Table of contents for Chemistry : the science in context.

Bibliographic record and links to related information available from the Library of Congress catalog.

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Contents 
1 Matter, Energy, and the Origins of the Universe	1
A Look Ahead		Blinded by the Sun	2
1.1	Chemistry and the Classes of Matter	3
1.2	Matter: An Atomic View	6
1.3	Mixtures and How to Separate Them	8
1.4	Properties of Matter	10
1.5	A Method for Answering Questions and Solving Problems 	11
1.6	States of Matter	13
1.7	The Scientific Method: Starting Off with a Bang	16
1.8	Making Measurements and Expressing the Results	18
	SI Units	18
	Significant Figures	20
	Significant Figures in Calculations	21
	Precision and Accuracy	26
1.9 	Unit Conversions and Dimensional Analysis	27
1.10 	 Testing a Hypothesis: The Big Bang Revisited	30
	Temperature Scales	30
	An Echo of the Big Bang	33
Summary	35
Problem-Solving Summary	35
Visual Problems	36
Questions and Problems	37
2 Atoms, Ions, and Compounds	41
A Look Ahead		When Artillery Shells Bounced off Tissue Paper	42
2.1	Elements of the Solar System	42
2.2	Compounds and Earth's Early Atmosphere	44
2.3 	The Rutherford Model of Atomic Structure	46
	Electrons	46
	Radioactivity and the Nuclear Atom	48
	Protons and Neutrons	49
2.4	Isotopes	50
2.5	Average Atomic Masses	52
2.6	The Periodic Table of the Elements	54
	Mendeleev's Periodic Table	54
	Navigating the Modern Periodic Table	55
2.7	Trends in Compound Formation	58
2.8	Naming Compounds and Writing Their Formulas	60
	Binary Molecular Compounds	60
	Binary Ionic Compounds	61
	Binary Compounds of Transition Metals	63
	Polyatomic Ions	64
	Acids	66
2.9	Nucleosynthesis	67
Early Nucleosynthesis		67
Stellar Nucleosynthesis	69
Summary	72
Problem-Solving Summary	72
Visual Problems	73
Questions and Problems	74
3 Chemical Reactions and Earth's Composition	80
A Look Ahead		Purple Salt and Bottled Water	81
3.1	Composition of Earth	81
3.2	The Mole	82
	Molar Mass	83
	Molecular Masses and Formula Masses	85
	Moles and Chemical Equations	87
3.3	Writing Balanced Chemical Equations	88
3.4	Combustion Reactions	91
3.5	Stoichiometric Calculations and the Carbon Cycle	94
3.6	Determining Empirical Formulas from Percent Composition	97
3.7 	Empirical and Molecular Formulas Compared	103
	Mass Spectrometry and Molecular Mass	105
	Using Percent Composition and Mass Spectra to Determine Molecular Formulas
	107
3.8	Combustion Analysis	109
3.9	Limiting Reactants and Percent Yield	112
	Calculations Involving Limiting Reactants	113
	Actual Yields versus Theoretical Yields	115
Descriptive Chemistry: Hydrogen and Helium: The Bulk of the Universe	116
Summary	119
Problem-Solving Summary 120
Visual Problems 121
Questions and Problems 121
4 Solution Chemistry and the Hydrosphere	129
A Look Ahead		The Constant Ocean	130
4.1	Earth: The Water Planet	130
4.2	Solution Concentration and Molarity	134
4.3	Dilutions	140
4.4	Electrolytes and Nonelectrolytes	143
4.5	Acid-Base Reactions	145
4.6	Precipitation Reactions	148
 Making Insoluble Salts	149
	Using Precipitation in Analysis	151
	Saturated Solutions and Supersaturation	153
4.7	Ion Exchange	154
4.8	Oxidation-Reduction Reactions	157
	Oxidation Numbers	157
	Examples of Redox Reactions	159
	Balancing Redox Reactions Using Half-Reactions	161
