Table of contents for History of the Office of the Secretary of Defense / Alfred Goldberg, general editor.


Bibliographic record and links to related information available from the Library of Congress catalog. Note: Electronic data is machine generated. May be incomplete or contain other coding.


Counter




I. New Bosses in the E Ring               .   .     .    5
Mr. Wilson Comes to Washington   .   .       .        5
What's Good for General Motors   .   .        .      9
"Engine Charlie" Wilson: A Portrait .  .  .  .  .   12
II. Reorganizing Defense  .    .   .  .  .   .   .  .   21
Wilson Takes Charge        .     .   .    .     .   21
The Committee Follows Instructions .     .  .   .   25
The Unified Commands.                  .   .    .   27
The Joint Chiefs and Their Chairman      .  .   .   29
Streamlining OSD .     .  .  .   .   .   .   .  .   32
The Congressional Hurdle     .     .   .   .  .     33
The Hoover Commission Proposals .      .  .  .  .   35
Unintended Consequences ..                  .36
III. Management and Budget.   .   .   .  .   .       .   44
"Gray Eminence"     .  .     .   .   .  .   .   .   45
The Budget Process.  ...                 .49
The Elusive Unobligated Balances  .    .  .  .  .   52
Hoover Commission Reforms      .     .   .   .  .   58
IV. Shrinking the Truman Budget.   .   .   .   .     .   65
Reconnoitering.            .   .   .     .   .  .   65
Focus on Defense           .   .   .   .      .     67
Opening Skirmishes in Congress.  .   .   .  .   .   71
Initial Attacks on Spending.       .     .   .   .  73
Dodge's Budget Exercise            .   .     .  .   74



Key Decisions  .           .     .   .  .   .   .   78
The Interpretation of NSC 149 .  .  .     .   .   .  80
The Air Force Reacts  ...                           82
The Pressure of Unexpended Funds      .  .      .   85
End-April Outlook .            .   .   .  .     .   87
V   Defense Goes to Capitol Hill: The FY 1954 Budget .  88
The Debate Begins: The Myth of the
Five Billion Dollar Cut .    .  .  .  .       .   88
The OSD Team Makes Its Case .    .  .   .   .   .   91
The Air Force Takes Center Stage.   ..              97
General Vandenberg's Day in Court .    .   ..      101
Congress Splits the Difference  .   .  .  .  .  .110
VI. Debating Defense of the Continental Vitals.  .  .  .114
The Legacy.  .               .     .  .  .  .   .114
The Spring Study Groups  .     .   .   .  .  .  .118
The Bull Report: Mounting Costs.    .   .   .   .121
The Soviets Go Thermonuclear .     .   .  .  .  .125
The Debate Over NSC 159 .      .   .  .  .         126
The September Decisions  .     .  .  .  .   .   .128
Stretching Continental Defense .  .  .  .          130
Continental Defense Joins the System            . 135
VII. Economy and Strategy Decoupled:
The October 1953 Budget Crisis        ..         140
BoB Initiatives, July 1953 .   .   .  .  .  .   .140
Pressures for a Balanced Budget.     .  .   .   .  143
The Eight Billion Dollar Gap     .  .     .   .   .144
The New Joint Chiefs  .    .   .  .  .  .   .   .146
Solarium: Containment Reaffirmed .     .   .   .   148
The New Chiefs Weigh In  .   .   .    .   .   .   .151
Scheduling Problems      .   .     .   .   .   .   .153
The Joint Chiefs Stand Pat .   .  .  .  .   .   .155
Redeployment, Nuclear Weapons,
and the Soviet Threat             .   .   .   .157
Showdown.                    .   .   .  .   .      161
The 21 October Decisions ...                       164



VIII. Cutting Manpower     .   .  .   .   .   .   .  . 168
Preliminary Skirmishing        .  .   .       .    169
Dodge Applies Pressure .        .   .   .   .   .170
The Army Targeted.   .     .   .   .   .  .  .  .173
Wilson in the Middle      .       .   .     .  .  175
Wilson Acts            .    .   .   .   .   .  .  178
A Smaller and Leaner Army.   .   .  .   .   .   .  180
IX. Containment's New Testament                 .     . 184
Soviet Threat, Free World Weakness .  .  .  .   .185
New Emphasis on Retaliation  .    .   .  .  .   .188
Reduction of the Soviet Threat .        .   .   .194
Nuclear Weapons and Redeployment.       .   .   .  195
X. The New Look Takes Form        .   .     .     .   205
The Everest Committee      .  .   .     .      . 206
The New Strategy and Posture .  .   .   .   .   . 209
Ridgway Objects, Stevens Demurs     .   .   .   .211
Selling the New Look     .   .  .   .   .   .   .214
Massive Retaliation.     .   .      .   .   .   .216
The Debate Begins.         .    .   .   .       . 220
A Party Line Takes Shape     .    .     .   .   . 223
Dulles's Second Thoughts  ... 226
The New Look Demystified    .  .  .   .     .   . 227
XI. Congress and the New Look: FY 1955.  .   .  .   .231
First New Look Budget: Presidential Preview .  .  .231
Presentation: Briefing the Committees              235
The Military Perspective.   .   .   .   .   .   . 242
Wrap-up  .     .   .  .  .  .   .   .   .   .  .  251
XII. Basic Strategy and the FY 1956 Budget:
Pressures to Expand ... 256
Reactions to Recession and the Indochina Crisis .  .256
The Guidelines Debate: A New Look at NSC 162/2?  .264
XIII. Continental Defense:Ambivalence Compounded  .  . 277
Views of Continental Defense    .   .   .     .   278
Sprague's Alarms and Reactions.   .   .   .. 281
The President's Dilemma      .        .   .   .   286
The November 1954 Progress Reports and Effects.  .287



