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Contents Preface Acknowledgments About the Authors Introduction Chapter 1 The History and Scope of Epidemiology Introduction Epidemiology Defined Foundations of Epidemiology Historical Antecedents of Epidemiology Recent Applications of Epidemiology Conclusion Study Questions and Exercises Chapter 2 Practical Applications of Epidemiology Introduction Applications for the Assessment of the Health Status of Populations and Delivery of Health Services Applications Relevant to Disease Etiology Conclusion Study Questions and Exercises Appendix 2: Data for Study Question 5 Chapter 3 Measures of Morbidity and Mortality Used in Epidemiology Introduction Definitions of Count, Ratio, Proportion, and Rate Risk Versus Rate Interrelationship Between Prevalence and Incidence Applications of Incidence Data Crude Rates Specific Rates Adjusted Rates Conclusion Study Questions and Exercises Appendix 3: Data for Study Questions 2 Through 4 Chapter 4 Descriptive Epidemiology: Person, Place, Time Introduction Characteristics of Persons Characteristics of Place Characteristics of Time Conclusion Study Questions and Exercises Appendix 4: Project: Descriptive Epidemiology of a Selected Health Problem Chapter 5 Sources of Data for Use in Epidemiology Introduction Criteria for the Quality and Utility of Epidemiologic Data Computerized Bibliographic Databases Confidentiality, Sharing of Data, and Record Linkage Statistics Derived from the Vital Registration System Reportable Disease Statistics Screening Surveys Disease Registries Morbidity Surveys of the General Population Insurance Data Hospital Data Diseases Treated in Special Clinics and Hospitals Data from Physicians¿ Practices Absenteeism Data School Health Programs Morbidity in the Armed Forces: Data on Active Personnel and Veterans Other Sources of Data Relevant to Epidemiologic Studies Conclusion Study Questions and Exercises Chapter 6 Ecologic, Cross-Sectional, Case-Control Study Designs Introduction Observational Versus Experimental Approaches in Epidemiology Overview of Study Designs Used in Epidemiology Ecologic Studies Cross-Sectional Studies Case-Control Studies Conclusion Study Questions and Exercises Chapter 7 Cohort Study Designs Introduction Cohort Studies Defined Sampling and Cohort Formation Options Temporal Differences in Cohort Designs Practical Considerations Measures of Interpretation and Examples Nested Case-Control Studies Comparisons of Observational Designs Conclusion Study Questions and Exercises Chapter 8 Experimental Study Designs Introduction Hierarchy of Study Designs Intervention Studies Clinical Trials Community Trials Conclusion Study Questions and Exercises Chapter 9 Measures of Effect Introduction Absolute Effects Relative Effects Statistical Measures of Effect Evaluating Epidemiologic Associations Models of Causal Relationships Conclusion Study Questions and Exercises Appendix 9: Cohort Study Data for Coffee Use and Anxiety Chapter 10 Data Interpretation Issues Introduction Validity of Study Designs Sources of Error in Epidemiologic Research Techniques to Reduce Bias Methods To Control Confounding Bias in Analysis and Publication Conclusion Study Questions and Exercises Chapter 11 Screening for Disease in the Community Introduction Screening for Disease Appropriate Situations for Screening Tests and Programs Characteristics of a Good Screening Test Evaluation of Screening Tests Sources of Unreliability and Invalidity Measures of the Validity of Screening Tests Effects of Prevalence of Disease on Screening Test Results Relationship Between Sensitivity and Specificity Evaluation of Screening Programs Issues in the Classification of Morbidity and Mortality Conclusion Study Questions and Exercises Appendix 11: Data for Problem 6 Chapter 12 Epidemiology of Infectious Diseases Introduction Agents of Infectious Disease Characteristics of Infectious Disease Agents Host The Environment Means of Transmission-Directly or Indirectly from Reservoir Measures of Disease Outbreaks Procedures Used in the Investigation of Infectious Disease Outbreaks Epidemiologically Significant Infectious Diseases in the Community Conclusion Study Questions and Exercises Appendix 12: Data from a Foodborne Illness Outbreak in a College Cafeteria Chapter 13 Epidemiologic Aspects of Work and the Environment Introduction Health Effects Associated with Environmental Hazards Study Designs used in Environmental Epidemiology Toxicologic Concepts Related to Environmental Epidemiology Types of Agents Environmental Hazards Found in the Work Setting Noteworthy Community Environmental Health Hazards Conclusion Study Questions and Exercises Chapter 14 Molecular and Genetic Epidemiology Introduction Definitions and Distinctions: Molecular Versus Genetic Epidemiology Epidemiologic Evidence for Genetic Factors Causes of Familial Aggregation Shared Family Environment and Familial Aggregation Gene Mapping: Segregation and Linkage Analysis Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) Linkage Disequilibrium Revisited: Haplotypes Application of Genes in Epidemiologic Designs Genetics and Public Health Conclusion Study Questions and Exercises Chapter 15 Psychologic, Behavioral, and Social Epidemiology Introduction Research Designs Used in Psychologic, Behavioral, and Social Epidemiology Independent Variables Moderating Factors in the Stress-Illness Relationship Outcome Variables: Physical Health, Mental Health, Affective States Conclusion Study Questions and Exercises Chapter 16 Epidemiology as a Profession Introduction Specializations within Epidemiology Career Roles for Epidemiologists Epidemiology Associations and Journals Competencies Required of Epidemiologists Resources for Education and Employment Professional Ethics in Epidemiology Conclusion Study Questions and Exercises Glossary Appendix A¿Guide to the Critical Appraisal of an Epidemiologic/Public Health Research Article Appendix B--Answers to Selected Study Questions Index
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:
Public health personnel.