Table of contents for Freshwater ecology : concepts and environmental applications / Walter K. Dodds.


Bibliographic record and links to related information available from the Library of Congress catalog. Note: Electronic data is machine generated. May be incomplete or contain other coding.


Counter



1
Why Study Continental Aquatic Systems? 1
Human Utilization of Water: Pressures on a Key Resource 4
What Is the Value of Water Quality? 7
Summary 11
Questions for Thought 11
2
Properties of Water      13
Chemical and Physical Properties 13



Relationships among Water Viscosity, Inertia, and
Physical Parameters 17
Movement of Water 20
Forces That Move Water 25
Light and Heating of Water  36
Summary   44
Questions for Thought 45
Hydrolog and Physiography of Groundwater and
Wetland Habitats       47. 
Habitats and the Hydrologic Cycle  47
Movement Througha Soil and Groundwater  50
Wetlands:   56
Summary :65
Questions for Thought 66
5
Physiography of Flowing Water 69
Characterization of Streams  69 
Stream Fowe and ;Ge :ology: t: 
Movements of Mateialsby    vers and Streams  82
Summary 88
Questions for Thought 89
6
Physiography of akes and Reservoirs           91
Formation: Geological Processe :91
Lake Habitats and Morphometry :100
Stratification  103 f



Water Movement and Currents in Lakes 107
Summary 110
Questions for Thought 111
7
7ypes of Aquatic Organisms 113
The Species Concept 114
Major Taxonomic Groups 116
Classification of Organisms by Functional Significance 119
Organisms Found in Freshwater Systems 122
Summary 123
Questions for Thought 123
8
Microbes and Plants      125
Viruses 126
Archaea 128
Bacteria 128
Cyanobacteria (Blue-Green Algae or Cyanophytes) 131
Protoctista 133
Eukaryotic Algae 133
Protozoa 138
Fungi 140
Aquatic Fungi 140
Aquatic Lichens 143
Plantae 144
Nonvascular plants 145
Vascular plants 148
Summary 149
Questions for Thought 150
9
Animals 153
Invertebrates 153
Phylum Porifera 153
Phylum Cnidaria 155
Phyla Platyhelminthes and Nemertea 155
Phylum Gastrotricha 157
Phylum Rotifera 157
Phylum Nematoda 158



Phylum Nematomorpha 158
Phylum Mollusca 160
Phylum Annelida 164
Phylum Bryozoa 164
Phylum Tardigrada 165
Phylum Arthropoda 165
Phylum Chordata, Subphylum Vertebrata 174
Fishes 175
Tetrapods 177
Summary 178
Questions for Thought 180
10
Biodiversity of Freshwaters     183
Measures of Diversity 183
Temporal and Spatial Factors Influencing Evolution of
Freshwater Organisms 186
Short-Term Factors Influencing Local Distribution of Species 191
Invasions of Nonnative Species 195
Extinction 197
What Is the Value of Freshwater Species Diversity? 200
Summary 201
Questions for Thought 201
11
Aquatic Chemistry Controlling Nutrient Cycling:
Redox and 02 203
Chemicals in Freshwaters 203
Redox Potential, Potential Energy, and Chemical Transformations 207
Oxygen: Forms and Transformations 212
Photosynthesis 215
Distribution of Dissolved Oxygen in the Environment 219
Summary 226
Questions for Thought 228
12
Carbon 231
Forms of Carbon 231
Inorganic Carbon 231
Organic Carbon 233



Transformations of Carbon 235
Oxidation of Organic Carbon with Inorganic Electron
Acceptors Other Than 02 236
Fermentation 237
Methanotrophy 239
Methanogenesis 240
A General Introduction to Nutrient Cycling and the Carbon Cycle 240
Summary 243
Questions for Thought 244
13
Nitrogen, Sulfur, Phosphorus, and Other Nutrients 247
Nitrogen 248
Nitrogen Forms 248
Nitrogen Fluxes 248
Nitrogen Cycle 254
Sulfur 254
Sulfur Forms 254
Sulfur Transformations 255
Sulfur Cycle 257
Phosphorus 257
Phosphorus Forms 257
Phosphorus Transformations 257
Silicon, Iron, and Other Trace Nutrient Cycles 259
Silicon 259
Iron 260
Gradients of Redox and Nutrient Cycles and Interactions
among the Cycles 263
Summary 265
Questions for Thought 266
14
Effects of Toxic Chemicals and Other Pollutants
on Aquatic Ecosystems 269
Basic Toxicology 271
Bioassessment 274
Acid Precipitation 274
Sources and Geography of Acid Precipitation 276
Biological Effects of Acidification 278
Metals and Other Inorganic Pollutants 284
Organic Pollutants 288
Suspended Solids 291
Thermal Pollution 291



