Table of contents for Export/import procedures and documentation / Thomas E. Johnson.


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List of Figures                                                           xiii
Foreword by Eugene J. Schreiber                                           xvii
Preface                                                                    xix
Acknowledgments                                                            xxi
Part I
Organizing for Export and Import Operations                 1
Chapter 1. Organizing for Export and Import Operations                      3
A. Export Department                                                   3
B. Import Department                                                   4
C. Combined Export and Import Departments                              4
D. Manuals of Procedures and Documentation                             8
E. Record-Keeping Compliance                                           9
F. Software                                                           13
G. Federal, State, International, and Foreign Law                     14
Part II
Exporting: Procedures and Documentation                   15
Chapter 2. Exporting: Preliminary Considerations                           17
A. Products                                                           17
B. Volume                                                             18
C. Country Market and Product Competitiveness Research                18
D. Identification of Customers: End Users, Distributors, and Sales Agents  18
E. Compliance With Foreign Law                                        19
1. Industry Standards                                           20
2. Foreign Customs Laws                                         20
3. Government Contracting                                       21
4. Buy American Equivalent Laws                                 21
5. Exchange Controls and Import Licenses                        22



6. Value-Added Taxes                                              22
7. Specialized Laws                                               22
F. Export Controls and Licenses                                          22
G. Patent, Trademark, and Copyright Registrations and Infringements     23
H. Confidentiality and Non-Disclosures Agreements                        23
I.  Antiboycott Compliance                                               24
J.  Employee Sales Visits to Foreign Countries-Immigration and Customs
Compliance                                                           24
K. Utilization of Freight Forwarders and Foreign Customs Brokers         28
L. Export Packing and Labeling (Hazardous Materials)                     30
M. Terms of Sale                                                         32
N. Consignments                                                          36
0. Leases                                                               36
P. Marine and Air Casualty Insurance                                     37
Q. Methods of Transportation; Booking Transportation                    38
R. Country of Origin Marking                                            45
S. Foreign Warehousing and Free Trade Zones                             45
T. Export Financing and Payment Insurance                               45
U. Tax Incentives                                                       46
V. Export Trading Companies, Export Trade Certificates of Review, and Export
Management Companies                                                 46
W. Translation                                                          57
X. Foreign Branch Operations, Subsidiaries, Joint Ventures, and Licensing  57
Y. Electronic Commerce                                                  57
Chapter 3. Exporting: Sales Documentation                                     60
A. Isolated Sales Transactions                                           60
1. Importance of Written Agreements                               60
2. Telex or Facsimile Orders                                      61
3. The Formation of Sales Agreements                              61
4. Common Forms for the Formation of Sales Agreements             63
a. Price Lists                                                  63
b. Requests for Quotations                                      63
c. Quotations and Costing Sheets                                65
d. Purchase Orders                                              65
e. Purchase Order Acknowledgments, Acceptances, and Sales
Confirmations                                                70
f. Pro Forma Invoices                                           73
g. Commercial Invoices                                          81
h. Conflicting Provisions in Seller and Buyer Sales Documentation  81
i. Side Agreements                                              84
B. Ongoing Sales Transactions                                            84
1. Correlation With Documentation for Isolated Sales Transactions  85
2. Important Provisions in International Sales Agreements         86
a. Selling and Purchasing Entities                              86
b. Quantity                                                     87



