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CONTENTS PART I Moral Foundations 1. Moral Norms Normative and Nonnormative Ethics The Common Morality as Universal Morality Particular Moralities as Nonuniversal Moral Dilemmas A Framework of Moral Norms Conflicting Moral Norms Conclusion 2. Moral Character Moral Virtues Virtues in Professional Roles The Virtue of Caring Five Focal Virtues Moral Virtues and Action Guides Moral Ideals Moral Excellence Conclusion 3. Moral Status The Problem of Moral Status Theories of Moral Status From Theories to Practical Guidelines Vulnerable Populations Conclusion PART II Moral Principles 4. Respect for Autonomy The Nature of Autonomy The Capacity for Autonomous Choice The Meaning and Justification of Informed Consent Disclosure Understanding Voluntariness A Framework of Standards for Surrogate Decision Making Conclusion 5. Nonmaleficence The Concept of Nonmaleficence Distinctions and Rules Governing Nontreatment Optional Treatments and Obligatory Treatments Killing and Letting Die The Justification of Intentionally Arranged Deaths Protecting Incompetent Patients Conclusion 6. Beneficence The Concept of Beneficence Obligatory and Ideal Beneficence Paternalism: Conflicts Between Beneficence and Autonomy Balancing Benefits, Costs, and Risks The Value and Quality of Life Conclusion 7. Justice The Concept of Justice Theories of Justice Fair Opportunity and Unfair Discrimination Vulnerability and Exploitation National Health Policy and the Right to Health Care Global Health Policy and the Right to Health Allocating, Setting Priorities, and Rationing Rationing Scarce Treatments to Patients Conclusion 8. Professional-Patient Relationships Veracity Privacy Confidentiality Fidelity The Dual Roles of Clinician and Investigator Conclusion PART III Theory and Method 9. Moral Theories Criteria for Theory Construction Utilitarianism Kantianism Rights Theory Communitarianism Convergence of Theories Conclusion 10. Method and Moral Justification Justification in Ethics Top-down Models: Theory and Application Bottom-up Models: Cases and Inductive Generalization An Integrated Model Using Reflective Equilibrium Common-Morality Theory Conclusion Index
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