Table of contents for Innovation management and new product development / Paul Trott.

Bibliographic record and links to related information available from the Library of Congress catalog.

Note: Contents data are machine generated based on pre-publication provided by the publisher. Contents may have variations from the printed book or be incomplete or contain other coding.

Preface	xvii
Foreword by Professor Guus Berkhout	xxi
Acknowledgements	xxiii
Plan of the book	xxiv
Part One Innovation management	1
1	Innovation management: an introduction	2
The importance of innovation	4
The study of innovation	6
Recent and contemporary studies	9
The need to view innovation in an organisational context	10
Individuals in the innovation process	11
Problems of definition and vocabulary	11
Entrepreneurship	12
Design	12
Innovation and invention	14
Successful and unsuccessful innovations	15
Different types of innovation	16
Technology and science	17
Popular views of innovation	19
Models of innovation	20
Serendipity	21
Linear models	21
Simultaneous coupling model	23
Interactive model	23
Innovation as a management process	24
A framework for the management of innovation	25
Open Innovation and the need to share and exchange knowledge 
 (network models)	27
Innovation and new product development	29
Case study: The success of the Ipod raises the licensing question for 
Apple . . . again	29
Chapter summary	36
Discussion questions	37
Key words and phrases	37
Websites worth visiting	37
References	38
Further reading	41
2	Economics and market adoption	42
Co-written with Ufuk M. ¿akmak¿, Department of Business, Istanbul Bilgi University, Turkey
Innovation in its wider context	44
The role of the state and national 'systems' of innovation	46
How national states can facilitate innovation	47
Fostering innovation in the United States and Japan	48
The right business environment is key to innovation	50
Waves of innovation and growth in capitalism: historical overview	50
Fostering innovation in 'late-industrialising' countries	52
Innovation and the market	54
Innovation and market vision	55
Innovative new products and consumption patterns	55
Marketing insights to facilitate innovation	57
Lead users	59
Innovation diffusion theories	59
Adopting new products and embracing change	62
Market adoption theories	63
Case study: The European Innovation Scoreboard	64
Chapter summary	68
Discussion questions	68
Key words and phrases	69
Websites worth visiting	69
References	69
Further reading	72
3	Managing innovation within firms	74
Organisations and innovation	76
The dilemma of innovation management	76
Managing uncertainty	77
Pearson's uncertainty map	77
Applying the uncertainty map to avoid promising success and 
 delivering failure	80
Organisational characteristics that facilitate the innovation process	81
Growth orientation	84
Organisational heritage and innovation experience	84
Vigilance and external links	85
Commitment to technology and R&D intensity	85
Acceptance of risks	86
Cross-functional cooperation and coordination within organisational structure	86
Receptivity	86
Space for creativity	86
Strategy towards innovation	87
Diverse range of skills	87
Industrial firms are different: a classification	90
Organisational structures and innovation	91
Formalisation	91
Complexity	91
Centralisation	92
Organisational size	92
The role of the individual in the innovation process	93
IT systems and their impact on innovation	94
Establishing an innovative environment and propagating this virtuous circle	96
Reputation of the organisation	97
Case study: Gore-Tex(r) and W.L. Gore & Associates: An innovative company and 
a contemporary culture	99
Chapter summary	103
Discussion questions	103
Key words and phrases	103
Websites worth visiting	103
References	104
Further reading	106
4	Innovation and operations management	108
Richard Noble, University of Portsmouth
Operations management	110
The nature of design and innovation in the context of operations	111
Design requirements	112
Design and volumes	114
Craft-based products	117
Design simplification	117
Process design and innovation	118
Innovation in the management of the operations process	119
Triggers for innovation	119
 Gap analysis	119
 Quality circles and process improvement teams	120
 Total quality management (TQM)	121
 Quality function deployment (QFD)	123
 The ISO 9000 approach	123
 The EFQM excellence model	123
Design of the organisation and its suppliers - supply chain management	124
Business process re-engineering (BPR)	128
Operations and technology	129
Innovation as an operations process itself	134
Case study: Novels, new products and Harry Potter	135
Chapter summary	141
Discussion questions	141
Key words and phrases	141
Websites worth visiting	142
References	142
Further reading	143
5	Managing intellectual property	144
Intellectual property	146
Trade secrets	148
An introduction to patents	148
Novelty	150
Inventive step	150
Industrial applications	150
Exclusions from patents	150
The patenting of life	151
Human genetic patenting	151
The configuration of a patent	152
Patent harmonisation: first to file and first to invent	153
Some famous patent cases	153
Patents in practice	154
Expiry of a patent and patent extensions	155
Patent extensions	157
The use of patents in innovation management	158
Do patents hinder or encourage innovation?	158
Trademarks	160
Should satisfy the requirements of section 1(1)	160
Distinctive	161
Non-deceptive	161
Not confusing	161
Brand names	163
Using brands to protect intellectual property	163
Exploiting new opportunities	164
Brands, trademarks and the Internet	165
Duration of registration, infringement and passing off	165
Registered designs	167
Copyright	167
Remedy against infringement	170
Damages	171
Injunction	171
Accounts	171