	Redox in Nature	164
4.9	Titrations	167
Descriptive Chemistry: Calcium: In the Limelight	170
Summary	172
Problem-Solving Summary	172
Visual Problems 173
Questions and Problems 174
5 Thermochemistry	183 
A Look Ahead		The Sunlight Unwinding	184
5.1	Energy: Basic Concepts and Definitions 	184
	Heat Transfer and Temperature	185
	Work, Potential Energy, and Kinetic Energy	185
	Kinetic Energy and Potential Energy at the Molecular Level	188
5.2 	Systems, Surroundings, and the Flow of Energy 	191
	Isolated, Closed, and Open Systems	191
	Heat Flow	192
	Units of Energy	197	
5.3	Enthalpy and Enthalpy Changes	200
5.4	Heating Curves and Heat Capacity	201
	Hot Soup on a Cold Day	201
	Cold Drinks on a Hot Day	206
5.5	Calorimetry: Measuring Heat Capacity and Calorimeter Constants	209
	Determining Heat Capacity and Specific Heat	209
	Calorimeter Constants	211
5.6	Enthalpies of Formation and Enthalpies of Reaction	213
5.7	Fuel Values and Food Values 	218
	Fuel Value	218
	Food Value	219
5.8	Hess's Law	221
Descriptive Chemistry: Carbon: Diamonds, Graphite, and the Molecules of Life	226
Summary 228
Problem-Solving Summary	228
Visual Problems 229
Questions and Problems 231
6 Properties of Gases: The Air We Breathe	237
A Look Ahead		An Invisible Necessity	238
6.1 The Gas Phase	238
6.2	Atmospheric Pressure	240
6.3	The Gas Laws	246
	Boyle's Law: Relating Pressure and Volume	246
 Charles's Law: Relating Volume and Temperature	249
	Avogadro's Law: Relating Volume and Moles of Gas	252
	Amontons's Law: Relating Pressure and Temperature	252
6.4	The Ideal Gas Law	255
6.5	Gas Density	260
6.6	Dalton's Law and Mixtures of Gases	265
6.7	The Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases and Graham's Law	270
	Explaining Boyle's, Dalton's, and Avogadro's Laws	271
	Explaining Charles's and Amontons's Laws	272
	Molecular Speeds and Kinetic Energy	273
	Graham's Law: Effusion and Diffusion	276
6.8	Real Gases	278
	Deviations from Ideality	278
	The van der Waals Equation for Real Gases	280
Descriptive Chemistry: Nitrogen: Feeding Plants and Inflating Air Bags	282
Summary	284
Problem-Solving Summary	284
Visual Problems	285
Questions and Problems 288
7 Electrons in Atoms and Periodic Properties	297
A Look Ahead		Can Nature Be as Absurd as It Seems?	298
7.1	Waves of Light	299
	Properties of Waves	299
	The Behavior of Waves	301
	Colors Missing from Sunlight	302
	The Expanding Universe	303
7.2	Atomic Spectra	304
7.3	Particles of Light and Quantum Theory	306
	Quantum Theory	306
	The Photoelectric Effect	307
7.4	The Hydrogen Spectrum and the Bohr Model	310
	Lines in the Hydrogen Spectrum	310
	The Bohr Model of Hydrogen	311
	Energies of Photons and Electron Transitions	313
7.5	Electrons as Waves	315
	De Broglie wavelengths	315
	The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle	318
7.6	Quantum Numbers and Electron Spin	320
7.7	The Size and Shape of Atomic Orbitals	325
	s Orbitals	325
	p and d Orbitals	327
7.8	The Periodic Table and Filling in the Orbitals of Multielectron Atoms	328
7.9	Electron Configurations of Ions	333
	Ions of Main Group Elements	333
	Transition Metal Ions	335
7.10	The Sizes of Atoms and Ions	337
	Orbital Penetration and Effective Nuclear Charge	338
	Trends in Atom and Ion Sizes	338
7.11	Ionization Energies	340
