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PART ONE Tropical Naturalists of the Sixteenth through Nineteenth Centuries Robin L. Chazdon and the Earl of Cranbrook 5 1 A. von Humboldt and A. Bonpland (1814-21) Excerpts from Personal Narrative of Travels to the Equinoctial Regions of the New Continent, during the Years 1799-1804 Translated by Helen Maria Williams. 5 vols. London: Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, and Brown 15 2 H. W. Bates (1864) Excerpt from The Naturalist on the River Amazons London: John Murray 22 3 T. Belt (1874) Excerpt from The Naturalist in Nicaragua London: John Murray 37 4 A. R. Wallace (1895) Excerpt from Natural Selection and Tropical Nature London: Macmillan 51 5 A. F.W. Schimper ( 1903) Excerpt from Plant-Geography upon a Physiological Basis Translated by W. R. Fischer; edited by P. Groom and I. B. Balfour. Oxford: Clarendon Press 63 PART TWO WthaShaped Tropical Biotas as We See Them Today? T. C. Whitmore 69 6 T. van der Hammen (1974) The Pleistocene Changes of Vegetation and Climate in Tropical South America Journal of Biogeography 1:3-26 75 7 J. Haffer (1969) Speciation in Amazonian Forest Birds Science 165:131-37 99 8 P. H. Raven and D. I. Axelrod (1974) Excerpts from Angiosperm Biogeography and Past Continental Movements Annals of the Missouri Botanic Garden 61:539-73 106 9 F G. Stehli and S. D. Webb (1985) A Kaleidoscope of Plates, Faunal and Floral Dispersals, and Sea Level Changes Excerpts from chapter 1 of The Great American Biotic Interchange. New York: Plenum Press 150 PART THREE Ecological and Evolutionary Perspectives on the Origins of Tropical Diversity Douglas W. Schemske 163 10 T. Dobzhansky (1950) Evolution in the Tropics American Scientist 38:209-21 174 11 A. G. Fischer (1960) Latitudinal Variations in Organic Diversity Evolution 14:64-81 187 12 A. A. Fedorov (1966) The Structure of the Tropical Rain Forest and Speciation in the Humid Tropics Journal of Ecology 54:1-11 205 13 E. R. Pianka (1966) Latitudinal Gradients in Species Diversity: A Review of Concepts American Naturalist 100:33-46 216 14 D. H. Janzen (1967) Why Mountain Passes are Higher in the Tropics American Naturalist 101:233-49 230 15 R. H. MacArthur (1969) Patterns of Communities in the Tropics Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 1:19-30 247 16 J. H. Connell (1978) Diversity in Tropical Rain Forests and Coral Reefs Science 199:1302-10 259 PART FOUR Plant-Animal Interactions and Community Structure Bette A. Loiselle and Rodolfo Dirzo 269 17 D. H. Janzen (1970) Herbivores and the Number of Tree Species in Tropical Forests American Naturalist 104:501-28 279 18 P. D. Coley (1980) Effects of Leaf Age and Plant Life History Patterns on Herbivory Nature 284:545-46 307 19 L. van der Pijl (1972) Excerpt from Principles of Dispersal in Higher Plants New York: Springer-Verlag 309 20 F. G. Stiles (1975) Ecology, Flowering Phenology, and Hummingbird Pollination of some Costa Rican Heliconia Species Ecology 56:285-301 322 PART FIVE Coevolution Robert J. Marquis and Rodolfo Dirzo 339 21 H. W. Bates (1862) Excerpt from Contributions to an Insect Fauna of the Amazon Valley. Lepidoptera: Heliconidae Transactions of the Linnean Society of London 23:495-567 348 22 T. Belt (1874) Excerpt from The Naturalist in Nicaragua London: John Murray 366 23 J. Galil and D. Eisikowitch (1968) On the Pollination Ecology of Ficus sycomorus in East Africa Ecology 49:259-69 380 24 C. H. Dodson, R. L. Dressier, H. G. Hills, R. M. Adams, and N. H. Williams (1969) Biologically Active Compounds in Orchid Fragrances Science 164:1243-49 391 25 D. W. Snow (1971) Evolutionary Aspects of Fruit-Eating by Birds Ibis 113:194-202 398 PART SIX Case Studies of Arthropod Diversity and Distribution Scott E. Miller, Vojtech Novotny, and Yves Basset 407 26 E. O. Wilson (1958) Patchy Distributions of Ant Species in New Guinea Rain Forests Psyche 65:26-38 414 27 A.J. Haddow, P.S. Corbet, and J. D. Gillett (1961) Entomological Studiesfrom n High Tower in Mpanga Forest Uganda Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London,Introduon, plates I-I and abstracts to parts2, 45, and 6 427 28 T. L. Erwin (1982) Tropical Forests: Their Richness in Coleoptera andOther Arthropod Species The Coleopterists Bulletin 36:74-75 438 PART SEVEN Terrestrial Vertebrate Diversity B. A. Loiselle, R W. Sussman, and the Earl of Cranbrook 441 29 J. L.Harrison (1962) Excerpts from The istribution ofT eed Habits among Animas in a Tropical Rain Forest Journal of Animal Ecology 31:53-64 449 30 . H. Crook andJ. S. GartI (1966 Evolution of Primate Societies Nature 210:1200-1203 457 31 M. P. L. Fogden (1972 Excerpt from 7The