Table of contents for Materials science for engineering students / Traugott Fischer.

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Table of Contents 
Part1. The Classes of Materials
Chapter 1.	TYPES OF MATERIALS; ELECTRON ENERGY BANDS AND 
CHEMICAL BONDS.
Introduction
Learning Objectives 
1.1. 	The classes of materials.
		The distinctive properties of metals, ceramics and polymers
1.2	The structure of atoms.
		The electrons in an atom
		The Pauli Exclusion Principle and the number of electrons in each 		
	orbital.
		Valence and core electrons.
1.3.	Atomic and molecular orbitals of electrons.
		The hydrogen molecule: energy levels and chemical bond
1.4	The electronic structure of the solid: energy bands and 	chemical bond.
1.5. 	Metals.
		Behavior of electrons in an unfilled band
		Electrical and optical properties
		The metallic bond and plastic deformation	
1.6. 	Ceramics
		Behavior of electrons in a filled band
		Electrical and optical properties
		Covalent, ionic and mixed bonds
		Mechanical properties of ceramics
		Geometry of sp3 hybrids and ceramic structures
1.7.	Polymers and Secondary Bonds
		Properties of polymers
		Thermoplastics and thermosets
		Composition and structure of polymers
		Chemical bonds inside the chains, electrical and optical properties
		Bonding between chains
		Mechanical properties and processing		
1.8.	Bond Energy and Interatomic Spacing 
		Interatomic forces and size of atoms
		Elasticity
		Thermal Expansion
1.9.	Structural and functional materials.
Summary
Key Terms
Additional Reading
Problems and Questions					
				
			
Part 2. Structural Materials 			
Chapter 2. THE STRENGTH OF MATERIALS.	
Introduction.
Learning Objectives
2.1.		Stresses and Strains
2.2.		Elastic deformation: Hooke's law, Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio
2.3.		The Tensile Test
2.4.		The Stress-Strain Curve
True Stress-True Strain and Engineering Stress and Strain
Ductility
	Resilience and Toughness
2.5.		Residual Stresses
2.6.		Hardness
2.7.		Fracture.
	Ductile Fracture of Metals.
	Brittle fracture of metals and ceramics.
	Cracks and stress concentrations
	Fracture Toughness.
2.8.	 	The measurement of fracture resistance
	Fracture toughness
	Indentation Toughness of Ceramics.
	Charpy and Izod Measurements of Notch Toughness.
	Rupture Strength of Ceramics.
2.9. 	Fatigue
2.10. 	Creep
	Steady State Creep.
	Creep Rupture
Summary
Key Terms
Additional Reading
Problems and questions					
Chapter 3. DEFORMATION OF METALS AND CRYSTAL STRUCTURE
Introduction						
Learning Objectives
3.1.		The plastic deformation of metals
3.2. 	The Crystal Structure of metals
	The Hexagonal Close Packed Structure (HCP).
	The Face Centered Cubic Structure
	The Body Centered Cubic Structure.
	Atomic Radii
	Atomic Packing Factor.
	The density of the material
	Allotropy of Polymorphism.
3.3	 	Coordinates of Atomic Positions, Directions and Planes in Crystal 
	Structures.
	Atomic Positions
	Directions
	Planes
3.4.	Dense planes and directions.
3.5. 	Theoretical Density of Solids.
3.6. 	Defects in Crystalline Solids.
	Point Defects.
	Dislocations
	Grain Boundaries
3.7 	Mechanisms of Plastic Deformation.
	Slip Systems.
	Deformation of a single crystal in a tensile test.
	Plastic deformation of polycrystalline materials.
	Dislocation Model of Plastic Deformation
Summary
Key Terms
Additional Reading
Problems and Questions					
Chapter 4. HOW TO STRENGTHEN METALS	
Introduction.
Learning Objectives
4.1.		Strength and Ductility
	Solution Strengthening
	Precipitation Hardening
	The strength of polycrystalline materials	
	Disordered Structures (martensite)	
	Grain Refinement
	Strain Hardening
4.2.		Toughness and Fracture Resistance
	Annealing
	Material Selection
	Residual Stresses		
	Fine Grain Structure
	Polished Surfaces
	Design to Avoid Stress Concentrations
4.3.	Fatigue Life
	Homogeneity of the Material
	Avoid Stress Concentrations
	Polished Surfaces 
	Residual Stresses
	Fine Grain Structure
	High-strength Surfaces
	Avoid corrosion
4.4.	Creep									
	
