Table of contents for RF circuit design : theory and applications / Reinhold Ludwig, Pavel Bretchko.


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Chapter 1. Introduction
1.1 Importance of Radiofrequency Design
1.2 Dimensions and Units
1.3 Frequency Spectrum
1.4 RF Behavior of Passive Components
1.4.1 High-Frequency Resistors
1.4.2 High-Frequency Capacitors
1.4.3 High-Frequency Inductors
1.5 Chip Components and Circuit Board Considerations
1.5.1  Chip Resistors
1.5.2 Chip Capacitors
1.5.3 Surface-Mounted Inductors
1.6 Summary
Chapter 2. Transmission Line Analysis
2.1 Why Transmission Line Theory?
2.2 Examples of Transmission Lines
2.2.1 Two-Wire Lines
2.2.2 Coaxial Line
2.2.3 Microstrip Lines
2.3 Equivalent Circuit Representation
2.4 Theoretical Foundation
2.4.1 Basic Laws
2.5 Circuit Parameters for a Parallel Plate Transmission Line
2.6 Summary of Different Line Configurations
2.7 General Transmission Line Equation
2.7.1 Kirchhoff Voltage and Current Law Representations
2.7.2 Traveling Voltage and Current Waves
2.7.3 General Impedance Definition
2.7.4 Lossless Transmission Line Model
2.8 Microstrip Transmission Lines
2.9  Terminated Lossless Transmission Line
2.9.1  Voltage Reflection Coefficient
2.9.2 Propagation Constant and Phase Velocity
2.9.3 Standing Waves
2.10 Special Termination Conditions
2.10.1 Input Impedance of Terminated Lossless Line



2.10.2 Short Circuit Transmission Line
2.10.3 Open-Circuit Transmission Line
2.10.4 Quarter-Wave Transmission Line
2.11 Sourced and Loaded Transmission Line
2.11.1 Phasor Representation of Source
2.11.2 Power Considerations for a Transmission Line
2.11.3 Input Impedance Matching
2.11.4 Return Loss and Insertion Loss
2.12 Summary
Chapter 3. The Smith Chart
3.1 From Reflection Coefficient to Load Impedance
3.1.1  Reflection Coefficient in Phasor Form
3.1.2 Normalized Impedance Equation
3.1.3 Parametric Reflection Coefficient Equation
3.1.4 Graphical Representation
3.2 Impedance Transformation
3.2.1 Impedance Transformation for General Load
3.2.2 Standing Wave Ratio
3.2.3 Special Transformation Conditions
3.2.4 Computer Simulations
3.3 Admittance Transformation
3.3.1 Parametric Admittance Equation
3.3.2 Additional Graphical Displays
3.4 Parallel and Series Connections
3.4.1  Parallel Connection of R and L Elements
3.4.2  Parallel Connection of R and C Elements
3.4.3  Series Connection of R and L Elements
3.4.4  Series Connection of R and C Elements
3.4.5  Example of a T-Network
3.5 Summary
Chapter 4. Single- and Multiport Networks
4.1 Basic Definitions
4.2 Interconnecting Networks
4.2.1  Series Connection of Networks
4.2.2 Parallel Connection of Networks
4.2.3 Cascading Networks
4.2.4 Summary of ABCD Network Representations
4.3 Network Properties and Applications
4.3.1  Interrelations between Parameter Sets
4.3.2 Analysis of Microwave Amplifier
4.4  Scattering Parameters
4.4.1  Definition of Scattering Parameters



4.4.2  Meaning of S-Parameters
4.4.3  Chain Scattering Matrix
4.4.4  Conversion between Z- and S-Parameters
4.4.5  Signal Flow Chart Modeling
4.4.6  Generalization of S-Parameters
4.4.7  Practical Measurements of S-Parameters
4.5 Summary
Chapter 5. An Overview of RF Filter Design
5.1 Basic Resonator and Filter Configurations
5.1.1  Filter Types and Parameters
5.1.2  Low-Pass Filter
5.1.3  High-Pass Filter
5.1.4  Bandpass and Bandstop Filters
5.1.5  Insertion Loss
5.2 Special Filter Realizations
5.2.1  Butterworth-Type Filters
5.2.2  Chebyshev-Type Filters
5.2.3  Denormalization of Standard Low-Pass Design
5.3 Filter Implementation
5.3.1 Unit Elements
5.3.2 Kuroda's Identities
5.3.3  Examples of Microstrip Filter Design
5.4 Coupled Filter
5.4.1 Odd and Even Mode Excitation
5.4.2 Bandpass Filter Section
5.4.3  Cascading bandpass filter elements
5.4.4  Design Example
5.5 Summary
Chapter 6. Active RF Components
6.1 Semiconductor Basics
6.1.1  Physical Properties of Semiconductors
6.1.2 PN-Junction
6.1.3 Schottky Contact
6.2 RF Diodes
6.2.1  Schottky Diode
6.2.2  PIN Diode
6.2.3  Varactor Diode
6.2.4  IMPATT Diode
6.2.5  Tunnel Diode
6.2.6  TRAPATT, BARRITT, and Gunn Diodes
6.3 Bipolar-Junction Transistor
6.3.1  Construction



