Table of contents for Forests sourcebook : practical guidance for sustaining forests in development cooperation / World Bank.

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Table of Contents
Introduction: Opportunities and Challenges in the Forest Sector
Users¿ Guide to the Forests Sourcebook
Annex 1: Quick Reference to Contents of Sourcebook
Annex 2: Quick Reference to modules containing relevant information for three pillars of WB Forest Strategy
Annex 3: Quick Reference to Cross References in Modules and Notes
Module 1: Forests for Poverty Reduction 
Note 1.1: Mainstreaming the Role of Forests in Poverty Alleviation ¿ measuring poverty forest linkages 
Note 1.2: Community-Based Forest Management. 
Note 1.3: Indigenous Peoples and Forests 
Note 1.4: Property and Access Rights 
Note 1.5: Making markets work for the forest-dependent poor 
Module 2: Engaging the Private Sector in Forest Sector Development
Annex 2.0.1: AAA and ESW related to Governance Reform
Note 2.1 Community¿Private Partnerships 
Note 2.2 Small and Medium Enterprises 
Annex 2.2.1: Checklist of key issues to determine SME programme direction and feasibility
Note 2.3 Innovative Marketing Arrangements for Environmental Services 
Module 3: Meeting the Growing Demand for Forest Products: Plantation Forestry and Harvesting Operations in Natural Forests
Note 3.1: Mainstreaming biodiversity considerations into productive landscapes 
Note 3.2: Forest Certification Systems 
Note 3.3: Forest Plantations
Module 4: Optimizing Forest Functions at the Landscape Level 
Note 4.1: Integrated landscape land use planning 
Note 4.2: Assessing outcomes of landscape interventions 
Note 4.3: Using adaptive management to improve project implementation 
Module 5: Improving Forest Governance 
Note 5.1: Decentralized Forest Management 
Note 5.2: Reforming Forest Institutions 
Note 5.3: Strengthening legal frameworks in the forest sector 
Annex 5.3.1: A checklist of potential issues for the forest law advisor
Annex 5.3.2: Six Drafting Principles for Creating Better Forest Laws
Note 5.4: Strengthening fiscal systems in the Forest Sector 
Annex 5.4.1: A summary of the different types of charges used in fiscal systems in the forestry sector
Note 5.5: Addressing Illegal Logging. 
Annex 5.5.1: Drivers of Illegal Logging and Other Forest Crime: Motive, Means, and Opportunity
Annex 5.5.2: Typical Contexts of Illegal Logging: Drivers and Potential Responses
Module 6: Mainstreaming Forests into Development Policy and Planning: Assessing Cross Sectoral Impacts
Annex 1: Timescale of Impacts of Energy Sector Reform on Forests and Forest Industries 
Note 6.1: Using National Forest Programs to Mainstream Forest Issues 
Note 6.2: Prospects for Using Policy Lending to Proactively Enable Forest Sector Reforms. 
Note 6.3: Identifying the Need for Analysis on Forests in Development Policy Reforms. 
Annex 6.3.1: Select Tools to Assist Scoping of Cross Sector Impacts
Annex 6.3.2: Tools for Rapid Assessment of Cross Sector Impacts
Note 6.4: Assessing Cross Sector Impacts: Use of CEAs and SEAs. 
Annex 6.4.1: Terms of reference for the application of CEA, SEA and in the forestry sector
Module 7: IMonitoring and Information Systems for Forest Management 
Note 7.1 National Forest Inventories
Note 7.2: Establishing Forest Information Management Systems (FIMS) 
Note 7.3: Spatial monitoring of forests
History of the Bank¿s Forests Policies 
Scope of the Forests and Natural Habitats Policies
Other Safeguard Policies 
1: Applying Forest Policy OP 4.36 
Objective of the Forest Policy
Main Requirements of the Forests Policy
When is the Forests Policy Triggered?