Summary
Key Terms
Additional Reading
Problems and Questions
Chapter 5.	 ALLOYS AND PHASE DIAGRAMS.				
Introduction.
Learning Objectives
5.1.	Phases, Components and Phase Diagrams.			
5.2.	Solid solutions.
5.3. 	Analysis of binary phase diagrams						
		Single Phase
		Two Phase Mixture, Tie Line Construction and Chemical Composition	
	Two Phase Mixture, Lever Rule and Relative Phase Amounts
		Coring
5.4.	Eutectics
		The formation of Precipitates
5.5.	Intermediate Compounds and Intermediate Phases.
5.6. 	Peritectic Solidification.
		The Cu-Zn Phase Diagram
5.7. 	The Iron - Carbon system.
Glossary
Summary
Key Terms
Additional Reading
Problems and Questions
Chapter 6. THERMAL PROCESSING AND THE USE OF REACTION 
KINETICS.	
Introduction.
Learning Objectives
6.1. 	Quenched and Tempered Steel.					
6.2. 	The kinetics of phase transformations.				
		Nucleation								 
		Diffusion Rates							
6.3.	The TTT diagram							
		Thermal Processing of Steel
		Hardenability
6.4.	Heat Treatment of Aluminum, Hardening by Precipitation.
		The Precipitation Hardening Treatment
		Some Precipitation-Hardened Alloys
Summary
Key Terms
Additional Reading
Problems and Questions
Chapter 7. 	FERROUS AND NON-FERROUS ALLOYS. 		
Introduction.
Learning Objectives
7.1. 	Introduction
7.2. 	Ferrous alloys. 							
		Steels 		
			Plain Carbon Steels
			High-Strength Low-Alloy Steels
			Stainless Steels
			Tool Steels
		Cast Iron
			Grey Cast Iron
			Nodular Cast Iron
			White Cast Iron
7.3. 	Non Ferrous Alloys
		Aluminum Alloys
		Copper Alloys
		Magnesium Alloys		
		Titanium Alloys
		Superalloys
7.4.	Solidification of Metals
		Casting
		Control of Grain Size
		Making Single Crystals
			The Czochralski Crystal Pulling Method
			Directional Solidification of Single-Crystal Turbine Blades		
7.5.	Surface Processing of Structural Materials
	Diffusion Treatments
		The Carburization of Steel
		The Mathematics of Diffusion
	Laser Hardening
	Coatings				
		Physical Vapor Deposition		
		Evaporation
		Sputtering
		Chemical Vapor Deposition
		Welded Coatings
		Thermal Spray Methods
		Galvanic Deposition
		Electroless Plating				
Summary
Key Terms
Additional Reading
Problems and Questions
 
Chapter 8. CERAMICS.							
Introduction.
Learning Objectives
8.1. 	The Types of Ceramics and Their Defining Properties
8.2. 	Traditional Ceramics
	Stone
	Clay Products
	Refractories
	Abrasives
8.3. 	Synthetic High-Performance Ceramics
8.4.	 	The Structure of Ceramics
	The diamond, zincblende and wurtzite structures
	The structure of compounds
		Coodination of Ions.
	Polymorphism or allotropy
8.5.		Glass
	Structure and Composition
	Solidification of Glassy Melts
8.6. 	Processing of Ceramics	
	Forming the Green Body
		Hand Forming		
		Slip Casting
		Pressing
		Extrusion
		Tape Casting
		Injection Molding
	Densification
		Firing
		Sintering
	Fabrication of Glass Objects
		Pressing
		Blowing
		Casting
		Rolling and Float Molding
		Tempered Glass
	Cement and Concrete
Summary
Key Terms
Additional Reading
Problems and Questions
Chapter 9. POLYMERS.						
Introduction.
Learning Objectives
9.1. 	Definition of a Polymer
	Molecular Weight
9.2. 	Polymers and Secondary Bonds, Thermoplastic
9.3. 	Thermosets
	Epoxy
	Unsaturated Polyester
9.4.		Rubber (elastomers)
	Vulcanization
9.5.		Copolymers
9.6.		Polymer Structure
	Amorphous Polymers	
	Crystalline Polymers
9.7.		Mechanical Behavior of Polymers
	Strength of Plastics
	Viscoelasticity of Elastomers
	Fracture of Polymers
	Creep of Polymers
9.8.		Applications of Polymers
9.9.		Synthesis of Polymers
	Addition Polymerization
	Condensation Polymerization
9.10.		Manufacture of Polymeric Objects
	Extrusion
	Injection Molding
	Blow Molding
	Compression Molding
	Calendering
	Thermoforming
Summary
Key Terms
Additional Reading
Problems and Questions							
 	
