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Table of Contents Part1. The Classes of Materials Chapter 1. TYPES OF MATERIALS; ELECTRON ENERGY BANDS AND CHEMICAL BONDS. Introduction Learning Objectives 1.1. The classes of materials. The distinctive properties of metals, ceramics and polymers 1.2 The structure of atoms. The electrons in an atom The Pauli Exclusion Principle and the number of electrons in each orbital. Valence and core electrons. 1.3. Atomic and molecular orbitals of electrons. The hydrogen molecule: energy levels and chemical bond 1.4 The electronic structure of the solid: energy bands and chemical bond. 1.5. Metals. Behavior of electrons in an unfilled band Electrical and optical properties The metallic bond and plastic deformation 1.6. Ceramics Behavior of electrons in a filled band Electrical and optical properties Covalent, ionic and mixed bonds Mechanical properties of ceramics Geometry of sp3 hybrids and ceramic structures 1.7. Polymers and Secondary Bonds Properties of polymers Thermoplastics and thermosets Composition and structure of polymers Chemical bonds inside the chains, electrical and optical properties Bonding between chains Mechanical properties and processing 1.8. Bond Energy and Interatomic Spacing Interatomic forces and size of atoms Elasticity Thermal Expansion 1.9. Structural and functional materials. Summary Key Terms Additional Reading Problems and Questions Part 2. Structural Materials Chapter 2. THE STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. Introduction. Learning Objectives 2.1. Stresses and Strains 2.2. Elastic deformation: Hooke's law, Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio 2.3. The Tensile Test 2.4. The Stress-Strain Curve True Stress-True Strain and Engineering Stress and Strain Ductility Resilience and Toughness 2.5. Residual Stresses 2.6. Hardness 2.7. Fracture. Ductile Fracture of Metals. Brittle fracture of metals and ceramics. Cracks and stress concentrations Fracture Toughness. 2.8. The measurement of fracture resistance Fracture toughness Indentation Toughness of Ceramics. Charpy and Izod Measurements of Notch Toughness. Rupture Strength of Ceramics. 2.9. Fatigue 2.10. Creep Steady State Creep. Creep Rupture Summary Key Terms Additional Reading Problems and questions Chapter 3. DEFORMATION OF METALS AND CRYSTAL STRUCTURE Introduction Learning Objectives 3.1. The plastic deformation of metals 3.2. The Crystal Structure of metals The Hexagonal Close Packed Structure (HCP). The Face Centered Cubic Structure The Body Centered Cubic Structure. Atomic Radii Atomic Packing Factor. The density of the material Allotropy of Polymorphism. 3.3 Coordinates of Atomic Positions, Directions and Planes in Crystal Structures. Atomic Positions Directions Planes 3.4. Dense planes and directions. 3.5. Theoretical Density of Solids. 3.6. Defects in Crystalline Solids. Point Defects. Dislocations Grain Boundaries 3.7 Mechanisms of Plastic Deformation. Slip Systems. Deformation of a single crystal in a tensile test. Plastic deformation of polycrystalline materials. Dislocation Model of Plastic Deformation Summary Key Terms Additional Reading Problems and Questions Chapter 4. HOW TO STRENGTHEN METALS Introduction. Learning Objectives 4.1. Strength and Ductility Solution Strengthening Precipitation Hardening The strength of polycrystalline materials Disordered Structures (martensite) Grain Refinement Strain Hardening 4.2. Toughness and Fracture Resistance Annealing Material Selection Residual Stresses Fine Grain Structure Polished Surfaces Design to Avoid Stress Concentrations 4.3. Fatigue Life Homogeneity of the Material Avoid Stress Concentrations Polished Surfaces Residual Stresses Fine Grain Structure High-strength Surfaces Avoid corrosion 4.4. Creep Summary Key Terms Additional Reading Problems and Questions Chapter 5. ALLOYS AND PHASE DIAGRAMS. Introduction. Learning Objectives 5.1. Phases, Components and Phase Diagrams. 