Table of contents for Electronic test instruments / Robert A. Witte.


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Preface xv
        Acknowledgments xvi


Chapter 1     Measurement Theory           ]
   1.1 Electrical Quantities  1
   1.2  Resistance  4
   1.3  Polarity  5
   1.4  Direct Current 6
   1.5  Power 6
   1.6 Alternating Current 7
   1.7  RMS Value   8
   1.8  Average Value  9
   1.9  Crest Factor  10
   1.10  Phase  11
   1.11  AC Power  13
   1.12  Nonsinusoidal Waveforms  14
   1.13  Harmonics  15
   1.14  Square Wave  16
   1.15  Pulse Train  19
   1.16  Combined DC and AC   22



  1.17 Modulated Signals 24
     1.17.1 Amplitude Modulation 24
     1.17.2 Frequency Modulation 26
     1.17.3 Modulated Signals in the Frequency Domain 26
 1.18  Decibels  29
 1.19 Absolute Decibel Values 30
     1.19.1 dBm 31
     1.19.2 dBV 31
     1.19.3 Other References 36
  1.20 Measurement Error 36
     1.20.1 Internal Error 37
  1.21  The Loading Effect 37
  1.22  The Voltage Divider  38
  1.23  Maximum Voltage Transfer    39
  1.24  Maximum Power Transfer 40
  1.25  Impedance  41
  1.26  Instrument Inputs  42
     1.26.1 High-Impedance Inputs 42
     1.26.2 System-Impedance Inputs 42
     1.27.3 Connectors 43
  1.27  Bandwidth  44
  1.28  Rise Time  46
  1.29  Bandwidth Limitation on Square Wave   46
  1.30  Digital Signals  48
  1.31  Logic Families  50
  1.32  References  51


Chapter 2       Voltmeters, Ammeters, and Ohmmeters             53
   2.1 Meters   53
      2.1.1 Analog Meters 53
      2.1.2 Digital Meters 54
   2.2 DC Voltmeters 55
   2.3 AC Voltmeters 57
      2.3.1  Average-Responding Meter 58
      2.3.2  Peak-Reading Meters 58
      2.3.3  True-RMS Meters 58
      2.3.4  Bandwidth 59
      2.3.5  AC and DC Coupling 59
   2.4 RFProbes 61



   2.5 Ammeters 62
   2.6  Ammeter Used as a Voltmeter 64
   2.7 Voltmeter Used as an Ammeter 64
   2.8 Current-Sense Resistor 65
      2.8.1  Current Shunt 66
   2.9 AC Ammeter     67
   2.10  Ohmmeters   67
   2.11  Voltmeter-Ammeter Method    68
   2.12  Series Ohmmeter  69
   2.13  Current-Source Method  70
   2.14  4-Wire Ohms Measurements   70
   2.15  Multimeters  72
   2.16  Meter Range  73
     2.16.1 Autorange 73
  2.17 Other Multimeter Functions 74
     2.17.1  Continuity Indicator 74
     2.17.2  Diode Test 74
     2.17.3  Frequency Counter 74
     2.17.4  Minimum, Maximum, Average Readout 74
     2.17.5  Capacitance Measurement 75
     2.17.6  Temperature Measurement 75
  2.18 Specifications 75
  2.19 References 77


Chapter 3      Signal Sources       79
   3.1 Circuit Model 79
   3.2 Floating and Grounded Outputs 80
   3.3 Sine Wave Sources 81
   3.4 Imperfections in Sine Wave Sources 83
      3.4.1  Frequency Accuracy 85
      3.4.2  Frequency Stability 85
      3.4.3  Amplitude Accuracy 85
      3.4.4  Distortion 86
      3.4.5  Spurious Responses 86
      3.4.6  Close-in Sidebands 86
   3.5 Function Generators 86
      3.5.1 Arbitrary Waveform Generators 89
      3.5.2  Arbitrary Waveforms 92



      3.5.3  Modulation (AM, FM) 93
      3.5.4  Burst 93
      3.5.5  Frequency Shift Keying 94
      3.5.6  Frequency Sweep 95
      3.5.7  Sync Output 96
      3.5.8  Phase Locking 96
   3.6 Pulse Generators 97
   3.7 RF Signal Generators 99
   3.8 Summary of Signal Sources 102
   3.9  References  103