c. Pricing                                                      87
d. Currency Fluctuations                                        90
e. Payment Methods                                              90
f. Export Financing                                             92
g. Security Interest                                            95
h. Passage of Title, Delivery, and Risk of Loss                 95
i. Warranties and Product Defects                               95
j. Preshipment Inspections                                      96
k. Export Licenses                                              97
1. Import Licenses and Foreign Government Filings               97
m. Governing Law                                                97
n. Dispute Resolution                                           99
o. Termination                                                 101
C. Export Distributor and Sales Agent Agreements                        101
1. Distinction Between Distributor and Sales Agent               101
2. Export Distributor Agreements                                 103
a. Territory and Exclusivity                                   103
b. Pricing                                                     106
c. Minimum Purchase Quantities                                 107
d. Handling Competing Products                                 107
e. Effective Date and Government Review                        107
f. Appointment of Subdistributors                              107
g. Use of Trade Names, Trademarks, and Copyrights              108
h. Warranties and Product Liability                            108
3. Export Sales Agent Agreements                                 109
a. Commissions                                                 109
b. Pricing                                                     109
c. Shipment                                                    112
d. Warranties                                                  112
e. Relationship of the Parties                                 112
D. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act Compliance                             112
Chapter 4. Exporting: Other Export Documentation                             114
A. Freight Forwarder's Powers of Attorney                               114
B. Shipper's Letters of Instructions                                    114
C. Commercial Invoices                                                  116
D. Bills of Lading                                                      118
E. Packing Lists                                                        120
F. Inspection Certificates                                              120
G. Marine and Air Casualty Insurance Policies and Certificates          120
H. Dock and Warehouse Receipts                                          133
I.  Consular Invoices                                                   133
J.  Certificates of Origin                                              133
K. Certificates of Free Sale                                            162
L. Delivery Instructions and Delivery Orders                            162
M. Special Customs Invoices                                             162



N. Shipper's Declarations for Dangerous Goods                         169
O. Precursor and Essential Chemical Exports                           169
P. Animal, Plant, and Food Export Certificates                        169
Q. Drafts for Payment                                                 175
R. Letters of Credit                                                  175
S. Shipper's Export Declarations                                      181
T. Freight Forwarder's Invoices                                       195
Chapter 5. Export Controls and Licenses                                     197
A. Introduction                                                       197
B. Scope of the EAR                                                   198
C. Commerce Control List                                              198
D. Export Destinations                                                203
E. Customers, End Users, and End Uses                                 210
F. Ten General Prohibitions                                           210
G. License Exemptions and Exceptions                                  212
H. License Applications and Procedures                                213
1. Documentation From Buyer                                     213
2. License Application Form                                     215
3. Procedures                                                   223
L   Re-Exports                                                        223
J.  Export Documentation and Record-Keeping                            223
K. Special Comprehensive Licenses                                     225
L. Technology, Software, and Technical Assistance Exports             230
M. Violations and Penalties                                           232
N. Munitions and Arms Exports                                         232
Part III
Importing: Procedures and Documentation                   237
Chapter 6. Importing: Preliminary Considerations                            239
A. Products                                                           239
B. Volume                                                             240
C. Country Sourcing                                                   240
D. Identification of Suppliers                                        241
E. Compliance With Foreign Law                                        242
1. Foreign Export Controls                                      242
2. Exchange Control Licenses                                    242
3. Export Quotas                                                243
F. U.S. Customs Considerations                                        243
1. Utilization of Customs Brokers                               243
2. Importation Bonds                                            244
3. Importer's Liability and Reasonable Care                     250
4. Application for Importer's Number                            250
5. Ports of Entry                                               250
6. Import Quotas                                                254



7. Antidumping, Countervailing, and Other Special Duties         255
8. Classification                                                256
9. Valuation                                                     256
10. Duty-Free and Reduced Duty Programs                           257
11. Column 2 Imports                                              258
12. Deferred Duty Programs (Bonded Warehousing and Foreign Trade
Zones)                                                         258
13. Temporary Importations                                        259
14. Country of Origin                                             260
15. Assists                                                       260
16. Specialized Products                                          262
17. Record-Keeping Requirements                                   262
18. Customs Rulings                                               262
G. Import Packing and Labeling                                          262
H. U.S. Commercial Considerations                                       263
1. Prevailing Market Price                                       263
2. Buy American Policies                                          264
3. U.S. Industry Standards                                        264
L   Terms of Purchase                                                   264
J.  Consignments                                                        266
K. Leases                                                               267
L. Marine and Air Casualty Insurance                                    267
M. Method of Transportation; Booking Transportation                     268
N. Import Financing                                                     268
O. Patent, Trademark, and Copyright Registrations and Infringements     268
P. Confidentiality and Non-Disclosure Agreements                        269
Q. Payment                                                              269
R. Translation                                                          270
S. Foreign Branch Operations, Subsidiaries, Joint Ventures, and Licensing  270
T. Electronic Commerce                                                  276
Chapter 7. Importing: Purchase Documentation                                  280
A. Isolated Purchase Transactions                                       280
1. Importance of Written Agreements                              280
2. Telex or Facsimile Orders                                      281
3. The Formation of Purchase Agreements                           281
4. Common Forms for the Formation of Purchase Agreements          282
a. Price Lists                                                 283
b. Requests for Quotations and Offers to Purchase              283
c. Quotations                                                  283
d. Purchase Orders                                             284
e. Purchase Order Acknowledgments, Acceptances, and Sales
Confirmations                                               284
f. Commercial Invoices                                         285
g. Conflicting Provisions in Seller and Buyer Sales Documentation  285
h. Side Agreements                                             286