5.2. Solid solutions. 5.3. Analysis of binary phase diagrams Single Phase Two Phase Mixture, Tie Line Construction and Chemical Composition Two Phase Mixture, Lever Rule and Relative Phase Amounts Coring 5.4. Eutectics The formation of Precipitates 5.5. Intermediate Compounds and Intermediate Phases. 5.6. Peritectic Solidification. The Cu-Zn Phase Diagram 5.7. The Iron - Carbon system. Glossary Summary Key Terms Additional Reading Problems and Questions Chapter 6. THERMAL PROCESSING AND THE USE OF REACTION KINETICS. Introduction. Learning Objectives 6.1. Quenched and Tempered Steel. 6.2. The kinetics of phase transformations. Nucleation Diffusion Rates 6.3. The TTT diagram Thermal Processing of Steel Hardenability 6.4. Heat Treatment of Aluminum, Hardening by Precipitation. The Precipitation Hardening Treatment Some Precipitation-Hardened Alloys Summary Key Terms Additional Reading Problems and Questions Chapter 7. FERROUS AND NON-FERROUS ALLOYS. Introduction. Learning Objectives 7.1. Introduction 7.2. Ferrous alloys. Steels Plain Carbon Steels High-Strength Low-Alloy Steels Stainless Steels Tool Steels Cast Iron Grey Cast Iron Nodular Cast Iron White Cast Iron 7.3. Non Ferrous Alloys Aluminum Alloys Copper Alloys Magnesium Alloys Titanium Alloys Superalloys 7.4. Solidification of Metals Casting Control of Grain Size Making Single Crystals The Czochralski Crystal Pulling Method Directional Solidification of Single-Crystal Turbine Blades 7.5. Surface Processing of Structural Materials Diffusion Treatments The Carburization of Steel The Mathematics of Diffusion Laser Hardening Coatings Physical Vapor Deposition Evaporation Sputtering Chemical Vapor Deposition Welded Coatings Thermal Spray Methods Galvanic Deposition Electroless Plating Summary Key Terms Additional Reading Problems and Questions Chapter 8. CERAMICS. Introduction. Learning Objectives 8.1. The Types of Ceramics and Their Defining Properties 8.2. Traditional Ceramics Stone Clay Products Refractories Abrasives 8.3. Synthetic High-Performance Ceramics 8.4. The Structure of Ceramics The diamond, zincblende and wurtzite structures The structure of compounds Coodination of Ions. Polymorphism or allotropy 8.5. Glass Structure and Composition Solidification of Glassy Melts 8.6. Processing of Ceramics Forming the Green Body Hand Forming Slip Casting Pressing Extrusion Tape Casting Injection Molding Densification Firing Sintering Fabrication of Glass Objects Pressing Blowing Casting Rolling and Float Molding Tempered Glass Cement and Concrete Summary Key Terms Additional Reading Problems and Questions Chapter 9. POLYMERS. Introduction. Learning Objectives 9.1. Definition of a Polymer Molecular Weight 9.2. Polymers and Secondary Bonds, Thermoplastic 9.3. Thermosets Epoxy Unsaturated Polyester 9.4. Rubber (elastomers) Vulcanization 9.5. Copolymers 9.6. Polymer Structure Amorphous Polymers Crystalline Polymers 9.7. Mechanical Behavior of Polymers Strength of Plastics Viscoelasticity of Elastomers Fracture of Polymers Creep of Polymers 9.8. Applications of Polymers 9.9. Synthesis of Polymers Addition Polymerization Condensation Polymerization 9.10. Manufacture of Polymeric Objects Extrusion Injection Molding Blow Molding Compression Molding Calendering Thermoforming Summary Key Terms Additional Reading Problems and Questions Chapter 10 COMPOSITES. Introduction. Learning Objectives 10.1. What are Composites? 