Table of contents for Sociology of North American sport / D. Stanley Eitzen and George H. Sage.

Bibliographic record and links to related information available from the Library of Congress catalog.

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CONTENTS
Preface
Chapter 1 The Sociological Analysis of Sport in Society
	The Pervasiveness of Sport
	The Discipline of Sociology
		Assumptions of the Sociological Perspective
		Problems with the Sociological Perspective
		Units of Sociological Analysis
		Sociological Theories: Contrasting Ways to See and Understand Social Life
	Sport as a Microcosm of Society
		Common Characteristics of Sport and Society
	Levels of Sport
		Informal Sport
		Organized Sport
		Corporate Sport
	Summary
	Notes
Chapter 2: Social and Cultural Sources of the Rise of Sport in North America 
Pre-Columbian and Colonial Traditions in North America 
 The Colonist Restrict Physical Activity
The Early Nineteenth Century: Takeoff of Industrialization and Technology 
 Building a Framework for Modern Sport 
 The Technological Revolution and Sport 
 New Forms of Transportation Broadens Sport Opportunities
 New Forms of Communication Enable Dissemination of Sport Information 
The Later Nineteenth Century: The Beginnings of Modern Sport
 		Urbanization and the Rise of Modern Sport Forms
 	 	Diffusion of Sport from the Upper to the Lower Classes 
 The Role of African Americans in Sports 
 The Role of Immigrants 
 Muscular Christianity and Intellectuals
 The Cult of Manliness and Sport 
 The Beginnings of Intercollegiate Athletics 
 Technological Innovation and Sport: Transportation 
 Technological Innovation and Sport: Communication 
 Other Technological Breakthroughs and Sport 
 Equipment to Play Modern Sports 
 Social Philosophy and Modern Sport 
 	 The Twentieth Century: The Modern World 
 The Maturing of Modern Sport 
 		Twentieth Century Technology and Sport: Transportation 
 The Technological Revolution and Sport: Communication
 Other Technological Innovations and Sport 
 Sport in Education 
 Summary 
 Notes 
 Web Resources
Chapter 3 Sport and Societal Values
	The American Value System
		Success
		Competition
		The Valued Means to Achieve
		Progress
		Materialism
		External Conformity
	Societal Values and Sport
		Competition and Success in Sport
		The Valued Means to Achievement in Sport
		Progress in Sport
		Materialism in Sport
		External Conformity in Sport
	Summary
	Notes
Chapter 4: Youth and Sport 
		Youth Sports Programs: Something for Everyone 
The Rise of Youth Sports Programs: The Takeoff and Expansion of a New Form of Sport 
Objectives of Youth Sports Programs: What Do Young Athletes Want? What Do Their Parents and Coaches Want? 
 Socialization and Sport: Involvement in Sport and Its Consequences 
Socialization into Sport: Why Do Children Get Involved in Organized Sports? 
 Families 
 Parents 
 Siblings 
 Peers 
 Coaches 
 Schools 
 Mass Media 
 Participants 
Socialization via Sport 
 Two Forms of Play 
 Organization 
 Process 
 Impetus
 Social Implications 
 Development of Personal-Social Attributes Through Sport 
 Youth Orientation Toward Sport
 Sportsmanship in Youth Sport
 Character Development in Youth Sports
 Potential Psychosocial Problems of Youth Sports 
 Adult Intrusion in Youth Sports 
 		Disruption of Education 
 Risk of Injury 
 The "Winning Is the Only Thing" Ethic 
 Sports Alternatives for the Young Athlete 
 Emphasizing Personal Growth and Self Actualization
 Alternative Sports 
 Cooperative Games 
 Youth Sports Coaches 
 Bill of Rights for Young Athletes 
 Summary
 Notes
 Web Resources
Chapter 5 Interscholastic Sport
	The Status of Sport in Secondary Schools
	The Consequences of Sport for Schools, Communities, and Individuals
		The Consequences of Sport for the School
		The Consequences of Sport for the Community
		The Consequences of Sport for the Participant
	Problems, Dilemmas, and Controversies
		The Subversion of Educational Goals
		The Reinforcement of Gender Roles
		Cheating
		Unsportsmanlike Behavior of Fans
		Autocratic Coaches
		Excessive Pressures to Win
		Elitism
		Sport Specialization
		Budget Shortfalls
		Corporate High School Sport for Boys Programs
	Summary
	Notes
Chapter 6 Intercollegiate Sport
	College Sport As Big Business
		The Consequences of a Money Orientation in College Sports
		A Contradiction: Athletes As Amateurs in a Big Business Environment
	The NCAA and Student-Athletes
		The Enforcement of ?Amateurism?