Guidelines on implementing OP 4.36
Annex 1: Definitions
Annex 2: Guidance on development of Terms of Reference related to OP 4.36
I. Social and Institutional Analysis (SIA) 
II. Economic and Financial Analysis (E&FA)
III. Environmental Assessment (EA)
Annex 3: Identifying Critical Forests and Critical Natural Habitats through Environmental Assessment
Annex 4: Protecting Forests through Conservation Offsets
2: Consultation and Communications in Forest Activities 
I. Consultation
Consultation with whom?
What is a good consultation process?
II. Communication
What is a good communication strategy?
Annex 1: Consultation at various stages of an Environmental Assessment project
Annex 2: Listening to the Public 
Annex 3: Involving the Public in Decision-making
Annex 4: Techniques for Conveying Information
Annex 5: Checklist for Task Managers
3: Assessing Certification Systems: Summary of FCAG
Annex 1: Model TORs Assessment of certification systems
Annex 2: Procedures and ToR for the development and assessment of a time-bound action plan for certification
4. Applying OP 4.10 on Indigenous Peoples
List of Boxes 
1.1. What do we mean by poverty?
1.2. The Role of Forests in benefiting the rural poor ¿ an example from the World Bank¿s Chinia Loess Plateau Watershed Rehabilitation Project. 
1.3. Forests for poverty alleviation: World Bank Albania forestry project
1.4. Poverty Forest Linkages Toolkit
1.5. Entry points for reassessing poverty-forest linkages: The example of Indonesia
1.6. An overview of the tools for gathering information at the village/community level
1.7. Livelihood analysis in Busongo, Tanzania
1.8. Identifying opportunities for getting forests-poverty linkages into data-collection systems
1.9. Community Forestry Models around the World
1.10. Devolution of Forest Management to Communities
1.11. Improving Equity and Governance and Addressing Elite Capture in Nepal
1.12. Andhra Pradesh Community Forestry Management Project
1.13. Community Forestry in Mexico
1.14. The Forest Sector in Cameroon
1.15. Typology of Property Rights
1.16. Characteristics of Secure Community Tenure
1.17. Examples of potentially pro-poor approaches to forestry
1.18. Opportunities to Advance Community Tenure Security: A Summary
1.19. Overcoming Barriers to Pro-Poor Forestry in Honduras
1.20. Market Analysis and Development in Community Forests of the Gambia
1.21. Strategic Partnerships in Southern Africa
1.22. Medicinal Plants as NTFPs in India and Nepal
2.1. IFC Projects in the Forest Products Sector 
2.2. The Prevalence of SMFEs 
2.3. Outgrower Contract for Wood Production: Xylo Indah Pratama, Indonesia
2.4. Social Responsibility Contract for Timber Production: Bibiani Lumber Company and the Stool (chief) of the Omanhene, Ghana
2.5. Purchase Agreement for Non-Timber Forest Products: Vegext Limited, Kenya
2.6. Multiple Land Use on Company Land: Beekeeping and Mondi, South Africa
2.7. Joint Venture for Ecosystem Services: Posada Amazonas Ecotourism, Peru
2.8. Local Sovereignty, Markets and SMFEs in India and Guyana
2.9. Building SMFE Negotiating Capacity
2.10. Supporting Forest Enterprise Associations in Brazil
2.11: South African SMFEs and the Burden of Bureaucracy
2.12: Supporting Local Activists who Support SMFEs in Guyana
2.13. Mexico: Avoiding Perverse Incentives in PES
2.14: Water Services Provided by Forests: Claims and Reality
3.1. Technical Definitions
3.2 Factors Influencing Future Demand for Wood
3.3. Global Forest and Trade Network (GFTN-WWF)
3.4. The Forestry Sector Development Project for Vietnam
3.5. The Six High Conservation Values (HCVs)
3.6: Identifying HCVFs in State Forests and Taking it to Scale: The Case of China