10.2. Polymer Matrix Composites Fiberglass Carbon and Other Fiber Composites Processing and Properties of Fibers Polymer Matrix Materials 10.3. Fabricating Polymer Composites Hand Lay Up Process The Spray Up Process Pulltrusion The Filament Winding Process Tape Prepregs Sheet Molding Injection Molding 10.4. Metal Matrix Composites Cermets Dispersion-Strengthened Alloys Fibrous Composites 10.5. Ceramic Matrix Composites 10.6. Mechanical Properties of Composites Young's Modulus Longitudinal Loading Transverse Loading The Strength of Composites Continuous Fibers, Longitudinal Loading Effect of Fiber Length Transverse Loading Toughness of Ceramic Matrix Composites 10.7. Concrete Reinforced Concrete Prestressed Concrete 10.8. Wood The Nature of Wood Mechanical Properties of Wood Plywood Summary Key Terms Additional Reading Problems and Questions Part 3. Functional Materials Chapter 11. CONDUCTORS, INSULATORS AND SEMICONDUCTORS Introduction. Learning Objectives 11.1. Introduction 11.2. Basic Concepts of Electric Conduction Ohm's Law The Electric Current 11.3. The Density of Mobile Electrons and the Pauli Exclusion Principle 11.4. Electron Scattering and the Electric Resistance of Metals Resistance Increase due to Impurity Scattering Temperature-Dependence of the Electric Resistance of Metals Superconductors 11.5. Insulators Dielectric Strength Dielectric Constant Piezoelectricity 11.6. Semiconductors n-type Semiconductors p-type Semiconductors Intrinsic Semiconductors The p-n Junction Applications of the p-n Junction Rectifier (The Diode) Electro-optical Devices The Photodiode The Solar Cell The Light-Emitting Diode (LED) and the Transistor Transistors The Bipolar Transistor The MOS Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET) 11.7. Organic Semiconductors. Summary Key Terms Additional Reading Problems Chapter 12. FABRICATION OF INTEGRATED CIRCUITS AND MEMS Introduction. Learning Objectives 12.1. A Chip and its Millions of Transistors 12.2. Growth of Silicon Single Crystals 12.3. Photolithography Fabrication of a NMOS Field Effect Transistor 12.4. Packaging 12.5. Oxide Layers 12.6. Photoresist 12.7. The Masks 12.8. Etching 12.9. Doping by Ion Implantation Compensation 12.10. Deposition of Conducting and Insulating Layers Evaporation Sputtering Chemical Vapor Deposition Epitaxy 12.11. MEMS (Micro-Electromechanical Systems) Sacrificial Layers Summary Key Terms Additional Reading Problems and Questions Chapter 13. OPTICAL MATERIALS Introduction. Learning Objectives 13.1. Uses of Optical Materials 13.2. Light and Vision 13.3. Interaction of Light with Electrons in Solids Absorption of Light Color Refraction Reflection of Light Metallic Mirrors Total Internal Reflection Jewels and Cut Glass Polarization 13.4. Dielectric Optical Coatings Antireflection Coatings Dielectric Reflectors Filters Phosphors 13.5. Electro-optical Devices The Photodiode The Solar Cell The Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Variable Energy Bandgaps The Solid State Laser Electroluminescent Light Sources The Organic Light-Emitting Diode (OLED) 13.6. Optical Recording 13.7. Optical Communications The Optical Fibers Light Transmission Loss Factor Absorption Fiber Fabrication Summary Key Terms Additional Reading Problems and Questions Chapter 14. MAGNETIC MATERIALS Introduction. Learning Objectives 14.1. Uses of Magnetic Materials and Required Materials Properties 14.2. Magnetic Fields, Induction and Magnetization Magnetic Fields Induction Magnetization Hysteresis Curves Hysteresis Losses Eddy Currents Soft Magnets Hard Magnets The BH Product of Hard Magnets 14.3. Ferromagnetism Magnetic Moments The Magnetic Moment of the Electron The Magnetic Moment of an Atom Ferromagnetism Ferrimagnetism Temperature Dependence of Magnetization Magnetic Domains Domain Walls Interaction of Domains with a Magnetic Field and