		The Restriction of Athletes? Rights
	The Educational Performance of Student-Athletes
		Intellectual Performance of Student-Athletes for College
		Academic Performance
		Graduation Rates
		The Impediments to Scholarly Achievement by College Athletes
		Reform
		The Administration of College Sports
		Emphasizing the Education of Student-Athletes
		Commitment to Athletes? Rights
	Summary
	Notes
Chapter 7: Social Problems and North American Sport: Violence, Substance Abuse, 
Eating Disorders, and Gambling 
 Violence in Sport: Is It Violence or Aggression? Confusion in the Literature 
 Theories About the Connection Between Violent Behavior and Sport 
 Aggression Theories and Research on Sports 
 Violence in North America 
 Violence in Historical Context 
 Violence in Contemporary Society 
 Violence in North American Sport 
 Violent Behavior by Athletes As Part of the Game 
 Borderline Violence 
Fostering and Supporting Player Violence 
 	Television
 Fans
		 	Pressures on Athletes to Be Violent 
			 Coaches, Owners, Commissioners 
 Violence Against Athletes 
 Social Problems and Athletes Off the Field of Play
			Sources for Violence by Male Athletes in Their Private Lives
 Sport Culture and Male Bonding 
 Preconditioning Males for Violence
	 		 Steroid Use and Male Violent Behavior 
		 	Concluding Thoughts on Violence by Male Athletes in Their Private Lives
			Athletes' Violence Against Teammates: Hazing
		Sports Fans: Violent and Abusive Actions
 			Factors Associated with Fan Violence and Abusive Behaviors 
			Game and Post game Sports Violence 
 Abusive Behavior by Fans
 Reducing Fan Violence and Abusive Behavior
 Substance Abuse and Sport
 The Scope of Substance Abuse in Sport 
 Substance Abuse Not New to Sports 
 Reasons for Substance Abuse Among Athletes 
 Reducing and Preventing Substance Abuse in Sports
 Eating Disorders in Sport 
 Gambling and Sports 
 Summary 
Notes 
 Web Resources
 Chapter 8: Sport and Religion 
 Religion and Society 
 Personal and Social Role of Religion 
 The Relationship Between Religion and Sport 
 Pre-Columbian Societies 
 Ancient Greece 
 The Early Christian Church 
 Reformation and Protestantism in the North American Colonies
Religious Objections to Sport Decline in the Nineteenth Century
 Religion and Sport Conciliation
 Sport as Religion 
 Religion Uses Sport 
 			 Churches 
 			Religious Leaders 
 			 Church Colleges and Universities 
 Religious Organizations and Sports 
 The Fellowship of Christian Athletes 
 Religion and Professional Sports Organizations 
 Sport and Religion Publications
 Missionary Work of Churches and Sport 
 Religious Evangelizing by Athletes and Coaches 
 The Promise Keepers: Sportianity, Gender, and Sexuality 
 Sportianity Confronting Social Issues 
 Value Orientations of Religion and Sport 
 The Protestant Ethic and Sports
				Success 
 Self Discipline
 Hard Work
 Protestantism and Contemporary Sport 
 Sport Uses Religion 
 The Use of Prayer and Devine Intervention 
 The Use of Magic 
 The Malinowski Thesis 
 Magic and Its Uses in Sports
 Ritual
 Taboo 
 Fetishism 
 Witchcraft 
 Summary 
 Notes 
 Web Resources
Chapter 9 Sport and Politics
	The Political Uses of Sport
		Sport as a Propaganda Vehicle
		Sport and Nationalism
		Sport as an Opiate of the Masses
		The Exploitation of Sport by Politicians
		Sport as a Vehicle of Change in Society
	The Globalization of Sport
	The Political Olympics
		Political Problems
		A Proposal for Change
	Summary
	Notes
Chapter 10 Sport and the Economy
	Who Benefits Economically from Sports?
	Professional Sport as a Business
		Professional Sport as a Monopoly
		Public Subsidization of Professional Team Franchises
		Ownership for Profit
	The Relationship Between Owner and Athlete
		The Draft and the Reserve Clause
		Free Agency
		Salaries
		A Radical Question: Are Owners Necessary?
