Table of contents for Thermal and flow measurements / Taewoo Lee.

Bibliographic record and links to related information available from the Library of Congress catalog.

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Table of Contents
Chapter 1 Introduction...........................................................................................1
1.1 Thermal and Flow Measurements...................................................................1
1.2 Some Examples of Thermal and Flow Measurements....................................2
1.3 Characteristics of Measurement Systems........................................................9
1.4 Time Response of Measurement Systems...................................................... 12
1.5 Time-Series Analysis and Signal Processing................................................ 18
1.6 Error Estimates and Uncertainty Analysis....................................................24
1.6.1 Error Estimates Using Gaussian Distribution.....................................27
1.6.2 Data Regression..................................................................................30
1.6.3 Uncertainty Analysis.......................................................................... 32
1.7 Dimensional Analysis and Similitude...........................................................36
1.8 Basic Science and Engineering in Thermal
and Flow Measurements................................................................................ 41
References................................................................................................................. 42
Chapter 2 Basic Measurements of Pressure, Temperature,
and Flow Rates.................................................................................... 43
2.1 Pressure Measurements.................................................................................. 43
2.1.1 Manometers........................................................................................44
2.1.2 Pressure Transducers Based on Elastic Strain....................................46
2.1.3 Piezoelectric Transducers...................................................................49
2.1.4 Some Implementation Issues..............................................................50
2.2 Temperature Sensors...................................................................................... 52
2.2.1 Temperature Measurements Based on Thermal Expansion
of Materials......................................................................................... 53
2.2.2 Thermocouples................................................................................... 55
2.2.3 Resistance-Based Temperature Sensors.............................................60
2.2.4 Pyrometer Measurements of Temperature..........................................64
2.3 Strain Gauges.................................................................................................68
2.4 Flow Rate Measurements............................................................................... 71
2.4.1 Obstruction Flowmeters...................................................................... 71
2.4.2 Rotameters.......................................................................................... 74
2.4.3 Turbine Flowmeters............................................................................ 75
2.4.4 Thermal Mass Flowmeters................................................................. 76
2.4.5 Flow Velocity Measurements Using Pitot
and Static Pressure Probes..................................................................77
References................................................................................................................. 78
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Chapter 3 Flow Visualization and Image Analysis.............................................79
3.1 Introduction....................................................................................................79
3.2 Streamlines, Streaklines, and Pathlines........................................................80
3.3 Direct Photography Using Flow Tracers........................................................85
3.4 Surface Imaging Using Thermochromatic Liquid Crystals
and Pressure-Sensitive Coatings....................................................................87
3.5 Shadowgraph and Schlieren Imaging............................................................88
3.6 Interferometry................................................................................................96
3.7 Laser Tomographic Imaging........................................................................ 101
3.8 Image Processing and Analysis................................................................... 105
3.8.1 Image Acquisition............................................................................. 105
3.8.2 Basic Image Operations.................................................................... 107
3.8.3 Image Enhancements........................................................................ 108
3.8.4 Edge Detection.................................................................................. 110
References............................................................................................................... 113
Chapter 4 Flow Velocity Measurements............................................................ 115
4.1 Introduction.................................................................................................. 115
4.2 Laser Doppler Velocimetry.......................................................................... 116
4.2.1 The Operating Principle................................................................... 116
4.2.2 Operational Setup............................................................................. 123
4.2.3 Particle Seeding................................................................................ 131
4.3 Hot Wire Anemometry................................................................................ 134
4.3.1 Operating Principle........................................................................... 135
4.3.2 Operational Considerations.............................................................. 138
4.4 Particle Image Velocimetry......................................................................... 143
4.4.1 Particle Image Density...................................................................... 146
4.4.2 Stereoscopic PIV for Three-Component Velocity
Measurements................................................................................... 147
4.5 Other Image-Based Methods....................................................................... 149
References............................................................................................................... 152
Chapter 5 Optical Diagnostics for Measurements of Species
Concentrations and Temperature...................................................... 153
5.1 Introduction.................................................................................................. 153
5.2 Rayleigh Scattering...................................................................................... 154
5.2.1 Rayleigh Scattering Theory.............................................................. 154
5.2.2 Applications of Rayleigh Scattering................................................. 159
5.3 Mie Scattering.............................................................................................. 162
5.3.1 Applications and Assessments.......................................................... 167