Descriptive Chemistry: A Noble Family: Special Status for Special Behavior	344
Summary	347
Problems-Solving Summary	348
Visual Problems	349
Questions and Problems	349
8 Chemical Bonding and Atmospheric Molecules	355
A Look Ahead		Take a Deep Breath	356
8.1	Ionic, Covalent, and Metallic Bonds	357
8.2	An Introduction to Lewis Theory	358
	Lewis Structures for Molecules with Single Bonds	358
	Lewis Structures of Molecules with Multiple Bonds	363
	Lewis Structures of Ionic Compounds	366
8.3	Unequal Sharing, Electronegativity, and Other Periodic Properties	367
	Electronegativity	367
	Bond Polarity	371
8.4	Resonance	374
8.5	Formal Charges: Choosing among Lewis Structures	377
8.6	Exceptions to the Octet Rule	381
	Molecules with Less than an Octet	381
	Molecules with More than an Octet	382
	Odd-Electron Molecules	385
8.7	The Length and Strength of Bonds	388
	Bond Length	388
	Bond Energies	389
Descriptive Chemistry: Fluorine and Oxygen: Location, Location, Location	392
Summary	394
Problem-Solving Summary	394
Visual Problems	395
Questions and Problems	397
9 Molecular Geometry and Bonding Theories	405
A Look Ahead		Aromas, Pharmaceuticals, and the Greenhouse Effect	406
9.1	Molecular Shape	406
9.2	Valence-Shell Electron-Pair Repulsion Theory	408
	Central Atoms with No Lone Pairs	408
	Central Atoms with Lone Pairs and Bonding Pairs of Electrons	413
9.3	Polar Bonds and Polar Molecules	420
9.4	Valence Bond Theory	424
	Orbital Overlap and Hybridization	425
	Tetrahedral Geometry: sp3 Hybrid Orbitals	427
	Linear Geometry: sp Hybrid Orbitals	430
	Octahedral and Trigonal Bipyramidal Geometry: sp3d2 and sp3d Hybrid Orbitals
	432
9.5	Shapes and Bonding in Larger Molecules	435
9.6	Molecular Orbital (MO) Theory	438
	Molecular Orbitals of H2	439
	Molecular Orbitals of Homonuclear Diatomic Molecules	441
	Molecular Orbitals For N2+ and Spectra of Auroras	448
9.7	A Bonding Retrospective	449
Descriptive Chemistry: From Alcohol to Asparagus: The Nose Knows	450
Summary	452
Problem-Solving Summary	453
Visual Problems	453
Questions and Problems	454
10 Forces between Ions and Molecules and Colligative Properties	461
A Look Ahead		A Breath of Fresh Air	462
10.1	Sea Spray and Salts	463
	Ion-Ion Interactions and Lattice Energy	464
	Calculating Lattice Energies with a Born-Haber Cycle	468
10.2	Attractive Forces between Polar Molecules	472
	Ion-Dipole Interactions	472
	Dipole-Dipole Interactions	473
10.3	Dispersion Forces	476
10.4	Real Gases Revisited	480
10.5	Polarity and Solubility	481
	Calculating the Solubility of Gases in Water: Henry's Law	482
	Combinations of Attractive Forces	484
10.6	Vapor Pressure	485
	Seawater versus Pure Water	486
	Vapor Pressures of Solutions: Raoult's Law	488
10.7	Phase Diagrams: Intermolecular Forces at Work	490
	Physical States and Phase Transformations	490
	Reading a Phase Diagram	491
10.8	The Remarkable Behavior of Water and Properties of Liquids	492
	Surface Tension and Viscosity	493
	Water and Aquatic Life	495
10.9	Colligative Properties of Solutions	496
	Boiling Point Elevation and Freezing Point Depression	496
	The van't Hoff Factor	500
	Osmosis and Osmotic Pressure	504
	Reverse Osmosis	507
10.10	Measuring the Molar Mass of a Solute Using Colligative Properties	509
Descriptive Chemistry: The Salt of the Earth	512
Summary	514
Problem-Solving Summary	514