Chapter 4        Oscilloscopes       105
   4.1 The Oscilloscope Concept 105
   4.2 Analog Scope Block Diagram 107
   4.3  Digital Scope Block Diagram  108
   4.4 Sample Rate 110
      4.4.1  Aliasing  111
      4.4.2 Sample Rate Specification 111
   4.5 Real-Time Sampling 112
   4.6 Repetitive Sampling 114
      4.6.1 Effective Sample Rate 116
      4.6.2 Memory Depth 116
   4.7 Triggering 117
      4.7.1  Edge Trigger 119
      4.7.2  Trigger Source 119
      4.7.3  Trigger Holdoff 120
      4.7.4  Video Trigger 121
      4.7.5  Pulse-Width Trigger 121
      4.7.6 Pattern Trigger 122
      4.7.7  State Trigger 123
      4.7.8  Transition Time Trigger 124
      4.7.9  Setup and Hold Trigger 124
   4.8 Acquisition/Sweep Control 125
      4.8.1 Automatic and Normal Acquisition 125
      4.8.2 Chop and Alternate Modes 126
   4.9 Vertical Amplifier 128
   4.10  Vertical Resolution  129
   4.11 AC and DC Coupling 130
   4.12 Bandwidth Limit 131




4.13 X-Y Display Mode 132
     4.13.1 Z-Axis Input 133
 4.14 High Impedance Inputs 133
 4.15  50-2 Inputs  134
 4.16  Digital Acquisition and Display Techniques  135
     4.16.1  Persistence  135
     4.16.2  Averaging  136
     4.16.3  Peak Detect 137
     4.16.4  Roll Mode  138
     4.16.5  Dual Timebase  138
     4.16.6  Math Functions 139
     4.16.7  Cursors 140
 4.17  Oscilloscope Specifications  141
 4.18 Scopesmanship 142
 4.19  Mixed Signal Oscilloscope  143
 4.20  Oscilloscope Probes  146
     4.20.1 1X Probes 146
     4.20.2 Loading Effects 147
     4.20.3 10X Probes 149
     4.20.4  Other Attenuating Probes 151
 4.21  Probe Compensation   151
 4.22 Active Probes 152
 4.23  Differential Measurements  153
     4.23.1 Differential Probe 153
  4.24 High-Voltage Probe 154
  4.25 Current Probes 155
     4.25.1  Probe Specifications 156
  4.26 References 156

Chapter 5       Oscilloscope Measurements            157
   5.1 Basic Waveform Measurements 157
      5.1.1 Sine Wave Measurements 157
      5.1.2 Oscilloscopes and Voltmeters 159
      5.1.3  Square Wave and Pulse Measurements 160
   5.2 Voltage Gain Measurement 162
      5.2.1 Gain in Decibels 163
      5.2.2 AC Voltage Gain 163
   5.3 Phase Measurement 165
      5.3.1 Timebase Method 165
      5.3.2 Lissajous Method 167



5.4 Frequency Measurement (Lissajous Method) 170
5.5 Digital Signal Measurement 172
    5.5.1  Pulse Train  173
    5.5.2  Pulse Delay  174
    5.5.3  Serial Bit Stream  175
    5.5.4  Digital Counter 175
    5.5.5  D-type Flip-Flop  178
    5.5.6  Digital Measurement Hints 180
 5.6 Frequency Response Measurement 180
    5.6.1 Combined Single-Frequency Measurements 180
    5.6.2 Swept-Frequency Response 183
 5.7 Square Wave Test 184
 5.8 Linearity Measurement 186
    5.8.1 Clipping Circuit 187
    5.8.2 Amplifier 188
 5.9  Curve Tracer Measurement Technique    189
 5.10  Diode I-V Characteristic  191
 5.11  Resistor I-V Characteristic  192
 5.12  Amplitude Modulation Measurement    193
5.13  Power Measurement    194
5.14  FFT Measurements    197
   5.14.1  Aliasing  199
   5.14.2  Spectral Leakage 200
   5.14.3  Harmonic Distortion  202
   5.14.4  Amplitude Modulation 203
   5.14.5  FFT Summary 204
5.15 Basic Time Domain Reflectometry 204
   5.15.1  Transmission Line Theory 204
   5.15.2  Propagation Velocity  205
   5.15.3  Source, Line, and Load  205
   5.15.4  Reflection Coefficient 206
   5.15.5  Matched Load 208
   5.15.6  Open Circuit Load 209
   5.15.7  Short Circuit Load 210
   5.15.8  Distance down the Transmission Line 211
   5.15.9  Other Impedances 211
5.16 References 212



Chapter 6     Electronic Counters        215
   6.1 Basic Frequency Counter 215
   6.2 Frequency Dividers 217
   6.3 Period Measurement 219
   6.4 Reciprocal Counter 219
      6.4.1 Low Frequency 219
      6.4.2 High Frequency 220
      6.4.3 Reciprocal Counter 220
   6.5 Universal Counter 221
   6.6 Gated Counter Measurements 223
   6.7 Timebase Accuracy 224
   6.8 Input Impedance  224
   6.9 Frequency Counter Specifications 225
   6.10 Time Interval Analyzer 226
 6.11 References 228

