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Table of Contents "I do not agree with the view that the universe is a mystery.... I feel that this view does not do justice to the scientific revolution that was started almost four hundred years ago by Galileo and carried on by Newton. They showed that at least some areas of the universe... are governed by precise mathematical laws. Over the years since then, we have extended the work of Galileo and Newton.... We now have mathematical laws that govern everything we normally experience." -- Stephen Hawking, Black Holes and Baby Universes and Other Essays Introduction and Backdrop ? In which we discuss the definition of eponymous laws, the lives and afflictions of the lawgivers, science and religiosity, the difference between laws and theories, and the geographical and temporal distribution of the lawgivers. The Laws of Nature The Lawgivers Is it Fair to Name a Law after a Person? Theories and Laws Do We Discover or Invent Laws? Simple Mathematics and Reality What is Reality Really? Book Organization and Purpose Distribution of Law Discoveries through Time Where the Lawgivers Lived When Will the Last Law be Discovered? Part I: 250 B.C. - 1700 Archimedes' Principle of Buoyancy, c. 250 BC Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion, 1609, 1618 Snell's Law of Refraction, 1621 Hooke's Law of Elasticity, 1660 Boyle's Gas Law, 1662 Newton's Laws of Motion, Gravitation, and Cooling, 1687 and 1701 Part II: 1700 - 1800 Bernoulli's Law of Fluid Dynamics, 1738 Lambert's Law of Emission, 1760 Bode's Law of Planetary Distances, 1766 Coulomb's Law of Electrostatics, 1785 Charles's Gas Law, 1787 Part III: 1800 - 1900 Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures, 1801 Henry's Gas Law, 1802 Gay-Lussac's Law of Combining Gas Volumes, 1808 Avogadro's Gas Law, 1811 Brewster's Law of Light Polarization, 1815 Dulong-Petit Law of Specific Heats, 1819 Biot-Savart Law of Magnetic Force, 1820 Fourier's Law of Heat Conduction, 1822 Ampere's Circuital Law of Electromagnetism, 1825 Ohm's Law of Electricity, 1827 Graham's Law of Effusion, 1829 Faraday's Laws of Induction and Electrolysis, 1831 and 1833 Gauss's Law of Electricity and Magnetism, 1835 Poiseuille's Law of Fluid Flow, 1840 Joule's Law of Electric Heating, 1840 Kirchhoff's Circuit and Radiation Laws, 1845 and 1859 Clausius's Law of Thermodynamics, 1850 Stokes' Law of Viscosity, 1851 Beer's Law of Absorption, 1852 Wiedemann-Franz Law of Conductivity, 1853 Fick's Law of Diffusion, 1855 Buys-Ballot's Wind and Pressure Law, 1857 Eotvos's Law of Capillarity, 1866 Kohlrausch's Laws of Conductivity, 1874, 1875 Curie's Magnetism Law and Curie-Weiss Law 1895, generalized in 1907 Part IV: 1900 and Beyond Planck's Law of Radiation, 1900 Bragg's Law of Crystal Diffraction, 1913 Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle, 1927 Hubble's Law of Cosmic Expansion, 1929 The Great Contenders ? In which we say farewell to the laws and lawgivers by cataloguing a far-ranging second set of eponymous laws. 1600-1700 Mersenne's Law (1626), Torricelli's Law (1643) 1700-1800 Maupertuis's Rule (1746), Richter's Law (1791) 1800-1900 Malus's Law (1809), Bell-Magendie Law (1811) von Humboldt's Law (1817), Fresnel-Arago Laws (1819), Mitscherlich's Law (1821), Hamilton's Principle (1835), Babinet's Principle (1838), Hess's Law (1840), Bergmann's Rule (1847), Gladstone-Dale Law (1858), Kopp's Law (1864), Matthiessen's rule (1864), Maxwell's Law (1866), Berthelot-Thomsen Principle (1867), Mendeleyev's Law (1869), Lorentz-Lorenz Law (1870), Coppet's Law (1871), Boltzmann's Distribution Law (1871), Abney's Law (1877), Allen's Rule (1877), Nernst's Law (1880), Raoult's Law (1882), van't Hoff's Law (1885), Ramsay-Young Law (1885), Cailletet and Mathias Law (1886), Dollo's Law (1890), Sutherland's Law (1893), Lorentz's Force Law (1895) 1900-2000 Gruneisen's Law (1908), Sabine's Law (1910), Child's Law (1911), Geiger- Nuttall Rule (1911), Einstein-Stark Law (1912), Leavitt's Law (1912), Friedel's Law (1913), Moseley's Law (1913), Steimetz's Law (1916), Bose-Einstein Distribution Law (1924), Frank-Condon Principle (1925), Pauli's Exclusion Principle (1925), Fermi-Dirac Distribution Law (1926), Moskowitz-Lombardi Rule (1973), Hawking's Laws (1970s) Final Comments on the Beauty of Mathematics in Physics ? In which we briefly discuss the beauty of mathematics and human achievement, physics and religion, and additional important physicists and equations, including: Einstein's principle of mass-energy conservation, Maxwell's Equations, Schrodinger's Equation, De Broglie's Equation, Einstein's Field Equation for General Relativity, Dirac's Equation, the Balmer Series Equation, Planck's Equation, Yang- Mills Equation, Drake's Equation, Shannon's Equations, and the logistic mapping. The Beauty of Mathematics Great Equations of Science Listmania and Human Achievement "The Greatest Equations Ever" Nicaragua Postage Stamp List Physics and Religion References About the Author
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:
Physical laws -- History.
Science -- Methodology -- History.
Science -- Philosophy -- History.
Scientists -- Biography.