Visual Problems	516
Questions and Problems	517
11 The Chemistry of Solids	523
A Look Ahead		Stronger, Tougher, Harder	524
11.1	Metallic Bonds and Conducting Bands	525
11.2	Semimetals and Semiconductors	527
11.3	Metallic Crystals	528
	Stacking Patterns	528
	Packing Structures and Unit Cells	529
	Unit Cell Dimensions	531
11.4	Alloys	535
	Substitutional Alloys	535
	Interstitial Alloys	536
11.5	Aluminum and Its Alloys: Light Weight and High Performance	540
11.6	The Structures of Some Nonmetals	542
11.7	Salt Crystals: Ionic Solids	544
11.8	Ceramics: Insulators to Superconductors	547
	Polymorphs of Silica	547
	Ionic Silicates	548
	From Clay to Ceramic	550
	Structure and Bonding: Superconductors	551
11.9	X-ray Diffraction: How We Know Crystal Structure	553
Descriptive Chemistry: Silicon, Silica, Silicates, Silicone: What's in a Name?	556
Summary	558
Problem-Solving Summary	558
Visual Problems	559
Questions and Problems	561
12 Organic Chemistry: Fuels and Materials	XXX
A Look Ahead		The Stuff of Daily Life	XXX
12.1	Carbon: The Scope of Organic Chemistry	XXX
	Families Based on Functional Groups	XXX
	Small Molecules, Oligomers, and Polymers	XXX
	Small Molecules versus Polymers: Physical Properties	XXX
12.2	Hydrocarbons	XXX
	Alkanes: Physical Properties and Structure	XXX
	Drawing Organic Molecules	XXX
	Structural Isomers	XXX
	Naming Alkanes	XXX
	Cycloalkanes	XXX
12.3	Sources of Alkanes	XXX
	Volatility and the Clausius-Clapeyron Equation	XXX
	Volatility at Work: Fractionating Crude Oil	XXX
	Cuts of Crude Oil	XXX
12.4	Alkenes and Alkynes	XXX
	Chemical Reactivities of Alkenes and Alkynes	XXX
	Isomers	XXX
	Polymers of Alkenes	XXX
12.5	Aromatic Compounds	XXX
	Structural Isomers of Aromatic Compounds	XXX
	Polymers Containing Aromatic Rings	XXX
12.6	Alcohols, Ethers, and Reformulated Gasoline	XXX
	Alcohols: Methanol and Ethanol	XXX
	Ethers: Diethyl Ether	XXX
	Polymers of Alcohols and Ethers	XXX
12.7	More Oxygen-containing Functional Groups: Aldehydes, Ketones, Carboxylic 
Acids, Esters, Amides	XXX
	Aldehydes and Ketones	XXX
	Carboxylic Acids, Esters, and Amides	XXX
	Polyesters and Polyamides	XXX
12.8	Hydrocarbon Fuels from Biomass	XXX
	Methane from Plants	XXX
	Amines	XXX
	A Final Note	XXX
Summary	XXX
Problem-Solving Summary	XXX
Visual Problems	XXX
Questions and Problems	XXX
13 Thermodynamics: Spontaneous Processes, Entropy, and Free Energy	XXX
A Look Ahead		The Game of Energy	XXX
13.1	Spontaneous Processes and Entropy	XXX
	Entropy and Microstates: Flat Tires	XXX
	Statistical Entropy: A Mathematical View of Microstates	XXX
13.2	Thermodynamic Entropy	XXX
	Isothermal and Nonisothermal Processes	XXX
	A Closer Look at Reversible Processes	XXX
	Entropy Changes for Other Common Processes	XXX
13.3	Absolute Entropy, the Third Law of Thermodynamics, and Structure	XXX
13.4	Calculating Entropy Changes in Chemical Reactions	XXX
13.5	Free Energy and Free-Energy Changes	XXX
	Determining the Entropy Change in the Universe	XXX
	The Meaning of Free Energy	XXX
	Calculating Free-Energy Changes	XXX
	Temperature, Spontaneity, and Free Energy	XXX
13.6	Driving the Human Engine: Coupled Reactions	XXX
Summary	XXX
Problem-Solving Summary	XXX
Visual Problems	XXX
Questions and Problems	XXX
14 Chemical Kinetics	XXX
A Look Ahead		How Quickly Can We Clean the Air?	XXX
