law of Thermodynamics for a Control Volume, 302 9.2 The Steady-State Process and the Transient Process, 304 9.3 The Reversible Steady-State Process, 313 9.4 Principle of the Increase of Entropy, 316 9.5 Efficiency, 317 9.6 Some General Comments Regarding Entropy, 323 Problems, 325 10 IRREVERSIBILITY AND AVAILABILITY 10.1 Available Energy, Reversible Work, and Irreversibility, 343 10.2 Availability and Second-Law Efficiency, 355 10.3 Exergy Balance Equation, 363 Problems, 370 1 POWER AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS 11.1 Introduction to Power Systems, 382 11.2 The Rankine Cycle, 384 11.3 Effect of Pressure and Temperature on the Rankine Cycle, 388 11.4 The Reheat Cycle, 393 11.5 The Regerative Cycle, 396 11.6 Deviation of Actual Cycles from Ideal Cycles, 403 11.7 Cogeneration, 409 11.8 Air-Standard Power Cycles, 410 11.9 The Brayton Cycle, 411 11.10 The Simple Gas-Turbine Cycle with a Regenerator, 418 11.11 Gas-Turbine Power Cycle Configurations, 421 11.12 The Air-Standard Cycle for Jet Propulsion, 424 11.13 Reciprocating Engine Power Cycles, 426 11.14 The Otto Cycle, 427 11.15 The Diesel Cycle, 431 11.16 The Stirling Cycle, 433 11.17 Introduction to Refrigeration Systems, 434 11.18 The Vapor-Compression Refrigeration Cycle, 435 11.19 Working Fluids for Vapor-Compression Refrigeration Systems, 438 11.20 Deviation of the Actual Vapor-Compression Refrigeration Cycle from the Ideal Cycle, 439 11.21 The Ammonia Absorption Refrigeration Cycle, 441 11.22 The Air-Standard Refrigeration Cycle, 442 11.23 Combined-Cycle Power and Refrigeration Systems, 446 Problems, 450 12 GAS MIXTURES 12.1 General Considerations and Mixtures of Ideal Gases, 473 12.2 A Simplified Model of a Mixture Involving Gases and a Vapor, 480 12.3 The First Law Applied to Gas-Vapor Mixtures, 485 12.4 The Adiabatic Saturation Process, 488 12.5 Wet-Bulb and Dry-Bulb Temperatures, 490 12.6 The Psychrometric Chart, 491 Problems, 494 13 THERMODYNAMIC RELATIONS 13.1 The Clapeyron Equation, 511 13.2 Mathematical Relations for a Homogeneous Phase, 515 13.3 The Maxwell Relations, 516 13.4 Thermodynamic Relations Involving Enthalpy, Internal Energy, and Entropy, 519 13.5 Volume Expansivity and Isothermal and Adiabatic Compressibility, 524 13.6 Real Gas Behavior and Equations of State, 527 13.7 The Generalized Chart for Changes of Enthalpy at Constant Temperature, 532 13.8 The Generalized Chart for Changes of Entropy at Constant Temperature, 535 13.9 Developing Tables of Thermodynamic Properties from Experimental Data, 538 13.10 The Property Relation for Mixtures, 540 13.11 Pseudopure Substance Models for Real-Gas Mixtures, 543 Problems, 550 14 CHEMICAL REACTIONS 14.1 Fuels, 561 14.2 The Combustion Process, 564 14.3 Enthalpy of Formation, 572 14.4 First-Law Analysis of Reacting Systems, 574 14.5 Enthalpy and Internal Energy of Combustion; Heat of Reaction, 581 14.6 Adiabatic Flame Temperature, 585 14.7 The Third Law of Thermodynamics and Absolute Entropy, 587 14.8 Second-Law Analysis of Reacting Systems, 589 14.9 Fuel Cells, 596 14.10 Evaluation of Actual Combustion Processes, 599 Problems, 604 15 INTRODUCTION TO PHASE AND CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM 15.1 Requirements for Equilibrium, 617 15.2 Equilibrium Between Two Phases of a Pure Substance, 619 15.3 Metastable Equilibrium, 623 15.4 Chemical Equilibrium, 625 15.5 Simultaneous Reactions, 634 15.6 Ionization, 638 Problems, 643 16 COMPRESSIBLE FLOW (available on the website: www.wiley.com/college/sonntag) 16.1 Stagnation Properties, WI 6-1 16.2 The Momentum Equation for a Control Volume, W16-3 16.3 Forces Acting on a Control Surface, W16-6 16.4 Adiabatic, One-Dimensional, Steady-State Flow of an Incompressible Fluid Through a Nozzle, WI 6-8 16.5 Velocity of Sound in an Ideal Gas, W16-10 16.6 Reversible, Adiabatic, One-Dimensional Flow of an Ideal Gas through a Nozzle, W1 6-12 16.7 Mass Rate of Flow of an Ideal Gas through an Isentropic Nozzle, W16-16 16.8 Normal Shock in an Ideal Gas Flowing through a Nozzle, W16-20 16.9 Nozzle and Diffuser Coefficients, W16-26 16.10 Nozzle and Orifices as Flow-Measuring Devices, W16-28 Problems, W16-37

Library of Congress subject headings for this publication: Thermodynamics