 Chapter 7     Power Supplies       229
   7.1 Power Supplies 229
   7.2 Circuit Model 230
   7.3 Constant-Voltage Operation 233
   7.4 Constant-Current Operation 234
   7.5 CV-CC Operation 235
   7.6 Overvoltage/Overcurrent Protection 236
   7.7 Remote Sensing 236
   7.8 Measurement Capability 238
   7.9 Power Supply Specifications 238
 7.10 References 240

Chapter 8 Spectrum and Network Analyzers 241
   8.1 Spectrum Analyzers 241
   8.2 Bank-of-Filters Spectrum Analyzer 242
      8.2.1 Frequency Resolution 242
   8.3 FFT Spectrum Analyzers 244
      8.3.1 Sampling 244
      8.3.2 FFT Computation 246
      8.3.3 Specifications 247



   8.4 Wavemeters 248
      8.4.1 The Practical Wavemeter 249
      8.4.2 Measurement Example 251
   8.5 Resolution Bandwidth 251
   8.6 Narrowband and Broadband Measurements 253
   8.7 Swept Spectrum Analyzers 255
      8.7.1  Sweep Limitations 256
      8.7.2  Dynamic Range 257
      8.7.3  Effect of Resolution Bandwidth 258
      8.7.4  Effect of Video Bandwidth 259
      8.7.5  Tracking Generator 260
      8.7.6  Spectrum Analyzer Inputs 261
      8.7.7  Advanced Features 261
      8.7.8  Combined FFT and Swept Analyzer 262
   8.8 Spectrum Analyzer Measurements 263
   8.9 Network Analyzers 267
      8.9.1  Two-Port Networks 270
      8.9.2  S-Parameters 270
      8.9.3  Measurement Configurations 272
      8.9.4  Network Analyzer Measurements 273
      8.9.5  Combination Network/Spectrum Analyzers 276
 8.10 Distortion Analyzers 276
 8.11 RF Power Measurements 278
     8.11.1 Pulsed RF 278
 8.12 RF Power Meter 279
     8.12.1  Sensors 281
     8.12.2 Calibration Factor 281
     8.12.3  Zeroing and Calibrating 282
 8.13  References  282

Chapter 9      Logic Analyzers        285
   9.1 Logic Probes 285
      9.1.1 Logic Thresholds 286
      9.1.2 Logic Probe Indicators 287
   9.2  Oscilloscope Logic Measurements  287
   9.3 Logic Analyzers 288
   9.4 Timing Analyzer 290
      9.4.1 Timing Resolution 290
   9.5 Glitch Detect 292
   9.6 Digital Logic Test Example 293



  9.7 State Analyzer 294
  9.8 Data Formats 296
  9.9 State Display 297
  9.10 Timing Display 298
  9.11 Microprocessor Measurement 299
  9.12 Storage Qualification 301
  9.13 Trigger Events and Sequencing 301
     9.13.1 Trigger Events 302
 9.14 Microprocessor Program Flow 303
 9.15 Logic Analyzer Probing 305
     9.15.1 Logic Thresholds 306
 9.16 Combined Scope and Logic Analyzer 307
 9.17 PC-Hosted Logic Analyzer 308
 9.18 References 309


Chapter 10      Circuits for Electronic Measurements             311
  10.1 Resistance Measurement-Indirect Method 311
     10.1.1 Voltage Divider 312
  10.2 Output Resistance 313
  10.3 Input Resistance 314
  10.4 Bridge Measurements 316
     10.4.1 The Wheatstone Bridge 316
     10.4.2 Impedance Bridges 317
  10.5 RL and RC Circuits 318
     10.5.1 Step Response 318
     10.5.2 Frequency Response 321
  10.6 Resonant Circuits 324
  10.7 Diode Measurement Circuit 327
  10.8 Instrument Connections 328
     10.8.1  Terminations 328
  10.9 Attenuators 329
     10.9.1 Voltage Divider 330
     10.9.2 Z Attenuators 331
     10.9.3 Impedance-Matching Attenuators 334
 10.10  Power Splitters and Combiners  335
 10.11  Measurement Filters  337
    10.11.1 High Impedance Filters 338
    10.11.2 ZFilters 339
 10.12  References  341



Appendix A: Table of Electrical Parameters, Units, and
Standard Abbreviations 343

Appendix B: Mathematical Derivations of
Equations 345
  B.1 Average (Mean) Value of a Waveform 345
  B.2 RMS Value of Waveform 345
  B.3 Full-Wave Rectified Average Value of a Waveform 347
  B.4 Bandwidth and Rise Time for a Single-Pole System 348
  B.5 Frequency Response Due to Coupling Capacitor 349
  B.6  Polar and Rectangular Formats 350
  B.7 Resonant Frequency 351

Appendix C: Binary, Hexadecimal, Decimal, and ASCII
Table 355

Index 361








Library of Congress subject headings for this publication: Electronic instruments, Electronic apparatus and appliances Testing, Electronic measurements