5.4 Raman Scattering......................................................................................... 169
5.5 Molecular Energy and Spectroscopy........................................................... 174
5.5 Laser-Induced Fluorescence........................................................................ 179
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5.7 Thermometry Based on LIF........................................................................ 185
5.8 Vibrational and Rotational Spectroscopy.................................................... 186
5.9 Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy................................................... 188
References............................................................................................................... 195
Chapter 6 Particle Sizing and Two-Phase
Flow Measurements.......................................................................... 197
6.1 Introduction.................................................................................................. 197
6.2 Parameters to Characterize Groups of Particles.......................................... 198
6.3 Light Scattering and Extinction Measurements of Particle Size.................202
6.4 Laser-induced Incandescence Measurements of Particle Volume
Fraction and Size..........................................................................................203
6.5 Laser Diffraction..........................................................................................206
6.6 Phase Doppler Analysis...............................................................................207
6.7 Particle Mass Flux Measurements............................................................... 212
6.7.1 Fiberoptic Correlation Method......................................................... 213
6.7.2 Acoustic Measurements.................................................................... 214
6.7.3 Capacitance Probes........................................................................... 216
6.8 Isokinetic Sampling..................................................................................... 217
References............................................................................................................... 219
Cahtper 7 Gas Sampling Measurements............................................................ 221
7.1 Introduction.................................................................................................. 221
7.2 Sampling Probes.......................................................................................... 221
7.3 Non-Dispersive Infrared (NDIR) Analyzers...............................................225
7.4 Measurements of Nitric Oxides...................................................................227
7.5 Hydrocarbon Analysis..................................................................................230
7.6 Measurements of Sulfur Oxides.................................................................. 231
7.7 Gas Chromatography................................................................................... 232
7.8 Mass Spectroscopy.......................................................................................243
References...............................................................................................................246
Chapter 8 Scaled Measurements........................................................................247
8.1 Introduction..................................................................................................247
8.2 MEMS Devices............................................................................................247
8.2.1 Microfabrication Methods................................................................248
8.2.2 Microfluidic Sensors and Devices.................................................... 252
8.2.3 Pressure and Temperature Sensors................................................... 255
8.2.4 Bio- and Chemical Sensors............................................................... 257
8.3 Nanotechnology Sensors.............................................................................. 261
8.4 Microscopic Imaging Techniques................................................................263
8.5 LIDARS.......................................................................................................269
References...............................................................................................................280
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Appendix A Electronic Devices......................................................................... 281
A.1 Operational Amplifiers................................................................................ 281
A.1.1 Inverting Amplifier...........................................................................283
A.1.2 Noninverting Amplifier....................................................................284
A.1.3 Current-to-Voltage Converter...........................................................284
A.1.4 Differential Amplifier.......................................................................285
A.2 Trigger Electronics.......................................................................................286
A.3 Frequency Filters..........................................................................................290
A.3.1 Filter Basics.......................................................................................290
A.3.2 Active Filters.....................................................................................293
References...............................................................................................................295
Appendix B Optics..............................................................................................297
Optical Instruments................................................................................................305
Diffraction..............................................................................................................307
Diffraction Grating................................................................................................. 311
Interference............................................................................................................. 312
References............................................................................................................... 313
Appendix C Electromagnetics and Electromagnetic Radiation......................... 315
C.1 Maxwell¿s Equations.................................................................................... 315
C.2 Electromagnetic Wave Equation.................................................................. 317
C.3 Radiative Transfer Equation........................................................................ 322
C.3.1 Blackbody Radiation.........................................................................324
References............................................................................................................... 329
Appendix D Quantum Mechanics and Atomic/Molecular Structure................. 331
D.1 Vibrational and Rotational Energy of Simple Molecules............................ 339
D.2 Energy Transitions and Spectroscopy.......................................................... 341
References............................................................................................................... 343
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Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Fluid dynamics.
Thermodynamics.