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Contents Preface xvii Foreword by Professor Guus Berkhout xxi Acknowledgements xxiii Plan of the book xxiv Part One Innovation management 1 1 Innovation management: an introduction 2 The importance of innovation 4 The study of innovation 6 Recent and contemporary studies 9 The need to view innovation in an organisational context 10 Individuals in the innovation process 11 Problems of definition and vocabulary 11 Entrepreneurship 12 Design 12 Innovation and invention 14 Successful and unsuccessful innovations 15 Different types of innovation 16 Technology and science 17 Popular views of innovation 19 Models of innovation 20 Serendipity 21 Linear models 21 Simultaneous coupling model 23 Interactive model 23 Innovation as a management process 24 A framework for the management of innovation 25 Open Innovation and the need to share and exchange knowledge (network models) 27 Innovation and new product development 29 Case study: The success of the Ipod raises the licensing question for Apple . . . again 29 Chapter summary 36 Discussion questions 37 Key words and phrases 37 Websites worth visiting 37 References 38 Further reading 41 2 Economics and market adoption 42 Co-written with Ufuk M. ¿akmak¿, Department of Business, Istanbul Bilgi University, Turkey Innovation in its wider context 44 The role of the state and national 'systems' of innovation 46 How national states can facilitate innovation 47 Fostering innovation in the United States and Japan 48 The right business environment is key to innovation 50 Waves of innovation and growth in capitalism: historical overview 50 Fostering innovation in 'late-industrialising' countries 52 Innovation and the market 54 Innovation and market vision 55 Innovative new products and consumption patterns 55 Marketing insights to facilitate innovation 57 Lead users 59 Innovation diffusion theories 59 Adopting new products and embracing change 62 Market adoption theories 63 Case study: The European Innovation Scoreboard 64 Chapter summary 68 Discussion questions 68 Key words and phrases 69 Websites worth visiting 69 References 69 Further reading 72 3 Managing innovation within firms 74 Organisations and innovation 76 The dilemma of innovation management 76 Managing uncertainty 77 Pearson's uncertainty map 77 Applying the uncertainty map to avoid promising success and delivering failure 80 Organisational characteristics that facilitate the innovation process 81 Growth orientation 84 Organisational heritage and innovation experience 84 Vigilance and external links 85 Commitment to technology and R&D intensity 85 Acceptance of risks 86 Cross-functional cooperation and coordination within organisational structure 86 Receptivity 86 Space for creativity 86 Strategy towards innovation 87 Diverse range of skills 87 Industrial firms are different: a classification 90 Organisational structures and innovation 91 Formalisation 91 Complexity 91 Centralisation 92 Organisational size 92 The role of the individual in the innovation process 93 IT systems and their impact on innovation 94 Establishing an innovative environment and propagating this virtuous circle 96 Reputation of the organisation 97 Case study: Gore-Tex(r) and W.L. Gore & Associates: An innovative company and a contemporary culture 99 Chapter summary 103 Discussion questions 103 Key words and phrases 103 Websites worth visiting 103 References 104 Further reading 106 4 Innovation and operations management 108 Richard Noble, University of Portsmouth Operations management 110 The nature of design and innovation in the context of operations 111 Design requirements 112 Design and volumes 114 Craft-based products 117 Design simplification 117 Process design and innovation 118 Innovation in the management of the operations process 119 Triggers for innovation 119 Gap analysis 119 Quality circles and process improvement teams 120 Total quality management (TQM) 121 Quality function deployment (QFD) 123 The ISO 9000 approach 123 The EFQM excellence model 123 Design of the organisation and its suppliers - supply chain management 124 Business process re-engineering (BPR) 128 Operations and technology 129 Innovation as an operations process itself 134 Case study: Novels, new products and Harry Potter 135 Chapter summary 141 Discussion questions 141 Key words and phrases 141 Websites worth visiting 142 References 142 Further reading 143 5 Managing intellectual property 144 Intellectual property 146 Trade secrets 148 An introduction to patents 148 Novelty 150 Inventive step 150 Industrial applications 150 Exclusions from patents 150 The patenting of life 151 Human genetic patenting 151 The configuration of a patent 152 Patent harmonisation: first to file and first to invent 153 Some famous patent cases 153 Patents in practice 154 Expiry of a patent and patent extensions 155 Patent extensions 157 The use of patents in innovation management 158 Do patents hinder or encourage innovation? 