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CONTENTS Preface Chapter 1 The Sociological Analysis of Sport in Society The Pervasiveness of Sport The Discipline of Sociology Assumptions of the Sociological Perspective Problems with the Sociological Perspective Units of Sociological Analysis Sociological Theories: Contrasting Ways to See and Understand Social Life Sport as a Microcosm of Society Common Characteristics of Sport and Society Levels of Sport Informal Sport Organized Sport Corporate Sport Summary Notes Chapter 2: Social and Cultural Sources of the Rise of Sport in North America Pre-Columbian and Colonial Traditions in North America The Colonist Restrict Physical Activity The Early Nineteenth Century: Takeoff of Industrialization and Technology Building a Framework for Modern Sport The Technological Revolution and Sport New Forms of Transportation Broadens Sport Opportunities New Forms of Communication Enable Dissemination of Sport Information The Later Nineteenth Century: The Beginnings of Modern Sport Urbanization and the Rise of Modern Sport Forms Diffusion of Sport from the Upper to the Lower Classes The Role of African Americans in Sports The Role of Immigrants Muscular Christianity and Intellectuals The Cult of Manliness and Sport The Beginnings of Intercollegiate Athletics Technological Innovation and Sport: Transportation Technological Innovation and Sport: Communication Other Technological Breakthroughs and Sport Equipment to Play Modern Sports Social Philosophy and Modern Sport The Twentieth Century: The Modern World The Maturing of Modern Sport Twentieth Century Technology and Sport: Transportation The Technological Revolution and Sport: Communication Other Technological Innovations and Sport Sport in Education Summary Notes Web Resources Chapter 3 Sport and Societal Values The American Value System Success Competition The Valued Means to Achieve Progress Materialism External Conformity Societal Values and Sport Competition and Success in Sport The Valued Means to Achievement in Sport Progress in Sport Materialism in Sport External Conformity in Sport Summary Notes Chapter 4: Youth and Sport Youth Sports Programs: Something for Everyone The Rise of Youth Sports Programs: The Takeoff and Expansion of a New Form of Sport Objectives of Youth Sports Programs: What Do Young Athletes Want? What Do Their Parents and Coaches Want? Socialization and Sport: Involvement in Sport and Its Consequences Socialization into Sport: Why Do Children Get Involved in Organized Sports? Families Parents Siblings Peers Coaches Schools Mass Media Participants Socialization via Sport Two Forms of Play Organization Process Impetus Social Implications Development of Personal-Social Attributes Through Sport Youth Orientation Toward Sport Sportsmanship in Youth Sport Character Development in Youth Sports Potential Psychosocial Problems of Youth Sports Adult Intrusion in Youth Sports Disruption of Education Risk of Injury The "Winning Is the Only Thing" Ethic Sports Alternatives for the Young Athlete Emphasizing Personal Growth and Self Actualization Alternative Sports Cooperative Games Youth Sports Coaches Bill of Rights for Young Athletes Summary Notes Web Resources Chapter 5 Interscholastic Sport The Status of Sport in Secondary Schools The Consequences of Sport for Schools, Communities, and Individuals The Consequences of Sport for the School The Consequences of Sport for the Community The Consequences of Sport for the Participant Problems, Dilemmas, and Controversies The Subversion of Educational Goals The Reinforcement of Gender Roles Cheating Unsportsmanlike Behavior of Fans Autocratic Coaches Excessive Pressures to Win Elitism Sport Specialization Budget Shortfalls Corporate High School Sport for Boys Programs Summary Notes Chapter 6 Intercollegiate Sport College Sport As Big Business The Consequences of a Money Orientation in College Sports A Contradiction: Athletes As Amateurs in a Big Business Environment The NCAA and Student-Athletes The Enforcement of ?Amateurism? The Restriction of Athletes? Rights The Educational Performance of Student-Athletes Intellectual Performance of Student-Athletes for College Academic Performance Graduation Rates The Impediments to Scholarly Achievement by College Athletes Reform The