The Wedemeyer Committee       .   .      .   .    289
The No-Hurry Approach.  .   .                  . 292
Little Progress .                                 294
New Alarms       .        .   .   .   .  .   .    297
The Growing Nuclear Threat      .      .   .   . 298
The Humphrey Factor         .       .    .     . 302
XIV. Basic Strategy and the FY 1956 Budget:
Decision to Retrench.  .  .                  . 307
Wrapping up the Guidelines: The Budgetary Impact  308
The Mobilization Base: Wilson's About-Face .   .   . 311
Cuts and Reclamas: 'Adjusting" the Service Budgets  .316
BoB Sounds the Alarm: The Add-on Threat  .  .  .319
The New Look Back on Track  .     .   .   .   .   326
XV. Updating Basic National Security Policy:
NSC 5501 and the Soft Line           .   .      334
DoD's New Hard Line      .  .   .       .    .    335
The Emerging Soft Line: Dulles Takes Charge.  .  . 338
Wilson Backs Off        .       .   .    .     . 340
Ridgway's Interlude  .    .   .   .   .  .  .  . 344
The Administration Refines Its Position .  .      346
The Planning Board Compromises.     .  .   .   . 348
Anticlimax in the National Security Council.  .  .351
The Soft Line Affirmed (NSC 5501)     ..          353
Postscript  .   .   .  .  .  .  .   .   .  .      356
XVI. Congress and the FY 1956 Budget      .. 359
An Airpower Defense Budget        .     .  .      360
The Squeeze Problem       .     .   .  .   .      363
Ridgway and the Formosa Crisis.   .   .    .   . 364
Stevens Backs the Army Cuts         .             366
House Budget Hearings: Win Some, Lose Some  .  . 368
Senate Hearings  ..                     .         371
House Hearings and Floor Debate .   .   .  .   . 374
The Senate: Symington Wins One for the Marines.  .376
XVII. The 1955 Bomber Gap Flap .                        379
The Moscow Flybys    .  .     .   .   .    .   . 379
Publicity Firestorm.    .   .   .   .   .  .   .381
B-52 Acceleration       .   .   .     .        . 388
The Sci-Tech Threat.  ... 389



Senator Jackson's Twelve Questions . .393
Taking Stock and Looking Ahead        .   .    . 395
A New Doomsday Prediction      .   .   .   .   .  396
XVIII.   Minutemen and Veterans  .   ..399
"20th Century Minutemen" and Its Critics  .  .  .400
The Military Take Charge: The Wensinger Plan
and NSC 5420   .     .   .   .   .   .   .      404
Back to the Drawing Board.            .     .  . 407
The House: Trainees and Race    .   .   .412
Senate: Further Compromise.         .   .   .  .417
Conference: The National Reserve Plan  .  .  .  . 420
XIX. Surprise Attack and Nuclear Parity  .  .    .   . 423
Alarm Bells  .   .   .   .   .  .   .   .   .     423
The Killian Timetable     .   .   .        .   . 425
Continental Defense on Trial    .   .   .   .  .427
Dissecting the Timetable  . ..429
The Ballistic Missile Threat .      .   .  .   .431
ICBM Priority: Higher Than Highest?.  .  .  .  . 436
The Great IRBM Competition  .   .   .   .   .  . 437
Wilson's IRBM Decision.    .  .     .   .  .   . 443
The Vulnerable Deterrent  ..        .445
Counting the Costs-For Now  .   .   .   .  .   . 448
XX. Updating Basic Strategy: NSC 5602/1 .  .  .        449
Beware the Spirit of Geneva!      .   .     .  . 449
Revision of NSC 5501 Gets Under Way    .   .   .454
Estimate of the Situation: Old Wine in a New Bottle  456
The Debate Polarizes    .   .   .   .457
The Local Aggression/Subversion Threat .   .461
Defense Tries to Reshape NSC 5602 .  .  .   .  . 466
XXI. Preparing the Last New Look Budget .               471
Hughes's Abortive Budget Exercise .  .  .   .  .471
Guidelines: "Spend Less!"  .   .   .   .   .   .  474
Manpower Targets.             .   . .       .  . 475
BoB Dissects the Service Budget Estimates  .  .   477
The Army Is Different       .   .       .      . 478
Wilson Raises the Spending Target    .    .    . 482
The President Decides .  ..         .483
The Final Product  .   .  .   .   .   .   .    . 486