158 Trademarks 160 Should satisfy the requirements of section 1(1) 160 Distinctive 161 Non-deceptive 161 Not confusing 161 Brand names 163 Using brands to protect intellectual property 163 Exploiting new opportunities 164 Brands, trademarks and the Internet 165 Duration of registration, infringement and passing off 165 Registered designs 167 Copyright 167 Remedy against infringement 170 Damages 171 Injunction 171 Accounts 171 Counterfeit goods and IP 171 Case study: Pricing, patents and profits in the pharmaceutical industry 172 Chapter summary 176 Discussion questions 176 Key words and phrases 176 Websites worth visiting 176 References 177 Further reading 178 Part Two Managing technology and knowledge 179 6 Managing organisational knowledge 180 The battle of Trafalgar 182 Technology trajectories 182 The acquisition of firm-specific knowledge 183 The resource-based perspective 183 Dynamic competence-based theory of the firm 185 Developing firm-specific competencies 186 Competencies and profits 187 Technology development and effort required 188 The knowledge base of an organisation 189 The whole can be more than the sum of the parts 190 Organisational heritage 191 When the performance of the organisation is greater than the abilities of individuals 191 Japanese organisations and the role of organisational knowledge 192 Characterising the knowledge base of the organisation 193 The learning organisation 194 A process of knowledge accumulation and application in innovative firms 195 Combining commercial and technological strengths: a conceptual approach to the generation of new business opportunities 198 The degree of innovativeness 200 Leader/offensive 201 Fast follower/defensive 201 Cost minimisation/imitative 202 Market segmentation specialist/traditional 202 A technology strategy provides a link between innovation strategy and business strategy 202 Case study: The cork industry, the wine industry and the need for closure 203 Chapter summary 212 Discussion questions 212 Key words and phrases 212 Websites worth visiting 212 References 213 Further reading 214 7 Strategic alliances and networks 216 Defining strategic alliances 218 The fall of the go-it-alone strategy and the rise of the octopus strategy 219 Complementary capabilities and embedded technologies 220 Interfirm knowledge-sharing routines 221 Forms of strategic alliance 221 Licensing 222 Supplier relations 222 Outsourcing 223 Joint venture 223 Collaboration (non-joint ventures) 223 R&D consortia 225 Industry clusters 225 Innovation networks 225 The 'virtual company' 228 Motives for establishing an alliance 229 The process of forming a successful strategic alliance 229 Risks and limitations with strategic alliances 231 The role of trust in strategic alliances 232 The concept of trust 233 Innovation risks in strategic outsourcing 234 The use of game theory to analyse strategic alliances 237 Game theory and the prisoner's dilemma 238 Use of alliances in implementing technology strategy 239 Case study: The Hollywood film industry and the role of knowledge network organisations 240 Chapter summary 244 Discussion questions 245 Key words and phrases 245 Websites worth visiting 245 References 245 Further reading 249 8 Management of research and development 250 What is research and development? 252 The traditional view of R&D 253 R&D management and the industrial context 253 R&D investment and company success 257 Classifying R&D 259 The operations that make up R&D 261 R&D management and its link with business strategy 263 Integration of R&D 264 Strategic pressures on R&D 265 The technology portfolio 266 The difficulty of managing capital-intensive production plants in a dynamic environment 267 Which business to support and how? 268 Technology leverage and R&D strategies 269 Strengths and limitations of this approach 271 Allocation of funds to R&D 271 Setting the R&D budget 272 Level of R&D expenditure 274 Case study: The long and difficult 13-year journey to the marketplace for Pfizer's Viagra 275 Chapter summary 282 Discussion questions 282 Key words and phrases 283 Websites worth visiting 283 References 283 Further reading 284 9 Managing R&D projects 286 Successful technology management 288 The changing nature of R&D management 289 Organising industrial R&D 293 The acquisition of external technology 294 Level of control of technology required 295 Forms of external R&D 296 Effective R&D management 299 Managing scientific freedom 299 Skunk works 302 The link with the product innovation process 302 The effect of R&D investment on products 304 Evaluating R&D projects 305 Evaluation criteria 306 Case study: The role of clinical research in the pharmaceutical industry 309 Chapter summary 313 Discussion questions 314 Key words and phrases 314 Websites worth visiting 314 References 314 Further reading 317 10 Open innovation and technology transfer 318 Background 320 The dominant economic perspective 321 Open innovation 322 Introduction to technology transfer 323 Information transfer and knowledge transfer 324 Models of technology transfer 324 Licensing 324 Science park model 326 Intermediary agency model 326 Directory model 326 Knowledge Transfer Partnership model 327 Ferret model 327 Hiring skilled employees 327 Technology transfer units 327 Research clubs 328 European Space Agency (ESA) 328 Consultancy 328 Limitations and barriers to technology transfer 330 NIH syndrome 331 Internal organisational factors and inward technology transfer 331 Developing a receptive environment for technology transfer 332 Identifying external technology: the importance of scanning and networking 334 Linking external technology to internal capabilities 336 Managing the inward transfer of technology 336 Technology transfer and organisational learning 337 Case study: Sony-Ericsson mobile phone joint venture dependent on technology transfer 339 Chapter summary 346 Discussion questions 346 Key words and phrases 346 Websites worth visiting 347 References 347 Further reading 350 Part Three New product development 351 11 Product and brand strategy 352 Capabilities, networks and platforms 354 Product platforms 355 Product planning 357 Product strategy 360 Competitive strategy 360 Product portfolios 361 The competitive environment 362 