Table of contents for Party politics in America / Marjorie Randon Hershey ; foreword by John H. Aldrich.

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Detailed Contents
Foreword by John H. Aldrich 
PART 1	Parties and Party Systems 1
CHAPTER 1	What Are Political Parties? 
A Three-Part Definition of Parties 
The Party Organization 
The Party in Government 
The Party in the Electorate 
What Parties Do 
Electing Candidates 
Educating (or Propagandizing) Citizens 
The Effects of Party Activity 
How Do Parties Differ from Other Political Groups? 
Parties Are Paramount in Elections 
They Have a Full-time Commitment to Political Activity 
They Mobilize Large Numbers 
They Endure 
They Serve as Political Symbols 
How the American Parties Developed 
The Founding of American Parties 
The Emergence of a National Two-Party System 
The Golden Age of the Parties 
The Progressive Reforms and Beyond 
What Do the Parties Stand For? 
Parties Are Shaped by Their Environment 
Voters and Elections 
Political Institutions 
Laws Governing Parties 
Political Culture 
The Broader Environment 
CHAPTER 2	The American Two-Party System 
The National Party System 
The 50 State Party Systems 
Measuring State Party Competition 
Limits on Competitiveness: Incumbency 
¿and Other Reasons for Declining Competitiveness 
What Causes a Two-Party System? 
Institutional Forces 
¿Dualist¿ Theories 
Social Consensus Theories 
Party Self-Protection (The Best Defense Is a Good Offense) 
Exceptions to the Two-Party Pattern 
Nonpartisan Elections 
Areas of One-Party Monopoly 
Third Parties 
Differences in Ideology 
Difference of Origins 
Differing Purposes 
What Difference Do They Make? 
The Rise of Independent Candidates 
Will the Two-Party System Continue? 
PART 2	The Political Party as an Organization 
CHAPTER 3	The State and Local Party Organizations 
What Is a ¿Strong¿ Party? 
The Legal Environment of the Parties 
Levels of Party Organization 
Local Party Committees 
State Central Committees 
The Legendary Party Machines 
How the Party Machines Developed 
How Machines Held on to Power 
Local Party Organizations Declined and Then Rebuilt 
Local Parties in the 1970s 
Local Parties Today: Richer and More Active 
The State Parties: Newfound Prosperity 
Traditional Weakness 
Increasing Strength in Recent Years 
Campaign Services 
Republican Advantage 
Allied Groups 
The Special Case of the South 
National Party Money 
Summing Up: How the State and Local Party Organizations Have Transformed 
CHAPTER 4	The Parties¿ National Organizations 
The National Parties 
The National Committees 
National Party Officers 
Presidents and Their National Parties 
Other National Party Groups 
Congressional Campaign (¿Hill¿) Committees 
Women¿s and Youth Groups 
Democratic and Republican Governors¿ Associations 
Two Paths to Power 
The Service Party Path 
The Democrats¿ Procedural-Reform Path 
Both Parties Take the Service Path 
Rising to the Challenge of New Campaign Finance Rules 
Party Money and Activism in the 2006 Elections
What Is the Impact of These Stronger National Parties? 
Effects on Candidates¿ Campaigns 
Effects on State and Local Parties 
Effects on the Presidency 
Effects on Congress 
Relationships within the National Party 
The Limits of Party Organization 
CHAPTER 5	Party Activists 
What Draws People into Party Activity? 
Material Incentives 
Elected Office 
Solidary (Social) Incentives 
Purposive (Issue-Based) Incentives 
Mixed Incentives 
Professional and Amateurs 
How Do Parties Recruit Activists? 
Finding Volunteers: Is Anybody Home? 
Means, Motive, and Opportunity 
What Kinds of People Become Party Activists 
People from ¿Political Families¿ 
Better Educated and Wealthier Than Average 
Different Agendas 
More Extreme Views 
Party Activists and Democracy 
The Problem of Representation 
Amateurs and Pressure for Internal Party Democracy 
Activists, Party Strength, and Democracy 
PART 3	The Political Party in the Electorate 
CHAPTER 6	Party Identification 
How People Develop Party Identifications 
Childhood Influences 
Influences in Adulthood 
Patterns of Partisanship Over Time 
Has There Been a Decline in Partisanship? 
Party Identification and Political Views 
Party Identification and Voting 
Party Voting 
Party Versus Candidates and Issues 
Partisanship as a Two-Way Street 
Party Identification and Political Activity 
Party Identification and Attitudes Toward the Parties 
The Myth of the Independent 
Attitudinal Independents 
Behavioral Independents 
Are Independents a Likely Source of Support for Third-Party Candidates? 
