Table of contents for Political science research methods / Janet Buttolph Johnson, H.T. Reynolds with Jason D. Mycoff.

Bibliographic record and links to related information available from the Library of Congress catalog.

Note: Contents data are machine generated based on pre-publication provided by the publisher. Contents may have variations from the printed book or be incomplete or contain other coding.


Counter
Contents
Tables, Figures, and Features
Preface
1. Introduction 1
Research on Winners and Losers in Politics 4
Who Votes, Who Doesn't? 8
Repression of Human Rights 11
A Look into Judicial Decision Making and Its Effects 12
Influencing Bureaucracies 15
Effects of Campaign Advertising on Voters 17
Research on Public Support for U.S. Foreign Involvement 20
Conclusion 23
Notes 24
Terms Introduced 26
2. Studying Politics Scientifically 27
Characteristics of Scientific Knowledge 28
	The Importance of Theory 35
Acquiring Empirical Knowledge: The Scientific Method 40
	Deduction and Induction 42
	The Scientific Method at Work 44
Is Political Science Really "Science"? 45
	Practical Objections 46
	Philosophical Objections 47
A Brief History of Political Science as a Discipline 49
	The Era of Traditional Political Science 49
	The Empirical Revolution 50
	Reaction to Empiricism 51
	Political Science Today: Peaceful Coexistence? 53
Conclusion 55
Notes 55
Terms Introduced 58
Suggested Readings 59
3. The Building Blocks of Social Scientific Research: Hypotheses, Concepts, and Variables 60
Specifying the Research Question 60
Proposing Explanations 65
Formulating Hypotheses 70
	Characteristics of Good Hypotheses 70
	Specifying Units of Analysis 77
	Cross-level Analysis: Ecological Inference and Ecological Fallacy 78
Defining Concepts 81
Conclusion 86
Notes 86
Terms Introduced 86
Suggested Readings 87
4. The Building Blocks of Social Scientific Research: Measurement 88
Devising Measurement Strategies 89
Examples of Political Measurements: Getting to Operationalization 92
The Accuracy of Measurements 94
	Reliability 94
	Validity 97
	Problems with Reliability and Validity in Political Science Measurement 102
The Precision of Measurements 104
	Levels of Measurement 105
	Working with Precision: Too Little or Too Much 108
Multi-item Measures 110
	Indexes 111
	Scales 113
Conclusion 118
Notes 118
Terms Introduced 120
Suggested Readings 121
5. Research Design 122
Causal Inferences and Controlled Experiments 123
	Causal versus Spurious Relationships 123
	Randomized Controlled Experiments 127
	Randomization and the Assignment of Subjects 132
Interpreting and Generalizing the Results of an Experiment 133
	Internal Validity 133
	External Validity 135
Other Versions of Experimental Designs 138
	Simple Post-test Design 138
	Repeated-Measurement Design 139
	Multigroup Design 140
	Field Experiments 142
Nonexperimental Designs 147
	Small-N Designs 148
	Cross-Sectional Designs: Surveys and Aggregate Data Analysis 155
	Large Longitudinal (Time Series) Designs 159
	Panel Studies 162
Alternative Research Strategies 166
	Formal Modeling 166
	Simulation 171
Conclusion 175
Notes 175
Terms Introduced 178
Suggested Readings 181
6. Conducting a Literature Review 182
Selecting a Research Topic 183
Why Conduct a Literature Review? 187
Collecting Sources for a Literature Review 188
	Identifying the Relevant Scholarly Literature 189
	Identifying Useful Popular Sources 193
	Reading the Literature 199
Writing a Literature Review 200
Anatomy of a Literature Review 202
Conclusion 207
Notes 207
Terms Introduced 207
Suggested Readings 208
7. Sampling 209
The Basics of Sampling 209
	Population or Sample? 211
	Fundamental Concepts 213
Types of Samples 216
	Simple Random Samples 217
	Systematic Samples 219
	Stratified Samples 220
	Cluster Samples 223
	Nonprobability Samples 225
Samples and Statistical Inference: A Gentle Introduction 227 
	Expected Values 229
	Measuring the Variability of the Estimates: Standard Errors 231
	Sampling Distributions 235
	How Large a Sample? 236
Conclusion 238
Notes 239
Terms Introduced 240