Chapter 10 COMPOSITES.						
Introduction.
Learning Objectives
10.1.		What are Composites?
10.2.		Polymer Matrix Composites
	Fiberglass
	Carbon and Other Fiber Composites
	Processing and Properties of Fibers
	Polymer Matrix Materials
10.3. 	Fabricating Polymer Composites
	Hand Lay Up Process
	The Spray Up Process
	Pulltrusion
	The Filament Winding Process
	Tape Prepregs
	Sheet Molding
	Injection Molding
10.4. 	Metal Matrix Composites
	Cermets
	Dispersion-Strengthened Alloys
	Fibrous Composites
10.5. 	Ceramic Matrix Composites
10.6. 	Mechanical Properties of Composites
	Young's Modulus
		Longitudinal Loading 
		Transverse Loading
	The Strength of Composites
	Continuous Fibers, Longitudinal Loading
		Effect of Fiber Length
		Transverse Loading
	Toughness of Ceramic Matrix Composites
10.7.		Concrete
	Reinforced Concrete
	Prestressed Concrete
10.8.		Wood
	The Nature of Wood
	Mechanical Properties of Wood			
	Plywood
Summary
Key Terms
Additional Reading
Problems and Questions
				
Part 3. Functional Materials 
Chapter 11. CONDUCTORS, INSULATORS AND SEMICONDUCTORS 
Introduction.
Learning Objectives
11.1.	Introduction
11.2.	Basic Concepts of Electric Conduction
	Ohm's Law					
	The Electric Current
11.3. 	The Density of Mobile Electrons and the Pauli Exclusion Principle
11.4. 	 Electron Scattering and the Electric Resistance of Metals
	Resistance Increase due to Impurity Scattering
	Temperature-Dependence of the Electric Resistance of Metals
	Superconductors
11.5.	Insulators
	Dielectric Strength
	Dielectric Constant
	Piezoelectricity
11.6.	Semiconductors
	n-type Semiconductors
	p-type Semiconductors
	Intrinsic Semiconductors
	The p-n Junction
	Applications of the p-n Junction
		Rectifier (The Diode)
		Electro-optical Devices
			The Photodiode
			The Solar Cell
			The Light-Emitting Diode (LED) and the Transistor
	Transistors
		The Bipolar Transistor
		The MOS Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET)
11.7.	Organic Semiconductors.
Summary
Key Terms
Additional Reading
Problems								
 