Differentiation and positioning 363 Differentiation 363 Product positioning 365 Competing with other products 367 Managing brands 369 Brands and blind product tests 369 Brand strategy 371 Brand extensions 372 Market entry 375 Launch and continuing improvement 376 Withdrawing products 377 Managing mature products 379 Case study: The role of design in the development of a wheelchair for cerebral palsy sufferers 380 Chapter summary 383 Discussion questions 383 Key words and phrases 384 Websites worth visiting 384 References 384 Further reading 385 12 New product development 386 Innovation management and NPD 388 New products and prosperity 389 Considerations when developing an NPD strategy 390 Ongoing corporate planning 390 Ongoing market planning 391 Ongoing technology management 391 Opportunity analysis/serendipity 391 NPD as a strategy for growth 392 Market penetration 392 Market development 392 Product development 393 Diversification 393 A range of product development opportunities 393 What is a new product? 396 Defining a new product 398 Classification of new products 399 Repositioning and brand extensions 400 New product development as an industry innovation cycle 403 Overview of NPD theories 403 Models of new product development 407 Departmental-stage models 407 Activity-stage models and concurrent engineering 408 Cross-functional models (teams) 410 Decision-stage models 410 Conversion-process models 410 Response models 410 Network models 411 Case study: Launching innocent into the growing fruit smoothie market 412 Chapter summary 419 Discussion questions 420 Key words and phrases 420 Websites worth visiting 420 References 421 Further reading 423 13 Packaging and product development 424 Wrapping and packaging products 426 The basic principles of packaging 428 Protection 429 Containment 430 Identification 431 Labelling 431 Characteristics of packaging 433 Dispensing 434 Storage 434 Stability 434 Handling 434 Opening/resealing 435 After use and secondary use 435 Disposal 435 Product rejuvenation 437 New product opportunities through packaging 438 Product and pack size variation 439 Packaging systems 441 Retailer acceptance 442 Revitalising mature packaged goods 444 Case study: Halfords Motor Oil: redesign and rebranding of an existing product 445 Chapter summary 449 Discussion questions 449 Key words and phrases 450 Websites worth visiting 450 References 450 Further reading 451 14 New service innovation 452 The growth in services 454 Growth in knowledge-intensive business services (KIBS) 454 Outsourcing and service growth 455 Different types of services 458 Technology and new service development 460 New services and new business models 461 Characteristics of services and how they differ from products 462 Intangibility 462 Heterogeneity 463 Simultaneous production and consumption 464 Perishability 464 Classification of service innovations 464 The new service development process 466 New service development models 467 Sequential service development models or stage-gate models 467 Concurrent service development models 469 Service innovation and the consumer 470 Consumer user toolkits 471 Consumer testing of services 472 Case study: Developing new services at the world's most successful Internet-based company, eBay 473 Chapter summary 480 Discussion questions 481 Key words and phrases 481 Websites worth visiting 481 References 482 Further reading 485 15 Market research and its influence on new product development 486 Market research and new product development 488 The purpose of new product testing 489 Testing new products 490 Techniques used in consumer testing of new products 491 Concept tests 491 Test centres 492 Hall tests/mobile shops 492 Product-use tests 492 Trade shows 492 Monadic tests 492 Paired comparisons 493 In-home placement tests 493 Test panels 493 When market research has too much influence 493 Discontinuous new products 496 Market research and discontinuous new products 497 Circumstances when market research may hinder the development of discontinuous new products 498 Technology-intensive products 499 Breaking with convention and winning new markets 500 When it may be correct to ignore your customers 503 Striking the balance between new technology and market research 504 The challenge for senior management 505 Case study: Dyson, Hoover and the bagless vacuum cleaner 506 Chapter summary 513 Discussion questions 514 Key words and phrases 514 Websites worth visiting 514 References 514 Further reading 516 16 Managing the new product development process 518 New products as projects 520 The key activities that need to be managed 521 Assembling knowledge 522 The generation of business opportunities 523 Developing product concepts: turning business opportunities into product concepts 526 The screening of business opportunities 527 Development of product prototypes 529 Technical testing 530 Market testing and consumer research 530 Market introduction 532 NPD across different industries 532 Organisational structures and cross-functional teams 533 Teams and project management 534 Functional structures 534 Matrix structures 535 Corporate venturing 537 Project management 537 Reducing product development times through computer-aided design 538 The marketing/R&D interface 538 High attrition rate of new products 539 Case study: An analysis of 3M, the innovation company 542 Chapter summary 546 Discussion questions 547 Key words and phrases 547 Websites worth visiting 547 References 547 Further reading 549 Appendix: Guinness patent 550 Index 566
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:
Technological innovations -- Management.