14.1	Cars, Trucks, and Air Quality	XXX
14.2	Reaction Rates	XXX
	Rate Units and Relative Reaction Rates	XXX
	Experimentally Determined Rates: Actual Values	XXX
	Average Reaction Rates and the Formation of NO	XXX
	Instantaneous Reaction Rates and the Formation of NO2	XXX
14.3	Effect of Concentration on Reaction Rate	XXX
	Reaction Order, Rate Constants, Units, and Initial Rates	XXX
	Deriving a Rate Law from a Single Experiment	XXX
	Reaction Half-Lives	XXX
	Second-Order Reactions	XXX
	Pseudo-First-Order Reactions	XXX
	Zero-Order Reactions	XXX
14.4	Reaction Rates, Temperature, and the Arrhenius Equation	XXX
14.5	Reaction Mechanisms	XXX
	Elementary Steps	XXX
	Rate Laws and Reaction Mechanisms	XXX
	Mechanisms and Zero-Order Reactions	XXX
14.6	Catalysts	XXX
	Catalysts and the Ozone Layer	XXX
	Catalysts and Catalytic Converters	XXX
Descriptive Chemistry: The Platinum Group: Catalysts, Jewelry, and Investment	XXX
Summary	XXX
Problem-Solving Summary	XXX
Visual Problems	XXX
Questions and Problems	XXX
15 Chemical Equilibrium	XXX
A Look Ahead		The Eyes Have It	XXX
15.1	Understanding Equilibrium: A Qualitative View	XXX
15.2	The Equilibrium Constant Expression and K	XXX
	Writing the Equilibrium Constant Expression	XXX
	Calculating Values of Kc and Kp	XXX
	Relationships of Kc to Kp	XXX
15.3	Manipulating Equilibrium Constant Expressions	XXX
	K for Reverse Reactions	XXX
	K for Equations Multiplied by a Number	XXX
	K for Combined Equations	XXX
15.4	Equilibrium Constants and Reaction Quotients	XXX
15.5	Equilibrium and Thermodynamics	XXX
15.6	Heterogeneous Equilibria	XXX
15.7	Le Chatelier's Principle	XXX
	Effects of Adding or Removing Reactants or Products	XXX
	Effect of Changes in Pressure and Volume	XXX
	Effect of Temperature	XXX
	Catalysts and Equilibrium	XXX
15.8	Calculations Based on K	XXX
15.9	Changing K with Changing Temperature	XXX
Summary	XXX
Problem-Solving Summary	XXX
Visual Problems	XXX
Questions and Problems	XXX
16 Equilibrium in the Aqueous Phase	XXX
A Look Ahead		A Balancing Act	XXX
16.1	Acids and Bases	XXX
16.2	The Bronsted-Lowry Model	XXX
	Strong and Weak Acids	XXX
	Conjugate Acid-Base Pairs	XXX
	Strong and Weak Bases	XXX
	Relative Strengths of Acids and Bases	XXX
16.3	pH and the Autoionization of Water	XXX
	The pH Scale	XXX
	pOH	XXX
16.4	Calculations with pH and K	XXX
	Weak Acids	XXX
	Weak Bases	XXX
16.5	Polyprotic Acids	XXX
16.6	Acid Strength and Molecular Structure	XXX
16.7	pH of Salt Solutions	XXX
16.8	The Common-Ion Effect
16.9	Buffers	XXX
	An Environmental Buffer	XXX
	A Physiological Buffer	XXX
	Range and Capacity	XXX
16.10	Acid-Base Titrations and Indicators	XXX
	Acid-Base Titrations	XXX
	Alkalinity Titrations	XXX
Descriptive Chemistry: The Chemistry of Two Strong Acids: Sulfuric and Nitric Acids
	XXX
Summary	XXX
Problem-Solving Summary	XXX
Visual Problems	XXX
Questions and Problems	XXX
17 The Colorful Chemistry of Transition Metals	XXX
A Look Ahead		The Company They Keep	XXX
17.1	Lewis Acids and Bases	XXX
17.2	Complex Ions	XXX
17.3	Complex-Ion Equilibria	XXX
17.4	Hydrated Metal Ions as Acids	XXX
17.5	Solubilities of Compounds and Ksp	XXX
17.6	Polydentate Ligands	XXX
17.7	Ligand Strength and the Chelation Effect	XXX
17.8	Crystal Field Theory	XXX
17.9	Magnetism and Spin States	XXX
17.10	Naming Complex Ions and Coordination Compounds	XXX