3.7: Applying HCVF in Papua New Guinea
3.8: Mainstreaming HCVF Work in Bulgaria
4.1. Identifying spatially explicit boundaries
4.2. Participatory Modeling
4.3. Importance of Challenging Existing Institutional Arrangements that Discriminate against Vulnerable Groups
4.4. Trade-offs Framework used in the Alternatives to Slash-and-Burn initiative
4.5. Commonly required skills in a planning team
4.6. Who are the Landscape Stakeholders?
4.7. Participating in the management of the Tongass National Forest
4.8 Baseline data needed on aspects of the landscape
4.9. Potential Indicators to Monitor
4.10Participatory mapping for identifying the landscape value
4.11. Tools for integrating various viewpoints
4.12. Possible indicators for assessing conservation of biodiversity and ecosystem services in landscapes that integrate production and conservation (Source: Buck et al., 2006). 
4.13. Outcome assessment tracking
4.14. Conceptual Models: A Tool for Portraying a Site¿s Context and Determining Strategies
4.15. Tools for Clarifying and Testing Assumptions: Results Chains
4.16. Adaptive Management Applied: Sustainable Agriculture in Guatemala and Mexico
5.1. Opportunities Created by International Partnerships on FLEG
5.2. Examples of Bank Support for Prevention and Detection Activities in Project Lending
5.3. Finding synergies between the Bank Group¿s efforts in forest law enforcement and governance, and its broader governance reforms, for greater impact. 
5.4. Functions of Forest Organizations
5.5. Citizen Report Cards
5.6. The Liberian Forest Initiative
5.7. Reforming Forest Law in Post-Conflict Countries
5.8. Working on the Law with Lawyers
5.9. A summary of common problems with fiscal systems in the forestry sector
5.10. A summary of solutions to some of the problems with fiscal systems in the forestry sector
5.11. Informal competition for harvesting rights in Fiji
5.12. Measures Specific to combating corruption in the Forest sector 
6.1. Indonesia Structural Adjustment and Forests
6.2. Upstream Analyses on Energy Reform and Fuelwood Use: An Example from Azerbaijan
6.3. Positive Impact of Agrarian Reform on Community Forestry in Mexico
6.4. Use of the Rapid CEA Approach in Bosnia
6.5. NFP in Uganda
6.6. Basic Principles of NFP Preparation and Implementation
6.7. Recurring Key Issues in Forest Sector Reviews
6.8. Vietnam¿s 5MHRP: An Example of Success
6.9. Uganda¿s Forests in Post-Conflict Recovery
6.10. Mexico Environmental SAL ¿ Making it Work 
6.11: Typology of Conditionalities
6.12. Conditions in DPLs on Forestry: An Example from Ghana
6.13. Using DPLs in Lao PDR for advancing the forest sector agenda
6.14. The Use of Development Policy Loans and Grants (DPL) to Support Natural Resources Management in Gabon and Cameroon
6.15. Transparency and Predictability: An Example from the Republic of Armenia
6.16 Themes associated with the World Bank policy lending operations in FY05 and FY06 of relevance for the forest sector
6.17 The Forests Component in the Ghana CEA
6.18 SEA Definition
6.19 The Sector Study of Social and Environmental Impacts of Forests Environment Sector Program in Cameroon
6.20 Implementation of the Kenya Forest Act: An Institution-centered SEA
7.1: Monitoring Promotes Changes in Armenian Forest policy
7.2: Using Spatial Monitoring to Assess Linkages Between Energy Reform and Forests