	Amateur Sport as a Business
		The Economics of Collegiate Sport
	Summary
	Notes
 Chapter 11: Sport and the Mass Media 
 Social Roles of the Mass Media 
 Prominent and Subtle Roles of the Media 
 The Symbiosis of Mass Media and Sport 
 Linkages Between the Mass Media and Sport 
 Newspapers 
 Magazines 
 Books 
 Radio 
 Motion Pictures 
 Television 
 Television: The Monster of the Sports World 
 Increasing TV Sports Coverage 
 Economic Aspects of Televised Sports 
 Television's Influence on Sport 
 Increases in Sport Revenue 
 Indirect Business Linkages Between Media and Sport 
 Popularity Shifts 
Professional Sports Franchise Locations and the Media Intercollegiate Sport 
 High School Sport 
 Modifying Sports to Accommodate TV 
 Television's Own Sports 
 Televised Sport As a Mediated Event 
 The Impact of Sport on the Mass Media 
 Increased Sport in the Media 
 Sport's Privileged Treatment by the Media 
 Sports Consumers and the Mass Media 
The Internet: The Newest Form of Mass Communications for Sports
 Reproduction of Hegemonic Masculinity in Media Sport 
 Media Sport and Gender Inequities 
 Media Sport and Racial and Ethnic Inequities 
 Sports Journalism and the Mass Media 
 Sportscasters: Narrators of Mediated Sport 
 Wrapping Up 
 Minority Sport Journalists and Broadcasters
 Women Sport Journalists and Broadcasters 
 Summary 
 Notes 
 Web Resources
Chapter 12 Sport, Social Stratification, and Social Mobility
	Major Concepts
	Dimensions of Inequality
	Social Class and Sport
		Adult Participation Preferences for Sports by Socioeconomic Status
		Youth Sport Participation by Socioeconomic Status
		Spectator Preferences for Sports by Socioeconomic Status
	Social Mobility and Sport
		Sport as a Mobility Escalator
		Demythologizing the Social-Mobility-Through-Sport Hypothesis
	Summary
	Notes
Chapter 13 Racial-Ethnic Minorities and Sport
	Racial-Ethnic Minorities: Some Definitions
	Sports Participation among Racial-Ethnic Minorities
		The History of African American Involvement in U. S. Sport
		Latino Involvement in U. S. Sport
		Asian American Involvement in U. S. Sport
		Native American Involvement in U. S. Sport
		The Effects of Globalization on Ethnic Diversity in U. S. Sport Participation
	Black Dominance in Sport
		Race-Linked Physical Differences
		Race-Linked Cultural Differences
		Social Structure Constraints
	Racial Discrimination in Sport
		Stacking
		Rewards and Authority
	Summary
	Notes
 Chapter 14: Gender in North American Sport: Continuity and Change 
 The Heritage of Gender Inequality in Sport 
 Social Sources of Gender Inequality in Sport 
 Parental Child-Rearing Practices and Gender Construction 
 The School and Gender Construction 
 The Mass Media and Gender Construction 
 Nicknames, Mascots, and Heroines 
 Females Surmount Social Barriers to Participation in Sport 
 Negative Myths 
 Myth: Athletic Participation Masculinizes Females 
 Myth: Sports Participation Is Harmful to the Health of Females 
 Myth: Women Are Not Interested in, Nor Very Good at, Sports 
 Attitudes Toward Female Athletes
 The Opportunity and Reward Structure for Females in Sport 
 From Boys-Only Youth Sports to Opportunities for Both Sexes
 Toward Gender Equity in High School Sports 
 Toward Gender Equity in Intercollegiate Sports 
 Title IX and Subsequent Legislative and Legal Incidents
 Governance and Control Issues 
 Gender Equity and Men's Intercollegiate Sports 
 Men Rule in the Coaching and Administration of Women's Sports
			High School and College Women's Coaching and Administration
 Ownership, Management, and Coaching in Professional Sports 
 Coaching and Administration in U.S. Olympic Organizations 
Why Have Men Been Hired to Coach and Administer Women's Sports?
 Gender and Careers at the Top Levels of Sport
	 	Female Olympic Athletes 
 Sport and Gender Identity of Males
 Summary 
 Notes 
 Web Resources
 Chapter 15: Contemporary Trends and the Future of Sport in North America 
 Demographic Trends in North America 
 Population Composition 
 Location of Population 
 Population Trends and Sport 
 Dominating Forces in Our Lives: Work, Technology, and Sporting Activities
 An Information/Service North American Society 
 The Information/Service Workplace and Sporting Activities 
 Four-Day and Flextime Workweeks and Free Time 
 A Future Society and Sport
 Cerebral Sports of the Future
 Violent Sports of the Future
 Technology and Future Sport
 A Counterpoint to Technosports: Ecosports 
 Trends in the Economy and Future Sports 
 The Future of Professional Sports
 The Future of Televised Sports
 Television Coverage 
 Television Technology and Sports Viewing
 		Internet Technology and Sports Viewing 
 Video Technology and Sports Video Games 
 Intercollegiate Athletics and the Future 
 Secondary School Sports and the Future 
 Trends in Social Values and Future Sport
 The Quest for Democracy and Equality 
 Trends in Sports Values
 Democracy and Equality in Sport 
 Opportunity and Equality for Special Groups in Sport 
 People with Disabilities and Sport
 Senior Populations and Sport
 Gays and Lesbians in Sport 
 New Emphasis on Participation and Cooperation 
 New Forms of Intramural Sports 
 A Troubling Trend: Sports Incivility 
 Summary 
 Notes 
 Web Resources
 Credits 
 Index 

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Sports -- Social aspects -- United States.
Sports -- Social aspects -- Canada.
Sports -- United States -- Sociological aspects.
Sports -- Canada -- Sociological aspects.