Counterfeit goods and IP	171
Case study: Pricing, patents and profits in the pharmaceutical industry	172
Chapter summary	176
Discussion questions	176
Key words and phrases	176
Websites worth visiting	176
References	177
Further reading	178
Part Two Managing technology and knowledge	179
6	Managing organisational knowledge	180
The battle of Trafalgar	182
Technology trajectories	182
The acquisition of firm-specific knowledge	183
The resource-based perspective	183
Dynamic competence-based theory of the firm	185
Developing firm-specific competencies	186
Competencies and profits	187
Technology development and effort required	188
The knowledge base of an organisation	189
The whole can be more than the sum of the parts	190
Organisational heritage	191
When the performance of the organisation is greater than the abilities 
 of individuals	191
Japanese organisations and the role of organisational knowledge	192
Characterising the knowledge base of the organisation	193
The learning organisation	194
A process of knowledge accumulation and application in innovative firms	195
Combining commercial and technological strengths: a conceptual approach 
 to the generation of new business opportunities	198
The degree of innovativeness	200
Leader/offensive	201
Fast follower/defensive	201
Cost minimisation/imitative	202
Market segmentation specialist/traditional	202
A technology strategy provides a link between innovation strategy and 
 business strategy	202
Case study: The cork industry, the wine industry and the need for closure	203
Chapter summary	212
Discussion questions	212
Key words and phrases	212
Websites worth visiting	212
References	213
Further reading	214
7	Strategic alliances and networks	216
Defining strategic alliances	218
The fall of the go-it-alone strategy and the rise of the octopus strategy	219
Complementary capabilities and embedded technologies	220
Interfirm knowledge-sharing routines	221
Forms of strategic alliance	221
Licensing	222
Supplier relations	222
Outsourcing	223
Joint venture	223
Collaboration (non-joint ventures)	223
R&D consortia	225
Industry clusters	225
Innovation networks	225
The 'virtual company'	228
Motives for establishing an alliance	229
The process of forming a successful strategic alliance	229
Risks and limitations with strategic alliances	231
The role of trust in strategic alliances	232
The concept of trust	233
Innovation risks in strategic outsourcing	234
The use of game theory to analyse strategic alliances	237
Game theory and the prisoner's dilemma	238
Use of alliances in implementing technology strategy	239
Case study: The Hollywood film industry and the role of knowledge network organisations	240
Chapter summary	244
Discussion questions	245
Key words and phrases	245
Websites worth visiting	245
References	245
Further reading	249
8	Management of research and development	250
What is research and development?	252
The traditional view of R&D	253
R&D management and the industrial context	253
R&D investment and company success	257
Classifying R&D	259
The operations that make up R&D	261
R&D management and its link with business strategy	263
Integration of R&D	264
Strategic pressures on R&D	265
The technology portfolio	266
The difficulty of managing capital-intensive production plants in a dynamic 
 environment	267
Which business to support and how?	268
Technology leverage and R&D strategies	269
Strengths and limitations of this approach	271
Allocation of funds to R&D	271
Setting the R&D budget	272
Level of R&D expenditure	274
Case study: The long and difficult 13-year journey to the marketplace for 
Pfizer's Viagra	275
Chapter summary	282
Discussion questions	282
Key words and phrases	283
Websites worth visiting	283
References	283
Further reading	284
9	Managing R&D projects	286
Successful technology management	288
The changing nature of R&D management	289
Organising industrial R&D	293
The acquisition of external technology	294
Level of control of technology required	295
Forms of external R&D	296
Effective R&D management	299
Managing scientific freedom	299
Skunk works	302
The link with the product innovation process	302
The effect of R&D investment on products	304
Evaluating R&D projects	305
Evaluation criteria	306
Case study: The role of clinical research in the pharmaceutical industry	309
Chapter summary	313
Discussion questions	314
Key words and phrases	314
Websites worth visiting	314
References	314
Further reading	317
10	Open innovation and technology transfer	318
Background	320
The dominant economic perspective	321
Open innovation	322
Introduction to technology transfer	323
Information transfer and knowledge transfer	324
Models of technology transfer	324
Licensing	324
Science park model	326
Intermediary agency model	326
Directory model	326
Knowledge Transfer Partnership model	327
Ferret model	327
Hiring skilled employees	327
Technology transfer units	327
Research clubs	328
European Space Agency (ESA)	328
Consultancy	328
Limitations and barriers to technology transfer	330
NIH syndrome	331
Internal organisational factors and inward technology transfer	331
Developing a receptive environment for technology transfer	332
Identifying external technology: the importance of scanning and networking	334
Linking external technology to internal capabilities	336
Managing the inward transfer of technology	336
Technology transfer and organisational learning	337
Case study: Sony-Ericsson mobile phone joint venture dependent on 
technology transfer	339
Chapter summary	346
Discussion questions	346
Key words and phrases	346
Websites worth visiting	347
References	347
Further reading	350
Part Three New product development	351
11	Product and brand strategy	352
Capabilities, networks and platforms	354
Product platforms	355
Product planning	357
Product strategy	360