B. Ongoing Purchase Transactions                                      286
1. Correlation With Documentation for Isolated Purchase Transactions  287
2. Important Provisions in International Purchase Agreements   288
a. Purchasing and Selling Entities                           288
b. Quantity                                                  288
c. Pricing                                                   289
d. Currency Fluctuations                                     291
e. Payment Methods                                           292
f. Import Financing                                          294
g. Security Interest                                         294
h. Passage of Title, Delivery, and Risk of Loss              294
i. Warranties and Product Defects                            295
j. Preshipment Inspections                                   295
k. Export Licenses                                           296
1. Governing Law                                             296
m. Dispute Resolution                                        298
n. Termination                                               299
C. Import Distributor and Sales Agent Agreements                      299
1. Distinction Between Distributor and Sales Agent             300
2. Import Distributor Agreements                               300
a. Territory and Exclusivity                                 300
b. Pricing                                                   301
c. Minimum Purchase Quantities                               301
d. Handling Competing Products                               301
e. Appointment of Subdistributors                            302
f. Use of Trade Names, Trademarks, and Copyrights            302
g. Warranties and Product Liability                          302
3. Import Sales Agent Agreements                               303
a. Commissions                                               303
b. Pricing                                                   303
c. Shipment                                                  303
Chapter 8. Import Process and Documentation                                305
A. Bills of Lading                                                    305
B. Commercial Invoices                                                307
C. Pro Forma Invoices                                                 307
D. Packing Lists                                                      307
E. Inspection Certificates                                            309
F. Drafts for Payment                                                 309
G. Arrival Notices                                                    309
H. Pick-Up and Delivery Orders                                        309
L.  Entry/Immediate Delivery                                          311
J.  Entry Summary                                                     311
K. Other Entries                                                      317
L. Reconciliation                                                     322



M. GSP, CBI, ATPA, AGOA-Special Programs                               322
N. NAFTA Certificate of Origin                                         322
O. Specialized Products Customs Entry Forms                            324
P. Examination and Detention                                           324
Q. Liquidation Notices                                                 334
R. Notices of Redelivery                                               334
S. Requests for Reliquidation                                          334
T. Requests for Information                                            339
U. Notices of Action                                                   339
V. Protests, Supplemental Information Letters, and Post-Entry Amendments  339
W. Administrative Summons                                              345
X. Search Warrants                                                     345
Y. Grand Jury Subpoenas                                                350
Z. Seizure Notices                                                     350
AA. Prepenalty Notices                                                 353
BB. Penalty Notices                                                    353
CC. Customs Audits                                                     353
DD. Prior Disclosure                                                   362
EE. Court of International Trade                                       365
FF. Appeals                                                            365
GG. Offers of Compromise                                               365
HH. ITC and Commerce Questionnaires                                    372
Part IV
Specialized Exporting and Importing                    373
Chapter 9. Specialized Exporting and Importing                              375
A. Drawback                                                            375
B. Foreign Processing and Assembly Operations                          382
C. Plant Construction Contracts                                        385
D. Barter and Countertrade Transactions                                387









Library of Congress subject headings for this publication: Export marketing United States, Exports United States Forms, Imports United States Forms, Foreign trade regulation, International trade