Suggested Readings 242
8. Making Empirical Observations: Direct and Indirect Observation 243
Types of Data and Collection Techniques 243
	Qualitative versus Quantitative Uses of Data 244
	Choosing among Data Collection Methods 245
Observation 248
Direct Observation 249
Indirect Observation 256
	Physical Trace Measures 256
	Validity Problems with Indirect Observation 258
Ethical Issues in Observation 258
Conclusion 261
Notes 262
Terms Introduced 264
Suggested Readings 265 		
9. Document Analysis: Using the Written Record 266
Types of Written Records 267
	The Episodic Record 267
	The Running Record 271
	The Running Record and Episodic Record Compared 276
	Presidential Job Approval 278
Content Analysis 282
	Content Analysis Procedures 282
	News Coverage of Presidential Campaigns 285
Advantages and Disadvantages of the Written Record 290
Conclusion 293
Notes 294
Terms Introduced 295
Suggested Readings 296
10. Survey Research and Interviewing 297
Fundamentals: Ensuring Validity and Reliability 299
Survey Research 302
	Types of Surveys 302
	Characteristics of Surveys 304
	Response Quality 313
	Survey Type and Response Quality 317
	Question Wording 319
	Question Type 324
	Question Order 328
	Questionnaire Design 331
Using Archived Survey Data 331
	Advantages of Using Archived Surveys 331
	Publicly Available Archives 333
Interviewing 338
	The Ins and Outs of Interviewing 340
Conclusion 344
Notes 344
Terms Introduced 349
Suggested Readings 350
Ch.11 Statistics: First Steps 351
The Data Matrix 352
	Data Description and Exploration 352
	Frequency Distributions, Proportions, and Percentages 355
Descriptive Statistics 360
	Measures of Central Tendency 361
	Measures of Variability or Dispersion 368
	Deviations from Central Tendency 373
Graphs for Presentation and Exploration 384
	Presentation Graphs: Bar Charts and Pie Diagrams 386
	Exploratory Graphs 387
Statistical Inference 393
	Hypothesis Testing 395
	Significance Tests of a Mean 406
Confidence Intervals and Confidence Levels: Reporting Estimates of Population Parameters 416
Conclusion 420
Notes 420
Terms Introduced 423
Suggested Readings 425
12. Investigating Relationships between Two Variables 426
The Basics of Identifying and Measuring Relationships 426
	Types of Relationships 427
	The Strength of Relationships 429
	Numerical Summaries: Measures of Association 430
Cross-tabulations of Nominal and Ordinal Variables 431
	A First Look at the Strength of a Relationship 434
	The Direction of a Relationship 437
	Coefficients for Ordinal Variables 439
	A Coefficient for Nominal Data 445
	Association in 2 x 2 Tables: The Odds Ratio 451
	Testing a Cross-tabulation for Statistical Significance 454
Analysis of Variance and the Difference of Means 462
	Difference of Means or Effect Size 463
	Difference of Proportions 471
	Analysis of Variance 473
Regression Analysis 477
	Scatterplots 477
	Matrix Plots 480
	Modeling Linear Relationships 482
	The Regression Model 483
	Interpretation of Parameters 485
	Measuring the Fit of a Regression Line 487
	The Correlation Coefficient 490
	Standardized Regression Coefficients 492
	Inference for Regression Parameters 495
	Regression Is Sensitive to Large Values 497
Conclusion 498
Notes 498
Terms Introduced 500
Suggested Readings 502
13. Multivariate Analysis 503
Multivariate Analysis of Categorical Data 504
Multiple Regression 514
	Interpretation of Parameters 516
	Dummy Variables 519
	Estimation and Calculation of a Regression Equation 521
	Standardized Regression Coefficients 521
	Measuring the Goodness of Fit 524
	Tests of Significance 525
Logistic Regression 526
	Estimating the Model's Coefficients 534
	Measures of Fit 534
	Significance Tests 537
	An Alternative Interpretation of Logistic Regression Coefficients 539
	A Substantive Example 542
Conclusion 545
Notes 546
Terms Introduced 548
Suggested Readings 549
14. The Research Report: An Annotated Example
Bias in Newspaper Photograph Selection
Conclusion
Appendix
Glossary
Index

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Political science -- Methodology.