Summary 292
Questions for Thought 293
15
Unusual or Extreme Habitats 295
Adaptations to Extremes 296
Saline Lakes 297
Hot Springs 299
Cold Habitats 302
Temporary Waters and Small Pools 304
Ultraoligotrophic Habitats 307
Deep Subsurface Habitats 308
The Water Surface Layer 309
Summary 311
Questions for Thought 311
16
Nutrient Use and Remineralization 313
Use of Nutrients 313
Nutrient Limitation and Relative Availability 319
Relative Availability of Nutrients 319
Nutrient Limitation 321
The Paradox of the Plankton and Nutrient Limitation 325
Resource Ratios and Stoichiometry of Primary Producers 326
Nutrient Remineralization 326
What Short-Term Processes Control the Levels of Dissolved
Inorganic Nutrients Such as Ammonium and Phosphate? 327
Processes Leading to Remineralization 329
Remineralization as a Source of Nutrient Pulses in
Lentic Systems 331
Stoichiometry of Heterotrophs, Their Food, and Nutrient
Remineralization 332
Summary 334
Questions for Thought 334
17
Trophic State and Eutrophication 337
Definition of Trophic State 338
Why Is Nutrient Pollution Resulting in Algal Blooms
in Lakes Important? 341



Natural and Cultural Processes of Eutrophication 342
Relationships among Nutrients, Water Clarity, and
Phytoplankton: Managing Eutrophication in Lakes 344
Mitigating Lake Eutrophication 349
Control of Nutrient Sources 350
Treatment in the Lake 354
Macrophyte Removal 355
Managing Eutrophication in Streams and Wetlands 356
Case Studies of Eutrophication 358
Lake Washington 358
Lake Trummen 360
Lake Tahoe 361
Lake Okeechobee 362
The Clark Fork River 362
Eutrophication and Wetlands 363
Wetlands as Nutrient Sinks 363
Summary 364
Questions for Thought 365
18
Behavior and Interactions among Microorganisms
and Invertebrates    367
Behavior of Microorganisms 368
Motility 368
Taxis 368
Interaction Types in Microbial Communities 371
Predation and Parasitism 372
Viruses 373
Consumption of Small Cells 375
Scrapers and Shredders 377
Filter Feeders 378
Selectivity of Particle Feeders 378
Microbial Adaptations to Avoid Predation 379
Parasitism 380
Other Exploitative Interactions 381
Competition 382
Mutualism: Facilitation and Syntrophy 384
Chemical Mediation of Microbial Interactions 387
Summary 388
Questions for Thought 388
19
Predation and Food Webs 391
Herbivory 392



Detritivory and Omnivory 393
Adaptation to Predation Pressure 395
Adaptations of Predators 399
Nonlethal Effects of Predation 402
Trophic Levels, Food Webs, and Food Chains 403
The Trophic Cascade 403
Theoretical Community Ecology and Aquatic Food Webs 408
Summary 409
Questions for Thought 410
20
Nonpredatory Interspecific Interactions among Plants
and Animals in Freshwater Communities 413
Competition 414
Mutualism and Facilitation 416
Other Species Interactions 418
Complex Community Interactions 418
Disturbance 418
Succession 420
Indirect Interactions 425
Strong Interactors 428
Summary 428
Questions for Thought 429
21
Fish Ecology and Fisheries 431
Biogeographical Determinants of Fish Assemblage Diversity 431
Physiological Aspects Influencing Growth, Survival,
and Reproduction 434
Population Dynamics of Fishes 438
Regulating Exploitation of Fish Stocks 441
Stocking Fish for Fisheries 444
Aquaculture 445
Summary 446
Questions for Thought 447
22
Freshwater Ecosystems       449
General Approaches to Ecosystems 450
Groundwater Ecosystems 455
Streams 456



Lakes and Reservoirs 460
Wetlands 464
Comparison of Freshwater Ecosystems 469
Summary 470
Questions for Thought 472
23
Conclusions 475
Appendix: Experimental Design in Aquatic Ecology 479
Natural Experiments 480
Simulation Modeling 481
Manipulative Experiments 482
Summary 483








Library of Congress subject headings for this publication: Freshwater ecology Textbooks, Limnology Textbooks