so:l anfopulation Dynamics of Equatorial Forest Birds in Sarawak Ibis 114:307-42 461 32 M. L. Crump (1974) Excerpts from Reproductive Strategies in a TropicalAnuran Community Miscellaneous Publications, Museum of Natural History, University of Kansas 61:1-68 470 33 J. Terborgh (1977) Bird Species Diversity on an Andean Elevational Gradient Ecology 58:1007-19 486 34 A. Gautier-Hion (1978) Excerpts from Food Niches and Coexistence in Sympatric Primates in Gabon In Feeding Behavior in Relation to Food Availability and Composition, edited by C. M. Hladik and D. J. Chivers, 269-86. New York: Academic Press 499 PART EIGHT Floristic Composition and Species Richness Robin L. Chazdon and Julie S. Denslow 513 35 A. Aubreville (1938) Regeneration Patterns in the Closed Forest of Ivory Coast In World Vegetation Types, ed. S. R. Eyre, 41-55. London: Macmillan, 1971 (A translation by S. R. Eyre from "La fort coloniale," Academie des Sciences Coloniales:Annales 9:126-37) 523 36 P. W. Richards (1952) Excerpt from Composition of Primary Rain Forest (II) In The Tropical Rain Forest, 248-54. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 538 37 J. M. Pires, T. Dobzhansky, and G. A. Black (1953) An Estimate of the Number of Species of Trees in an Amazonian Forest Community Botanical Gazette 114:467-77 545 38 P. S. Ashton (1964) Excerpts from Ecological Studies in the Mixed Dipterocarp Forests of Brunei State Oxford Forestry Memoir 25:1-75 556 PART NINE Forest Dynantcs and Regeeraio David F. R. P. Burslem and M. D. Swaine 577 39 W J. Eggeling (1947) Excerpt from Observations on the Ecology of the Budogo Raorestga Journal of Ecology 34:20-87 40 C. G. G. J. van Steenis (1958) Rejuvenation as a actorfor Judgin the Status of Vegetation Types: The Biological Nomad Theory In Study of Tropical Vegetation, 212-15,218. Paris: UNESCO 587 41 G. Budowski (1965) Distributionof TropicalAmerican Rain rest Species in the Light of Successional Processes Turrialba 15:40-42 592 42 L. J. Webb, J. G. Tracey, and W. T. Williams (1972) Regeneration and Pattern in the Subtropcal Rain Forest Journal of Ecology 60:675- 95 595 43 T. C. Whitmore (1974) Excerpts from Change with Time and the Role of Cyclones in Tropical Rain Forest on Kolombangara, Solomon Islands Oxford: Commonwealth Forestry Institute, Paper 46 616 PART TEN Ecosystem Ecology in the Tropics Julie S. Denslow and Robin L. Chazdon 639 44 P. H. Nye and D. J. Greenland (1960) Excerpt from The Soil under Shifting Cultivation Farnham Royal, U.K.: Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux 646 45 E. J. Fittkau and H. Klinge (1973) On Biomass and Trophic Structure of the CentralAmazonian Rain Forest Ecosystem Biotropica 5:2-14 660 46 T. Kira (1978) Community Architecture and Organic Matter Dynamics in Tropical Lowland Rain Forests of Southeast Asia with Special Reference to Pasoh Forest, West Malaysia In Tropical Trees as Living Systems, edited by T. B. Tomlinson and M. H. Zimmerman, 561-90. New York: Cambridge University Press 673 PART ELEVEN Human Impact and Species Extinction Rodolfo Dirzo and Robert W. Sussman 703 47 A. G6mez-Pompa, C. Vazquez-Yanes, and S. Guevara (1972) Tropical Rain Forest: A Nonrenewable Resource Science 177:762-65 712 48 J. M. Diamond (1973) Distributional Ecology of New Guinea Birds Science 179:759-69 716 49 E. O. Willis (1974) Populations and Local Extinctions of Birds on Barro Colorado Island, Panama Ecological Monographs 44:153-69 727 50 A. D. Johns (1986) Effects of Selective Logging on the Behavioral Ecology of West Malaysian Primates Ecology 67:684-94 744 51 D. Simberloff (1986) Are We on the Verge of a Mass Extinction in Tropical Rain Forests? In Dynamics of Extinction, ed. D. K. Elliot, 165-80. New York: Wiley 755 PART TWELVE Securing a Sustainable Future for Tropical Moist Forests D. Lamb and T. C. Whitmore 771 52 P. Kunstadter and E. C. Chapman (1978) Problems of Shifting Cultivation and Economic Development in Northern Thailand In Farmers in the Forest, edited by P. Kunstadter, E. C. Chapman, and S. Sabhasri, 3-23. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press 779 53 I. H. Burkill (1935) Daemonorhops In A Dictionary of the Economic Products of the Malay Peninsula. London: Crown Agents for the Colonies 801 54 J. Wyatt-Smith (1959) Development of a Silvicultural System for the Conversion of Natural Inland Lowland Evergreen Rain Forest of Malaya Malayan Forester 22:133-42 804 55 A. J. Leslie (1987) A Second Look at the Economics of Natural Management Systems in Tropical Mixed Forests Unasylva 39, no. 155:46-58 814 56 J. C. Westoby (1979) Forest Industries for Socio-Economic Development Commonwealth Forestry Review 58:107-16 827