Change in the Impact of Party ID 
A More Candidate-Centered Politics 
The Continuing Significance of Party 
CHAPTER 7	Party Coalitions and Party Change 
The American Party Systems 
The First Party System 
The Second Party System 
The Third Party System 
The Fourth Party System 
The Fifth Party System 
The Social Bases of Party Coalitions 
Socioeconomic Status Divisions 
Sectional (Regional) Divisions 
Religious Divisions 
Racial Divisions 
Ethnic Divisions 
Gender Divisions 
The Central Role of Issues in the Group-Party Linkage
 Polarization of the Two Parties¿ Coalitions on Issues
The Development of the Sixth Party System 
Major Changes in the Parties¿ Supporting Coalitions 
From Democratic Majority to Party Parity 
How Can We Characterize These Changes: Realignment, Dealignment, or What? 
Problems with the Idea of Realignment 
CHAPTER 8	Who Votes¿and Why It Matters 
The Low Turnout in American Elections 
The Expanding Right to Vote 
Legal Barriers to Voting 
The Special Case of Voting Rights for Black Americans 
The Long Struggle for Voting Rights 
Black Registration Increases in the South 
From Voting Rights to Representation 
Getting Blacks¿ Votes Counted 
Political Influences on Turnout 
The Excitement of the Election 
Close Competition 
The Representativeness of the Party System 
Organized Efforts to Mobilize Voters 
Individual Differences in Turnout 
Gender and Race 
Social Connectedness 
Political Attitudes 
Personal Costs of Voting 
Why Don¿t More Americans Vote? 
The Puzzle of Low Turnouts 
What Could Bring More People to the Polls? 
Why Do These Changes in Turnout Matter? 
Long-Range Effects 
Effects on Particular Elections 
The Challenge to the Parties 
PART 4	Parties, Nominations, and Elections 
CHAPTER 9	How Parties Choose Candidates 
How the Nomination Process Evolved 
Nominations by Caucus 
Nominations by Convention 
Nominations by Direct Primaries 
The Current Mix of Primaries and Conventions 
Types of Primaries 
Closed Primaries 
Open Primaries 
Blanket Primaries 
Why Does the Type of Primary Matter? 
How Candidates Qualify 
How Do Candidates Get on the Ballot? 
Runoffs: When Too Many Candidates Get on the Ballot 
What Parties Don¿t Like About Primaries 
Difficulties in Recruiting Candidates 
The Risk of Unattractive Nominees 
Divisive Primaries 
Problems in Holding Candidates Accountable 
The Party Organization Fights Back 
Persuading Candidates to Run (or Not to Run) 
Endorsing Candidates 
Providing Tangible Support 
Candidates and Voters in the Primaries 
Many Candidates Run Without Competition 
¿ And Voters Are in Short Supply 
The Impact of the Direct Primary 
Has It Made Elections More Democratic? 
How Badly Has It Harmed the Parties? 
Is the Primary Worth the Cost? 
CHAPTER 10	Choosing the Presidential Nominees 
The Move to Presidential Primaries 
Turbulence in the Democratic Party 
Presidential Primaries Today 
Some States Use Party Caucuses 
The Race to Win Delegate Votes 
The ¿Invisible Primary¿ 
Candidates¿ Strategic Choices 
Win Early or Die 
What Is the Party¿s Role? 
Voters¿ Choices in Presidential Nominations 
Who Votes? 
Are Primary Voters Typical? 
Do Voters Make Informed Choices? 
Do Primaries Produce Good Candidates? 
On to the National Conventions 
Roots of the Conventions 
What Conventions Do 
Approving the Platform 
Formalizing the Presidential Nomination 
Approving the Vice-Presidential Nominee 
Launching the Presidential Campaign 
Who Are the Delegates? 
Apportioning Delegates Among the States 
How Representative Are the Delegates? 
Political Experience 
Amateurs or Professionals? 
Who Controls the Delegates? 
How Media Cover Conventions 
Do Conventions Still Have a Purpose? 
Should We Reform the Reforms? 
What Could Be Done? 
CHAPTER 11	The General Election 
Elections: The Rules Affect the Results 
The Secret Ballot 
The Format of the Ballot 
The Order of Candidates¿ Names 
The Long Ballot 
Voting Systems 
Legislative Redistricting 
Campaign Strategy 
How Campaigning Has Changed 
Professional Consultants 
Sources of Information 
Methods of Persuasion: the Air War 
The Newest Air War Technique: The Internet 
The Ground War: ¿Under the Radar¿ 
Direct Mail 
Canvassing and Phone Banks 
Negative Campaigning 
The 2004 Campaign
Democrats Regain the Advantage in 2006
Do Campaigns Make a Difference? 