XXII. Military Assistance .                              489
Squeezing the Truman Program.           .      . 490
Aid and the Economy Drive         .     .   .     493
The Accounting Mess: Partial Cleanup   .   .   . 496
The FY 1956 Program .   .   .   .   .. 499
Congressional Actions ..                .. 501
The FY 1957 Program         .   .     .   .       504
New Weapons .    .   .   .  .   .   .   .   .  . 508
Through the Congressional Wringer .   .  .  .  .511
Foreign Aid Prognosis: Poor.    .   .   .   .  .513
XXIII. Indochina: Roots of Engagement .  .               517
The American Dilemma     .      .     .   .  .    517
The Letourneau Plan  .  .   .   .   .   .         521
Laos: A New Theater?  ... 522
The First O'Daniel Mission .  .     .   .   .     524
New Team in Paris.       .    .   .   .   .    . 527
O'Daniel Tries Again        .. .           .   . 530
XXIV. Dien Bien Phu and After  .   .   . .    .. 533
The Agony of Dien Bien Phu    .     .   .  .   . 535
Dulles's Grand Design     .   .   .     .   .     536
The Debate Continues ...                          539
Geneva and Manila      .  .   .   .   .   .    . 540
Making Do with Diem.       .   .   .   .   .   .  542
The Collins Mission.  .   .     .   .   .      . 544
Exit French Indochina    .        .   .   .   .   546
The Training Program      .   .   .     .    .    547
Postscript: Saving the Leftovers    .. 549
XXV. Defense of Western Europe: Confronting Reality  .  . 551
Picking Up the Reins    .   .   .   .   .   .   .  551
Paris in the Springtime: Retreat from Lisbon .  .  . 555
NATO and Emerging Strategy  .     .   .  .  .  .558
Toward a New Atomic Partnership    .   .   .   .  564
Alternatives to EDC.  ... 566
Paris in the Winter: 'Agonizing Reappraisal"
and More            .   .   .   .   .    .   . 569
Demise of the EDC    .      .     .   .   .    . 572
Broadening the New Look     .   .   .   .      . 576



XXVI. Stabilizing Central and Southern Europe  .         578
West German Entry into NATO .   .   .  .   .   . 579
Settlement of the Trieste Dispute.         .      583
The Austrian State Treaty  ... 588
Yugoslavia: A Partial Success   .. 591
NATO's Adoption of MC 48 .    .   .  .  .  .   .599
Balancing Military and Political Options.  .   . 603
XXVII. Congress Reviews the FY 1957 Budget             . 605
The Air Force's Preemptive Strike   .. 608
Land and Sea ..                       .   .    . 609
Ridgway's Cold Ashes .     .  .  .  .   .  .   .610
Taylor's Turn        .  .   .   .   .  .   .   .613
Wilson and Radford for the Defense .  .  .  .  .615
The Air Force Takes the Stand  . .  .616
Tactical Retreat: The Supplemental  .. 620
The House Goes Along    .  .  .   .    .   .   . 624
Senate Maneuvers .          .                  . 625
Wilson Drops the Ball .   .  .  .   .  .   .   . 527
XXVIII. The Great Airpower Debate     .   .     .   .     631
The Symington Committee Hearings Begin  .  .   .631
General LeMay Sounds Off .  .       .  .   .   . 633
Naval Strategic Airpower? . .   .   .   .  .   . 636
Competitive Publicity   .  .    .   .  .   .   . 638
Taylor's Colonels    .  .   .   .   .  .   .   . 640
Wilson Takes Charge  .    .  .  .   .  .   .   .641
Wilson's Worst Hour         .   .   .  .   .   . 646
Twining's Russian Visit .     .  .     .       . 648
The Symington Committee Report  .   .  .   .   . 650
XXIX. Strategic Perspectives   ..                 .      654
A Newer Look?.                        .     .  . 654
War Planning     .                .   .  .     . 659
Taylor Challenges Massive Retaliation  .   .   .661
The Eisenhower-Radford Plan     .     .  .   .    664
Air Force Perspectives ... 666
Flexible Response and Other Army Strategies.   .  . 668
The Navy: Independent Player    .   .  .   .   . 670
XXX. Conclusion.         ..             .   .   .   . . 673








Library of Congress subject headings for this publication: United States, Dept, of Defense History