6.3.2 Functionality
6.3.3 Frequency Response
6.3.4 Temperature Behavior
6.3.5 Limiting Values
6.4 RF Field Effect Transistors
6.4.1  Construction
6.4.2 Functionality
6.4.3  Frequency Response
6.4.4  Limiting Values
6.5 High Electron Mobility Transistors
6.5.1  Construction
6.5.2 Functionality
6.5.3  Frequency Response
6.6 Summary
Chapter 7. Active RF Component Modeling
7.1 Diode Models
7.1.1 Nonlinear Diode Model
7.1.2 Linear Diode Model
7.2 Transistor Models
7.2.1  Large-Signal BJT Models
7.2.2  Small-Signal BJT Models
7.2.3  Large-Signal FET Models
7.2.4 Small-Signal FET Models
7.3 Measurement of Active Devices
7.3.1  DC Characterization of Bipolar Transistor
7.3.2 Measurements of AC Parameters of Bipolar Transistors
7.3.3  Measurements of Field Effect Transistor Parameters
7.4 Scattering Parameter Device Characterization
7.5 Summary
Chapter 8. Matching and Biasing Networks
8.1 Impedance Matching Using Discrete Components
8.1.1  Two-Component Matching Networks
8.1.2 Forbidden Regions, Frequency Response, and Quality Factor
8.1.3 T and Pi Matching Networks
8.2 Microstrip Line Matching Networks
8.2.1 From Discrete Components to Microstrip Lines
8.2.2 Single-Stub Matching Networks
8.2.3 Double-Stub Matching Networks
8.3 Amplifier Classes of Operation and Biasing Networks
8.3.1  Classes of Operation and Efficiency of Amplifiers
8.3.2 Bipolar Transistor Biasing Networks
8.3.3 Field Effect Transistor Biasing Networks



8.4 Summary
Chapter 9. RF Transistor Amplifier Designs
9.1 Characteristics of Amplifiers
9.2 Amplifier Power Relations
9.2.1 RF Source
9.2.2 Transducer Power Gain
9.2.3 Additional Power Relations
9.3 Stability Considerations
9.3.1  Stability Circles
9.3.2 Unconditional Stability
9.3.3 Stabilization Methods
9.4 Constant Gain
9.4.1  Unilateral Design
9.4.2 Unilateral Figure of Merit
9.4.3 Bilateral Design
9.4.4 Operating and Available Power Gain Circles
9.5 Noise Figure Circles
9.6 Constant VSWR Circles
9.7 Broadband, High-Power, and Multistage Amplifiers
9.7.1 Broadband Amplifiers
9.7.2 High-Power Amplifiers
9.7.3 Multistage Amplifiers
9.8 Summary
Chapter 10. Oscillators and Mixers
10.1 Basic Oscillator Model
10.1.1  Negative Resistance Oscillator
10.1.2 Feedback Oscillator Design
10.1.3 Design Steps
10.1.4 Quartz Oscillators
10.2 High-Frequency Oscillator Configuration
10.2.1  Fixed-Frequency Oscillators
10.2.2  Dielectric Resonator Oscillators
10.2.3  YIG-Tuned Oscillator
10.2.4  Voltage-Controlled Oscillator
10.2.5  Gunn Element Oscillator
10.3 Basic Characteristics of Mixers
10.3.1  Basic Concepts
10.3.2  Frequency Domain Considerations
10.3.3  Single-Ended Mixer Design
10.3.4 Single-Balanced Mixer
10.3.5  Double-Balanced Mixer
10.4 Summary



Appendix A. Useful Physical Quantities and Units
Appendix B. Skin Equation for a Cylindrical Conductor
Appendix C. Complex Numbers
C.1 Basic Definition
C.2 Magnitude Computations
C.3 Circle Equation
Appendix D. Matrix Conversions
Appendix E. Physical Parameters of Semiconductors
Appendix F. Long and Short Diode Models
F. 1 Long Diode
F.2 Short Diode
Appendix G. Couplers
G. 1 Wilkinson Divider
G.2 Branch Line Coupler
G.3 Lange Coupler
Appendix H. Noise Analysis
H.1  Basic Definitions
H.2  Noisy Two-Port Networks
H.3 Noise Figure for Two-Port Network
H.4 Noise Figure for Cascaded Multiport Network
Appendix I. Introduction to MATLAB
1.1 Background
1.2 Brief Example of Stability Evaluation
1.3 Simulation Software on Compact Disk
1.3.1 Overview
1.3.2  Software Installation
1.3.3 File Organization








Library of Congress subject headings for this publication: Radio circuits Design and construction, Radio frequency