7.3: Forest Assessments in India
7.4 Monitoring efforts in Brazil
7.5: The Forest Resource Assessment programme of FAO
7.6: Motivation for Forest Inventory in Bosnia Herzegovina
7.7: Forest Inventory in Tanzania
7.8: Defining the Sample of Interest
7.9: Plot stratification
7.10: Map based estimation using k-Nearest Neighbors
7.11 Estimating Costs
7.12: A data collection model
7.13: System Architecture of a Standard FMIS
7.14: FMIS in Bosnia-Herzegovina
7.15: Private consulting or software firms that have developed turn-key
7.16: Forest monitoring in Cameroon
7.17 Forest monitoring in Indonesia
7.18: Using geospatial tools for LULUCF projects
7.19: Selecting the appropriate approach and tools
7.20: Using Remote Sensing for Real-Time Monitoring
1. Liberia Forest Initiative ¿ a strategic partnership that enables consultation 
2. What is the necessary level of consultation?
3. Consultation in Cambodia ¿ lessons learned
4. Guidance for address concerns of indigenous people and preempt any local conflicts
5. Consultation in DRC: Using analytical work to start the process
6. Budgetary Issues - Cost Elements of Consultation
7. Elements of Communication and Collaboration
8. Managing Risks through Strategic Communication ¿ the case of Cambodia
9. The Communication Implementation Plan
List of Figures (Figures are listed under the relevant section in the sourcebook)
1. Main Causes of Deforestation by World Region 1990-2000 (FAO)
2. Community Ownership and Administration of Forests
3. Commitment Amounts of the World Bank Group, GEF, IFC for Forests from FY01-FY07
4. IBRD/IDA and GEF Forestry-Related Lending including Forest Components in Projects 
5. Amount of IBRD/IDA Forestry Lending by Region FY01-FY05
1.1. Towards Tenure Security: Actors and Actions
1.2. Forest Market Development Strategy for Low-Income Producers. 
2.1 IFC Forest Sector Investments
2.2 IFC Forest investments. Regional Distribution 2003-2006 (percentage)
2.3 The Simple Economics of Payments for Environmental Services
3.1 Pathways of Deforestation and Land Cover Conversion
3.2 A Possible Global Forest Scenario for 2050
3.3 HCVF Identification and Follow up: The Ideal Picture
4.1. Necessary Ingredients for Project Success
4.2 General Project Management Cycle
4.3 Timing of Outcomes and Impacts
4.4 Identifying ¿entry points¿ and a sustainable reform process to improve forest governance
5.1. Forest decentralization, main potential advantages and dangers
5.2 The Liberian FDA¿s Proposed Strucure
5.3 Illegal Forest Activity and its Link with Corruption
5.4 National Action and International Cooperation for Controlling Forest Crime
6.1 Indirect Impact of Fiscal Reform on Forests
6.2 Sample Checklist for Devaluation
6.3 Sample Qualitative Matrix for Devaluation
6.4 Indirect Impact of Fiscal Reform on Forests
6.5 Sample Checklist for Devaluation
6.6 Sample Qualitative Matrix for Devaluation
6.7 Key Building Blocks for CEAs
7.1: The Forest Resource Assessment programme of FAO
7.2: Data Collection Model
List of Tables (Tables are listed under the relevant section in the sourcebook)
1.1 Changing linkages between forests and poverty
2.1 Company-community partnership models for different forest goods and services
2.2 World Bank Projects with Explicit PES Components
3.1 Estimated Number of Years Left of Economically Accessible Timber, by Country
3.2 Woodfuel Data for Selected World Bank Client Countries
5.1 FLEG Components in the World Bank Forestry Portfolio, by Region
6.1 The requirements for significance and costs of select analytical tools
6.2 Typical reforms in policy-based operations, and potential forest linkages
7.1: Areas where new methodologies and technologies are expected to benefit NFIs
7.2: Example of number of images and estimated costs for a remote-sensing survey with different resolution and sampling options
7.3: An example of the number and cost of field plots in a global survey utilizing field data only
7.4: lists the existing satellite remote sensors, and their applications and limitations for specific purposes
7.5: Global Forest Maps
1: Consultation Objectives during the EA process
2. Listening to the Public
3. Involving the Public in Decision-Making
4. Techniques for Conveying Information

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Forestry projects -- Handbooks, manuals, etc.
Sustainable forestry -- Handbooks, manuals, etc.
Forest management -- Handbooks, manuals, etc.
Forest policy -- Handbooks, manuals, etc.