Competitive strategy	360
Product portfolios	361
The competitive environment	362
Differentiation and positioning	363
Differentiation	363
Product positioning	365
Competing with other products	367
Managing brands	369
Brands and blind product tests	369
Brand strategy	371
Brand extensions	372
Market entry	375
Launch and continuing improvement	376
Withdrawing products	377
Managing mature products	379
Case study: The role of design in the development of a wheelchair for 
cerebral palsy sufferers	380
Chapter summary	383
Discussion questions	383
Key words and phrases	384
Websites worth visiting	384
References	384
Further reading	385
12	New product development	386
Innovation management and NPD	388
New products and prosperity	389
Considerations when developing an NPD strategy	390
Ongoing corporate planning	390
Ongoing market planning	391
Ongoing technology management	391
Opportunity analysis/serendipity	391
NPD as a strategy for growth	392
Market penetration	392
Market development	392
Product development	393
Diversification	393
A range of product development opportunities	393
What is a new product?	396
Defining a new product	398
Classification of new products	399
Repositioning and brand extensions	400
New product development as an industry innovation cycle	403
Overview of NPD theories	403
Models of new product development	407
Departmental-stage models	407
Activity-stage models and concurrent engineering	408
Cross-functional models (teams)	410
Decision-stage models	410
Conversion-process models	410
Response models	410
Network models	411
Case study: Launching innocent into the growing fruit smoothie market	412
Chapter summary	419
Discussion questions	420
Key words and phrases	420
Websites worth visiting	420
References	421
Further reading	423
13	Packaging and product development	424
Wrapping and packaging products	426
The basic principles of packaging	428
Protection	429
Containment	430
Identification	431
Labelling	431
Characteristics of packaging	433
Dispensing	434
Storage	434
Stability	434
Handling	434
Opening/resealing	435
After use and secondary use	435
Disposal	435
Product rejuvenation	437
New product opportunities through packaging	438
Product and pack size variation	439
Packaging systems	441
Retailer acceptance	442
Revitalising mature packaged goods	444
Case study: Halfords Motor Oil: redesign and rebranding of an existing product	445
Chapter summary	449
Discussion questions	449
Key words and phrases	450
Websites worth visiting	450
References	450
Further reading	451
14	New service innovation	452
The growth in services	454
Growth in knowledge-intensive business services (KIBS)	454
Outsourcing and service growth	455
Different types of services	458
Technology and new service development	460
New services and new business models	461
Characteristics of services and how they differ from products	462
Intangibility	462
Heterogeneity	463
Simultaneous production and consumption	464
Perishability	464
Classification of service innovations	464
The new service development process	466
New service development models	467
Sequential service development models or stage-gate models	467
Concurrent service development models	469
Service innovation and the consumer	470
Consumer user toolkits	471
Consumer testing of services	472
Case study: Developing new services at the world's most successful 
Internet-based company, eBay	473
Chapter summary	480
Discussion questions	481
Key words and phrases	481
Websites worth visiting	481
References	482
Further reading	485
15	Market research and its influence on new product 
development	486
Market research and new product development	488
The purpose of new product testing	489
Testing new products	490
Techniques used in consumer testing of new products	491
Concept tests	491
Test centres	492
Hall tests/mobile shops	492
Product-use tests	492
Trade shows	492
Monadic tests	492
Paired comparisons	493
In-home placement tests	493
Test panels	493
When market research has too much influence	493
Discontinuous new products	496
Market research and discontinuous new products	497
Circumstances when market research may hinder the development of 
 discontinuous new products	498
Technology-intensive products	499
Breaking with convention and winning new markets	500
When it may be correct to ignore your customers	503
Striking the balance between new technology and market research	504
The challenge for senior management	505
Case study: Dyson, Hoover and the bagless vacuum cleaner	506
Chapter summary	513
Discussion questions	514
Key words and phrases	514
Websites worth visiting	514
References	514
Further reading	516
16	Managing the new product development process	518
New products as projects	520
The key activities that need to be managed	521
Assembling knowledge	522
The generation of business opportunities	523
Developing product concepts: turning business opportunities into product 
 concepts	526
The screening of business opportunities	527
Development of product prototypes	529
Technical testing	530
Market testing and consumer research	530
Market introduction	532
NPD across different industries	532
Organisational structures and cross-functional teams	533
Teams and project management	534
Functional structures	534
Matrix structures	535
Corporate venturing	537
Project management	537
Reducing product development times through computer-aided design	538
The marketing/R&D interface	538
High attrition rate of new products	539
Case study: An analysis of 3M, the innovation company	542
Chapter summary	546
Discussion questions	547
Key words and phrases	547
Websites worth visiting	547
References	547
Further reading	549
Appendix: Guinness patent	550
Index	566

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Technological innovations -- Management.
Industrial management.
Product management.