Table of contents for Energy supply and pipeline transportation : challenges & opportunities / by M. Mohitpour.

Bibliographic record and links to related information available from the Library of Congress catalog.

Note: Contents data are machine generated based on pre-publication provided by the publisher. Contents may have variations from the printed book or be incomplete or contain other coding.


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Contents
Energy Supply and Pipeline Transportation: Challenges & Opportunities	2
Copyright	3
CHAPTER 	1	11
Energy Options & Terms, An Introduction	11
Energy Strategic Value	11
Re-newables Versus Non-renewables	12
Energy Content Comparison	14
Exploration For Fossil Fuel	16
Energy Generation Options	18
Green House gas Emission	19
Chapter 1	References	21
CHAPTER 2	22
Energy Sources & Supplies	22
An Overview of World Energy	22
World Energy Sources	24
World Energy Consumption	25
Energy Market Regions ¿ Source Locations	29
References	31
CHAPTER 	3	32
Coal As An Energy Source	32
Coal Classification, Analysis & Energy Release	35
Classification	36
Analysis	38
Coal Heating Value Estimation	40
World Coal Reserves, Production and Usage	42
Reserves	42
China	48
Reserves	48
Consumption	49
United States	50
USA Consumption (Comparison to Global Usage)	52
India	54
Global Coal Usage & Conversion Option	56
Coal Trade & Transportation	58
Trade	58
Transportation	61
Coal Challenges and Issues As An Energy Source	65
Environmental Effects	65
Coal Mining and Transportation Hazards	69
Sabotage	70
References	72
CHAPTER 	4	74
Oil And Gas As Energy Source	74
Oil Reserves, Production & Market	74
Natural Gas Reserves and Markets	77
Natural Gas Use By Sectors	79
Drivers of Natural Gas Demand Growth	80
References	81
CHAPTER 	5	82
Green House Gas (CO2) Emission	82
Green Houses Gases	82
Historical Records	83
CO2 Chronology	84
Fossil Fuel Emission Record	84
CO2 Emission	86
Carbon Dioxide Emission & Global Economic Consequences	89
World's Top 10 Most Polluted Places	92
A Method for Calculation of CO2 Emission	93
Other Greenhouse Gas Calculation Methodology	95
Emission Calculations For Hydrocarbon Fuels	95
Calculation example:	96
Global CO2 Emission Ranking	97
Conclusion & Issues For Discussion	98
References	100
CHAPTER 	6	101
Oil & Gas Transportation Modes	101
Major Location Oil and Gas Sources	101
Forms of Natural Gas Transportation	107
Natural Gas Pipelines	107
Compressed Natural Gas (CNG)	107
Liquefied Natural Gas ( LNG)	108
Gas Hydrates	110
Gas-to-Liquids (GTL)	111
References	113
CHAPTER 	7	114
Security of Supply & Transportation ¿ Safety Records	114
Security of Supply	114
Transportation Safety Records	119
Oil Supply Disruption & Piracy	123
Conclusion and Issues to Consider:	124
Issues to Consider	125
References	126
CHAPTER 	8	127
Pipeline As A Mode of Energy Transportation	127
Historical Perspective of Pipeline Development	127
Pipeline Origin	127
Natural Gas Pipeline Development	130
World Overview of Existing Pipeline Infrastructure	133
Pipeline Networks At Glance	133
Existing Pipeline Infrastructure Statistic	136
Pipeline Safety Records	140
General	140
Oil Pipelines	140
Natural Gas Pipelines	142
Pipeline Safety Concerns, Issues & Conclusion	143
Pipeline Development	144
Pipeline Development Phases	144
Business Development	144
Project Development	144
Pipeline Implementation	146
Operation & Maintenance	149
Pipeline Industry Concerns/Issues	156
General	156
Current Issues	158
Cost & Economic Factor	158
Pressure and Material	160
Safety & Environment	163
Security of Physical Assets	169
Security Issues	172
Regulatory Environment	176
System Reliability	179
Conclusion and Issues to Consider	182
References	184
APPENDIX A	188
Pipeline System Design, Construction and Operation Rationalization	188
INFLUENCING ELEMENTS	188
DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS	188
Nature of Fluid	188
Service Environment	189
Effects of Pressure and Temperature	189
Pipe Properties/Material	193
SUPPL Y/DEMAND SCENARIO, ROUTE AND CONSTRUCTION	196
CODES AND STANDARDS	196
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT	197
ECONOMICS	197
Direct Costs	198
Indirect Costs	198
Tariff/Cost of Service	198
OPERATION	200
PROTECTION	203
INTEGRITY MONITORING	204
Integrity Assessment Methods	205
Risk Assessments	206
Pipeline Repairs	207
CONCLUSION	207
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT	208
NOMENCLATURE	208
REFERENCES	209
APPENDIX B	Glossary of Terms	211
APPENDIX C	Energy Abbreviations & Terms	214

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Petroleum pipelines.
Power resources.
Energy policy.