Hysteresis Curve 14.4. Processing and Properties of Magnetic Materials Soft Magnets Iron silicon Ferrites Metallic Glasses Hard Magnets Alnico Rare Earth Magnets Ferrites 14.5. Illustration: Magnetic Recording Giant Magnetoresistance (GMR) Summary Key Terms Additional Reading Questions and Problems Chapter 15. BATTERIES Introduction. Learning Objectives 15.1. Batteries 15.2. Principles of Electrochemistry Open Circuit Voltage Battery Discharge Charging the Battery Stored Charge and Power (Faraday's Law) Standard Electrode Potentials 15.3. Primary Batteries The Leclanche Battery The Alkali Battery Lithium Batteries Soluble Cathode Lithium Batteries 15.4. Secondary or Rechargeable Batteries The Lead Acid Battery The Nickel-Metal Hydride Battery The Rechargeable Lithium Ion Battery 15.5. Fuel Cells Summary Key Terms Additional Reading Problems and Questions Part 4. Environmental Interactions Chapter 16. CORROSION AND WEAR Introduction Learning Objectives 16.1. Some Questions 16.2. The Electrochemical Nature of Corrosion in Liquid Environments 16.3. Non Standard Electrolytes 16.4. Faraday's Law, Corrosion Rate 16.5. Manifestations of Corrosion Galvanic (Two-Metal) Corrosion Cathodes in Aqueous Corrosion Surface Area of the Corroding Metals 16.6. Corrosion Protection Through Sacrificial Anodes (Cathodic Protection) 16.7. Single-Metal Corrosion Caused by the Metal Caused by the Electrolyte Crevice Corrosion 16.8. Other Forms of Corrosion Chlorine Hydrogen Ammonia 16.9. Preventing Corrosion through Design 16.10 . Gaseous Oxidation Protective Oxide Layers Oxidation Rates 16.11. Wear Adhesive Wear Abrasive Wear Fatigue Wear Corrosive Wear Fretting Wear Erosion Cavitation Wear in Cutting Tools Summary Key Terms Additional Reading Questions and Problems Chapter 17. BIOMATERIALS. Introduction. Learning Objectives 17.1. Introduction Requirements from Biomaterials 17.2. Metals Stainless Steels Cobalt-Based Alloys Titanium Alloys 17.2. Ceramics High-Density Alumina Hydroxyapatite Bioglass and Glass Ceramics Pyrloytic Carbon 17.3. Polymers Thermoplastics UHMWPE PTFE PMMA (Lucite) Silicone Medical Fibers and Textiles Hydrogels Bioresorbable Polymers Polymer Scaffolds Summary Key Terms Additional Reading Problems and Questions Part 5. Nanomaterials and the Study of Materials 18. NANOMATERIALS Introduction Learning Objectives 18.1. The Unique Properties of Nanomaterials Mechanical Properties Electronic Structure Optical Properties Magnetic Properties 18.2. Nanostructured Metals and Composites 18.3. Carbon Nanomaterials Fullerenes Graphene Carbon Nanotubes 18.4. Metallic Nanomaterials Metallic Nanoparticles Metallic Nanorods 18.5. Semiconductor Nanoparticles - Quantum Dots Synthesis of Quantum Dots Applications 18.5. Two-Dimensional Systems 18.6. Safety Concerns Summary Key Terms Additional Reading Problems and Questions Chapter 19. THE CHARACTERIZATION OF MATERIALS Introduction Learning Objectives 19.1. Measuring Chemical Composition: Core Electron Spectroscopy. The X-ray Source Energy-Dispersed X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) in electron microscopes. X-Ray Fluorescence. Electron Energy-Loss Spectroscopy (EELS 19.2. Determination of the Crystal Structure by Diffraction Diffraction X-ray Diffraction Electron Diffraction 19.3. Microscopy The Optical Microscope The Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM The Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) The Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope (STEM) The Scanning Probe Microscopes(SPM) The Scanning Tunneling Microscope The Atomic Fore Microscope Summary Key Terms Additional Reading Problems and Questions
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:
Materials science -- Textbooks.