Administration of College Sports Emphasizing the Education of Student-Athletes Commitment to Athletes? Rights Summary Notes Chapter 7: Social Problems and North American Sport: Violence, Substance Abuse, Eating Disorders, and Gambling Violence in Sport: Is It Violence or Aggression? Confusion in the Literature Theories About the Connection Between Violent Behavior and Sport Aggression Theories and Research on Sports Violence in North America Violence in Historical Context Violence in Contemporary Society Violence in North American Sport Violent Behavior by Athletes As Part of the Game Borderline Violence Fostering and Supporting Player Violence Television Fans Pressures on Athletes to Be Violent Coaches, Owners, Commissioners Violence Against Athletes Social Problems and Athletes Off the Field of Play Sources for Violence by Male Athletes in Their Private Lives Sport Culture and Male Bonding Preconditioning Males for Violence Steroid Use and Male Violent Behavior Concluding Thoughts on Violence by Male Athletes in Their Private Lives Athletes' Violence Against Teammates: Hazing Sports Fans: Violent and Abusive Actions Factors Associated with Fan Violence and Abusive Behaviors Game and Post game Sports Violence Abusive Behavior by Fans Reducing Fan Violence and Abusive Behavior Substance Abuse and Sport The Scope of Substance Abuse in Sport Substance Abuse Not New to Sports Reasons for Substance Abuse Among Athletes Reducing and Preventing Substance Abuse in Sports Eating Disorders in Sport Gambling and Sports Summary Notes Web Resources Chapter 8: Sport and Religion Religion and Society Personal and Social Role of Religion The Relationship Between Religion and Sport Pre-Columbian Societies Ancient Greece The Early Christian Church Reformation and Protestantism in the North American Colonies Religious Objections to Sport Decline in the Nineteenth Century Religion and Sport Conciliation Sport as Religion Religion Uses Sport Churches Religious Leaders Church Colleges and Universities Religious Organizations and Sports The Fellowship of Christian Athletes Religion and Professional Sports Organizations Sport and Religion Publications Missionary Work of Churches and Sport Religious Evangelizing by Athletes and Coaches The Promise Keepers: Sportianity, Gender, and Sexuality Sportianity Confronting Social Issues Value Orientations of Religion and Sport The Protestant Ethic and Sports Success Self Discipline Hard Work Protestantism and Contemporary Sport Sport Uses Religion The Use of Prayer and Devine Intervention The Use of Magic The Malinowski Thesis Magic and Its Uses in Sports Ritual Taboo Fetishism Witchcraft Summary Notes Web Resources Chapter 9 Sport and Politics The Political Uses of Sport Sport as a Propaganda Vehicle Sport and Nationalism Sport as an Opiate of the Masses The Exploitation of Sport by Politicians Sport as a Vehicle of Change in Society The Globalization of Sport The Political Olympics Political Problems A Proposal for Change Summary Notes Chapter 10 Sport and the Economy Who Benefits Economically from Sports? Professional Sport as a Business Professional Sport as a Monopoly Public Subsidization of Professional Team Franchises Ownership for Profit The Relationship Between Owner and Athlete The Draft and the Reserve Clause Free Agency Salaries A Radical Question: Are Owners Necessary? Amateur Sport as a Business The Economics of Collegiate Sport Summary Notes Chapter 11: Sport and the Mass Media Social Roles of the Mass Media Prominent and Subtle Roles of the Media The Symbiosis of Mass Media and Sport Linkages Between the Mass Media and Sport Newspapers Magazines Books Radio Motion Pictures Television Television: The Monster of the Sports World Increasing TV Sports Coverage Economic Aspects of Televised Sports Television's Influence on Sport Increases in Sport Revenue Indirect Business Linkages Between Media and Sport Popularity Shifts Professional Sports Franchise Locations and the Media Intercollegiate Sport High School Sport Modifying Sports to Accommodate TV Television's Own Sports Televised Sport As a Mediated Event The Impact of Sport on the Mass Media Increased Sport in the Media Sport's Privileged Treatment by the Media Sports Consumers and the Mass Media The Internet: The Newest Form of Mass