The Argument That Campaigns Matter 
The Argument That They Don¿t 
Some Tentative Answers 
Candidate-Centered or Party-Centered Campaigns? 
Party Influence in Competitive Campaigns 
The Continuing Struggle Between Candidates and Party Organizations 
CHAPTER 12	Financing the Campaigns 
How Much Money Is Spent on Campaigns? 
Presidential Campaigns 
Congressional Campaigns 
State and Local Campaigns 
What Is the Impact of Campaign Spending? 
Where Does the Money Come From? 
Individual Contributors 
Political Action Committees 
The Candidates Themselves 
Public Funding 
Money in State and Local Campaigns 
Reform of the Campaign Finance Rules 
Contribution Limits 
Spending Limits 
Public Disclosure 
Public Funding of Presidential Campaigns 
The Loopholes That Ate the Reforms 
Independent Spending 
Soft Money 
Issue Advocacy Ads 
¿527¿ Advocacy Groups 
What Did the 1970s Reforms Accomplish? 
Intended and Unintended Effects 
Effects on the Parties 
Another Try: The Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act (BCRA) 
State Regulation and Financing 
Money in American Politics 
PART 5	The Party in Government 
CHAPTER 13	Parties in Congress and State Legislatures 
How the Parties Are Organized in Congress 
Changes in the Power of House Party Leaders 
The Revolt Against ¿Czar¿ Cannon 
Growing Party Coordination 
Policy Leadership 
The Gingrich Revolution 
¿ and Its Aftermath 
Parties in the ¿Individualist Senate¿ 
Parties in the State Legislatures 
Methods of Party Influence 
Carrots and Sticks 
Party Influence on Legislative Voting 
How Unified Is Each Legislative Party? 
Party Votes 
Party Support 
Greater Polarization of the Congressional Parties 
When Are the Parties Most Unified? 
Issues That Touch the Interests of the Legislative Parties 
The Executive¿s Proposals 
Policies Central to the Party System 
Does Party Competition Promote Party Unity? 
Comparing Party Power in Congress and State Legislatures 
Party Polarization and Cohesion 
Greater Interparty Competition 
No Competing Centers of Power 
Other Needed Resources 
Lesser Legislative Professionalism 
Styles of Individual Leaders 
The Power of Legislative Parties 
CHAPTER 14	The Party in the Executive and the Courts 
Presidents and Governors as Party Leaders 
The President as Campaigner-in-Chief 
The President as the ¿Top of the Ticket¿ 
Coattail Effects 
Coattails Even without the Coat 
Party Leadership and Legislative Relations 
Legislative Support for Executives 
Divided Control of Government 
Party Influence in Executive Agencies 
Bureaucrats Have Constituents Too 
Holding Bureaucrats Accountable 
Changing Political Outlooks in the Federal Bureaucracy 
Traces of Party in the Courts 
Judicial Voting Along Party Lines 
What Causes Partisan Behavior on the Courts? 
Party and Judicial Appointments 
Federal Judges 
State Court Judges 
The Party Within the Executive and the Judge 
CHAPTER 15	The Semi-Responsible Parties 
The Case for Responsible Party Government 
How Would Party Government (Responsible Parties) Work? 
The Case Against Party Government 
It Would Increase Conflict 
It Wouldn¿t Work in American Politics 
The Gingrich Experiment: A Temporarily Responsible Party 
Party Cohesion and Ideology 
Are the American Parties Ideological? 
Do They at Least Offer Clear Choices? 
But Internal Divisions Remain 
Ideology and the American Voter 
How Ideological Is the American Public? 
Differences Among Voters, Activists, and Candidates 
When Is Party Government Most Likely? 
When There Is Strong Presidential Leadership 
In Times of Crisis 
When the Parties¿ Supporting Coalitions Realign 
Party Government and Popular Control 
CHAPTER 16	The Place of Parties in American Politics 
Parties and Their Environment 
The Nature of the Electorate 
Political Institutions and Rules 
Societal Forces 
Party Decline in the 1960s and 1970s 
The Parties in the Electorate 
Party Organizations 
The Party in Government 
Shifting Power Centers within the Parties 
Party Renewal 
Change in the Parties¿ Electoral Coalitions 
The Rise of More Cohesive Parties in Government 
The New ¿Service¿ Parties 
The Future of Party Politics in America 
A Changing Intermediary Role 
The Need for Strong Parties 
How to Make the Parties Stronger 
Conclusion: The Parties¿ Prospects 
Party Politics on the Internet 

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Political parties -- United States.