17.11	Isomerism in Coordination Compounds	XXX
	Geometric Isomers	XXX
	Enantiomers	XXX
17.12	Metal Complexes in Biomolecules	XXX
Summary	XXX
Problem-Solving Summary	XXX
Visual Problems	XXX
Questions and Problems	XXX
18 Electrochemistry and Electric Cars	XXX
A Look Ahead		100 Mpg: Charging Up Hybrid Cars	XXX
18.1	Redox Chemistry Revisited	XXX
18.2	Electrochemical Cells	XXX
18.3	Chemical Energy and Electrical Work	XXX
18.4	Standard Potentials (E?)	XXX
18.5	A Reference Point: The Standard Hydrogen Electrode	XXX
18.6	The Effect of Concentration on Ecell	XXX
	The Nernst Equation	XXX
	Equilibrium and Dead Batteries	XXX
18.7	Quantities of Reactants and Battery Life	XXX
	Nickel-Metal Hydride Batteries	XXX
	Lithium-ion Batteries	XXX
18.8	Electrolytic Cells and Rechargeable Batteriess	XXX
18.9	Fuel Cells	XXX
Descriptive Chemistry: The Chemistry of the Group 12 Elements	XXX
Summary	XXX
Problem-Solving Summary	XXX
Visual Problems	XXX
Questions and Problems	XXX
19 Biochemistry: The Compounds of Life	XXX
A Look Ahead		The Long and the Short of It	XXX
19.1	Molecules and Structure: Building Blocks of Life	XXX
 Individual Molecules: Small Molecule Subunits	XXX
 Formation of Polymers and Organized Assemblies 	XXX
19.2	A Feature of Molecules in Nature: Chirality	XXX
19.3	Protein Composition	XXX
19.4	Protein Structure and Function	XXX
 Primary Structure	XXX
 Secondary Structure	XXX
 Tertiary and Quaternary Structure	XXX
 Proteins as Catalysts: Enzymes	XXX
19.5	Carbohydrates	XXX
 Molecular Structures of Glucose and Fructose	XXX
 Disaccharides and Polysaccharides	XXX
 Photosynthesis and Biomass	XXX
19.6	Lipids	XXX
 Function and Metabolism of Lipids	XXX
 Other Types of Lipids	XXX
19.7	Nucleotides and Nucleic Acids 	XXX
 Components and Structure	XXX
 From DNA to Protein	XXX
 An Additional Role for Ribonucleotide Monomers: Energy and Metabolism
	XXX
Summary	XXX
Problem-Solving Summary	XXX
Visual Problems	XXX
Questions and Problems	XXX
20 Nuclear Chemistry	XXX
A Look Ahead		Alchemy in the 21st Century	XXX
20.1	Nuclear Chemistry	XXX
20.2	Radioactive Decay	XXX
20.3	Hydrogen Fusion	XXX
20.4	Nuclear Binding Energies	XXX
20.5	Synthesis of Heavy Elements	XXX
20.6	The Belt of Stability	XXX
20.7	Artificial Nuclides	XXX
20.8	Nuclear Fission	XXX
20.9	Measuring Radioactivity	XXX
20.10	Biological Effects of Radioactivity	XXX
	Radiation Dosage	XXX
	Assessing the Risks of Radiation	XXX
20.11	Medical Applications of Radioactivity	XXX
	Radiation Therapy	XXX
	Medical Imaging	XXX
20.12	Radiochemical Dating	XXX
Descriptive Chemistry: Too Hot to Handle: Radon, Radium, and Uranium	XXX
Summary	XXX
Problem-Solving Summary	XXX
Visual Problems	XXX
Questions and Problems	XXX
21 Life and the Periodic Table	XXX
A Look Ahead		What Elements Do We Find in Our Bodies?	XXX
21.1	The Periodic Table of Life	XXX
21.2	Bulk Main Group Elements	XXX
	Alkali Metals	XXX
	Alkaline Earth Metals	XXX
	Chlorine	XXX
21.3	Trace and Ultratrace Elements	XXX
	Main Group Elements	XXX
	Transition Elements	XXX
21.4	Diagnosis and Therapy	XXX
	Diagnosis of Disease	XXX
	Therapeutic Applications	XXX
	Medical Devices and Materials	XXX
21.5	Toxic Metals	XXX
Summary	XXX
Problem-Solving Summary	XXX
Visual Problems	XXX
Questions and Problems	XXX

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Chemistry.