Communications for Sports Reproduction of Hegemonic Masculinity in Media Sport Media Sport and Gender Inequities Media Sport and Racial and Ethnic Inequities Sports Journalism and the Mass Media Sportscasters: Narrators of Mediated Sport Wrapping Up Minority Sport Journalists and Broadcasters Women Sport Journalists and Broadcasters Summary Notes Web Resources Chapter 12 Sport, Social Stratification, and Social Mobility Major Concepts Dimensions of Inequality Social Class and Sport Adult Participation Preferences for Sports by Socioeconomic Status Youth Sport Participation by Socioeconomic Status Spectator Preferences for Sports by Socioeconomic Status Social Mobility and Sport Sport as a Mobility Escalator Demythologizing the Social-Mobility-Through-Sport Hypothesis Summary Notes Chapter 13 Racial-Ethnic Minorities and Sport Racial-Ethnic Minorities: Some Definitions Sports Participation among Racial-Ethnic Minorities The History of African American Involvement in U. S. Sport Latino Involvement in U. S. Sport Asian American Involvement in U. S. Sport Native American Involvement in U. S. Sport The Effects of Globalization on Ethnic Diversity in U. S. Sport Participation Black Dominance in Sport Race-Linked Physical Differences Race-Linked Cultural Differences Social Structure Constraints Racial Discrimination in Sport Stacking Rewards and Authority Summary Notes Chapter 14: Gender in North American Sport: Continuity and Change The Heritage of Gender Inequality in Sport Social Sources of Gender Inequality in Sport Parental Child-Rearing Practices and Gender Construction The School and Gender Construction The Mass Media and Gender Construction Nicknames, Mascots, and Heroines Females Surmount Social Barriers to Participation in Sport Negative Myths Myth: Athletic Participation Masculinizes Females Myth: Sports Participation Is Harmful to the Health of Females Myth: Women Are Not Interested in, Nor Very Good at, Sports Attitudes Toward Female Athletes The Opportunity and Reward Structure for Females in Sport From Boys-Only Youth Sports to Opportunities for Both Sexes Toward Gender Equity in High School Sports Toward Gender Equity in Intercollegiate Sports Title IX and Subsequent Legislative and Legal Incidents Governance and Control Issues Gender Equity and Men's Intercollegiate Sports Men Rule in the Coaching and Administration of Women's Sports High School and College Women's Coaching and Administration Ownership, Management, and Coaching in Professional Sports Coaching and Administration in U.S. Olympic Organizations Why Have Men Been Hired to Coach and Administer Women's Sports? Gender and Careers at the Top Levels of Sport Female Olympic Athletes Sport and Gender Identity of Males Summary Notes Web Resources Chapter 15: Contemporary Trends and the Future of Sport in North America Demographic Trends in North America Population Composition Location of Population Population Trends and Sport Dominating Forces in Our Lives: Work, Technology, and Sporting Activities An Information/Service North American Society The Information/Service Workplace and Sporting Activities Four-Day and Flextime Workweeks and Free Time A Future Society and Sport Cerebral Sports of the Future Violent Sports of the Future Technology and Future Sport A Counterpoint to Technosports: Ecosports Trends in the Economy and Future Sports The Future of Professional Sports The Future of Televised Sports Television Coverage Television Technology and Sports Viewing Internet Technology and Sports Viewing Video Technology and Sports Video Games Intercollegiate Athletics and the Future Secondary School Sports and the Future Trends in Social Values and Future Sport The Quest for Democracy and Equality Trends in Sports Values Democracy and Equality in Sport Opportunity and Equality for Special Groups in Sport People with Disabilities and Sport Senior Populations and Sport Gays and Lesbians in Sport New Emphasis on Participation and Cooperation New Forms of Intramural Sports A Troubling Trend: Sports Incivility Summary Notes Web Resources Credits Index
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:
Sports -- Social aspects -- United States.
Sports -- Social aspects -- Canada.
Sports -- United States -- Sociological aspects.
Sports -- Canada -- Sociological aspects.