Chapter 12. FABRICATION OF INTEGRATED CIRCUITS AND MEMS 	
Introduction.
Learning Objectives
12.1. 	A Chip and its Millions of Transistors
12.2.	Growth of Silicon Single Crystals
12.3.	Photolithography
	Fabrication of a NMOS Field Effect Transistor 
12.4.	Packaging
12.5.	Oxide Layers
12.6.	Photoresist
12.7.	The Masks
12.8.	Etching
12.9.	Doping by Ion Implantation
	Compensation
12.10.	Deposition of Conducting and Insulating Layers
	Evaporation
	Sputtering
	Chemical Vapor Deposition
	Epitaxy
12.11.	MEMS (Micro-Electromechanical Systems)
	Sacrificial Layers
Summary
Key Terms
Additional Reading
Problems and Questions
Chapter 13.	OPTICAL MATERIALS					
Introduction.
Learning Objectives
13.1.		Uses of Optical Materials
13.2.		Light and Vision
13.3.		Interaction of Light with Electrons in Solids
	Absorption of Light
	Color
	Refraction
	Reflection of Light
		Metallic Mirrors
		Total Internal Reflection
		Jewels and Cut Glass
	Polarization
13.4.		Dielectric Optical Coatings
	Antireflection Coatings
	Dielectric Reflectors
	Filters
	Phosphors
13.5.		Electro-optical Devices
	The Photodiode
	The Solar Cell
	The Light-Emitting Diode (LED)
		Variable Energy Bandgaps
	The Solid State Laser
	Electroluminescent Light Sources
	The Organic Light-Emitting Diode (OLED)
13.6.		Optical Recording
13.7.		Optical Communications
	The Optical Fibers
		Light Transmission
		Loss Factor
		Absorption
		Fiber Fabrication
Summary
Key Terms
Additional Reading
Problems and Questions
Chapter 14. MAGNETIC MATERIALS					
Introduction.
Learning Objectives
14.1.	Uses of Magnetic Materials and Required Materials Properties
14.2.	Magnetic Fields, Induction and Magnetization
	Magnetic Fields
	Induction 
	Magnetization
	Hysteresis Curves
		Hysteresis Losses	
		Eddy Currents
	Soft Magnets
	Hard Magnets
		The BH Product of Hard Magnets 
14.3.		Ferromagnetism
	Magnetic Moments
		The Magnetic Moment of the Electron
		The Magnetic Moment of an Atom
	Ferromagnetism
	Ferrimagnetism
	Temperature Dependence of Magnetization
	Magnetic Domains
		Domain Walls
	Interaction of Domains with a Magnetic Field and Hysteresis Curve
14.4.		Processing and Properties of Magnetic Materials
	Soft Magnets
		Iron silicon
		Ferrites
		Metallic Glasses
	Hard Magnets
		Alnico
		Rare Earth Magnets
		Ferrites
14.5.		Illustration: Magnetic Recording
		Giant Magnetoresistance (GMR)
Summary
Key Terms
Additional Reading
Questions and Problems								
Chapter 15. 	BATTERIES							
Introduction.
Learning Objectives
15.1.	Batteries
15.2.	Principles of Electrochemistry
	Open Circuit Voltage
	Battery Discharge
	Charging the Battery
	Stored Charge and Power (Faraday's Law)
	Standard Electrode Potentials
15.3.		Primary Batteries
	The Leclanche Battery
	The Alkali Battery
	Lithium Batteries
		Soluble Cathode Lithium Batteries
15.4.		Secondary or Rechargeable Batteries
	The Lead Acid Battery
	The Nickel-Metal Hydride Battery
	The Rechargeable Lithium Ion Battery
15.5.		Fuel Cells
Summary
Key Terms
Additional Reading
Problems and Questions
Part 4. Environmental Interactions
Chapter 16. CORROSION AND WEAR				
Introduction
Learning Objectives
16.1.	Some Questions
16.2.	The Electrochemical Nature of Corrosion in Liquid Environments
16.3.	Non Standard Electrolytes
16.4.	Faraday's Law, Corrosion Rate
16.5.	Manifestations of Corrosion
	Galvanic (Two-Metal) Corrosion
	Cathodes in Aqueous Corrosion
	Surface Area of the Corroding Metals
16.6.	Corrosion Protection Through Sacrificial Anodes (Cathodic Protection)
16.7.	Single-Metal Corrosion
	Caused by the Metal
	Caused by the Electrolyte
	Crevice Corrosion
16.8.	Other Forms of Corrosion
	Chlorine
	Hydrogen
	Ammonia
16.9.	Preventing Corrosion through Design
16.10	.	Gaseous Oxidation
	Protective Oxide Layers
	Oxidation Rates
16.11.	Wear
	Adhesive Wear
	Abrasive Wear
	Fatigue Wear
	Corrosive Wear
	Fretting Wear
	Erosion
	Cavitation
	Wear in Cutting Tools
Summary
Key Terms
Additional Reading
Questions and Problems							
Chapter 17. BIOMATERIALS.					
Introduction.
Learning Objectives
17.1.	Introduction
	Requirements from Biomaterials
17.2.	Metals
	Stainless Steels
	Cobalt-Based Alloys
	Titanium Alloys
17.2.	Ceramics
	High-Density Alumina
	Hydroxyapatite
	Bioglass and Glass Ceramics
	Pyrloytic Carbon
17.3.	Polymers
	Thermoplastics
		UHMWPE
		PTFE
		PMMA (Lucite)
		Silicone
	Medical Fibers and Textiles
	Hydrogels
	Bioresorbable Polymers
		Polymer Scaffolds
Summary
Key Terms
Additional Reading
Problems and Questions
Part 5. Nanomaterials and the Study of Materials
18.	NANOMATERIALS					
Introduction
Learning Objectives 
18.1.	The Unique Properties of Nanomaterials
		Mechanical Properties
		Electronic Structure
		Optical Properties
		Magnetic Properties
18.2.	Nanostructured Metals and Composites
18.3.	Carbon Nanomaterials
	Fullerenes
	Graphene	
	Carbon Nanotubes
18.4.	Metallic Nanomaterials
	Metallic Nanoparticles
	Metallic Nanorods
18.5.	Semiconductor Nanoparticles - Quantum Dots
	Synthesis of Quantum Dots
	Applications
18.5.	Two-Dimensional Systems
18.6.	Safety Concerns
Summary
Key Terms
Additional Reading
Problems and Questions
Chapter 19. 	THE CHARACTERIZATION OF MATERIALS 
Introduction
Learning Objectives
19.1. 	Measuring Chemical Composition: Core Electron Spectroscopy.
	The X-ray Source
	Energy-Dispersed X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) in electron microscopes.
	X-Ray Fluorescence.
	Electron Energy-Loss Spectroscopy (EELS
19.2.	Determination of the Crystal Structure by Diffraction
	Diffraction
	X-ray Diffraction
	Electron Diffraction
19.3.	Microscopy
	The Optical Microscope
	The Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM
	The Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM)
	The Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope (STEM)
	The Scanning Probe Microscopes(SPM)
		The Scanning Tunneling Microscope
		The Atomic Fore Microscope
Summary
Key Terms
Additional Reading
Problems and Questions

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Materials science -- Textbooks.