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Contents Preface Acknowledgements Contributors to Davidson¿s Principles and Practice of Medicine 1. Good medical practice 2. Ageing and disease 3. Critical care and emergency medicine 4. Poisoning 5. Infectious diseases 6. Critical biochemistry and metabolism 7. Kidney and urinary tract disease 8. Cardiovascular disease 9. Respiratory disease 10. Endocrine disease 11. Diabetes mellitus 12. Gastrointestinal and nutritional disorders 13. Liver and biliary tract disease 14. Blood disorders 15. Musculoskeletal disorders 16. Neurological disease 17. Skin disease 18. Therapeutics and prescriptions 19. Major investigations 20. OSCEs Index >/toc> Preface In the 56 years since Davidson¿s Principles and Practice of Medicine was first published, the rapid growth in the understanding of pathophysiology, in the variety of available diagnostic tests and in the range of possible treatments has posed an increasing challenge to those seeking to summarise clinical medicine in a single textbook. An inevitable consequence has been a parallel growth in the physical size of all the major textbooks, including Davidson¿s. This First Edition of Davidson¿s Essentials of Medicine seeks to complement the parent volume by helping those who also need portable information to study on the move ¿ whether commuting, travelling between training sites and during remote attachments and electives. For the first time, the core content from Davidson¿s 20th Edition has been updated and condensed to a size which can easily accompany readers on their travels. Although the text is concise, every effort has been made to maximise the readability and to avoid dry and unmemorable lists; then intention has been to produce a genuine miniature textbook. The text draws directly on the enormous depth and breadth of experience of the parent Davidson¿s writing team and presents the essential elements in a format to suit hand luggage. Key Davidson¿s illustrations have been adapted and retained, and several new ¿added value¿ sections have been included. A chapter on Major Investigations introduces the reader to the key diagnostic tests; examples of typical OSCE scenarios are illustrated to prepare the reader for this ubiquitous examination format; and a chapter on Therapeutics describes the typical clinical use of the major drug groups. In an age when on-line information is ever more accessible to doctors in training, most still agree that there is no substitute for the physical page when systematic study is needed. With this book, we hope that the proven value of the parent Davidson¿s can be augmented by making the essential elements accessible while on the move. First Editions are always written in a spirit of optimism, yet with the realisation that the enterprise is at best a judgement of the readers¿ needs. As such, your feedback and suggestions for improvement would be most welcome and valued. J.A.I. Edinburgh 2009 Acknowledgements I am very grateful to Nicki Colledge and Brian Walker for their invaluable help and guidance in the early stages of the project, to my enthusiastic team of chapter editors, and to the original Davidson¿s chapter authors without whom the project would not have been possible. Thanks also to Laurence Hunter, Clive Hewat and Wendy Lee at Elsevier for their constant support and meticulous attention to detail. Finally I would like to thank my family for their encouragement during the gestation of this book. J.A.I. Edinburgh 2009 Sir Stanley Davidson (1894¿1981) USE PHOTO IF SPACE Davidson¿s Principles and Practice of Medicine was the brainchild of one of the great Professors of Medicine of the 20th century. Stanley Davidson was born in Sri Lanka and began his medical undergraduate training at Trinity College, Cambridge; this was interrupted by World War I and later resumed in Edinburgh. He was seriously wounded in battle, and the carnage and shocking waste of young life that he encountered had a profound effect on his subsequent attitudes and values. In 1930 Stanley Davidson was appointed Professor of Medicine at the University of Aberdeen, one of the first full-time Chairs of Medicine anywhere and the first in Scotland. In 1938, he took up the Chair of Medicine at Edinburgh and was to remain in this post until retirement in 1959. He was a renowned educator and a particularly gifted teacher at the bedside, where he taught that everything had to be questioned and explained. He gave most of the systematic lectures in Medicine himself, which were made available as typewritten notes that emphasised the essentials and far surpassed any textbook available at the time. Principles and Practice of Medicine was conceived in the late 1940s with its origins in those lecture notes. The First Edition, published in 1952, was a masterpiece of clarity and uniformity of style. It was of modest size and price, but sufficiently comprehensive and up to date to provide students with the main elements of sound medical practice. More than half a century after its first publication, his book continues to inform and educate students, doctors and health professionals all over the world, and is the basis from which Davidson¿s Essentials of Medicine has been derived. Contributors to Davidson¿s Principles and Practice of Medicine The core of this book is based on the contents of Davidson's Principles and Practice of Medicine, with material extracted and re-edited to suit the format of this book. Although some chapters and topics have of necessity been cut or substantially edited, authors of all chapters drawn upon have been acknowledged here in recognition of their contribution to the parent textbook. Chris Allen MA MD FRCP Consultant Neurologist, Addenbrooke¿s Hospital, Cambridge, UK Jeffrey K. Aronson MA MBChB DPhil FRCP FBPharmacolS FFPM(Hon) Reader in Clinical Pharmacology, University of Oxford, UK Honorary Consultant Physician, Oxford Radcliffe Hospitals Trust, Oxford, UK Peter Bloomfield MD FRCP FACC Consultant Cardiologist, Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh; Honorary Senior Lecturer, University of Edinburgh, UK Nicholas A. Boon MD FRCP(Ed) FESC Consultant Cardiologist, Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh; Honorary Reader, University of Edinburgh, UK Andrew W. Bradbury BSc MB ChB MD MBA FRCS(Ed) Sampson Gamgee Professor of Vascular Surgery and Head of Educational Quality and Enhancement, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham; Consultant Vascular and Endovascular Surgeon, Heart of England NHS Foundation Trust, UK Leslie Burnett MB BS PhD FRCPA MAACB FHGSA Director and Chief Executive, Pathology North, Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney; Clinical Professor in Pathology, Northern Clinical School, University of Sydney; Adjunct Professor in Science and Technology, University of Technology, Sydney, Australia Mark Byers MRCGP DA DipIMC Lieutenant-Colonel, 3 Close Support Medical Regiment, Catterick Garrison, North Yorkshire, UK Roger William Chapman BSc MD(Lond) FRCP(Lond) Consultant Gastroenterologist/Hepatologist, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford; Honorary Senior Lecturer in Medicine, Oxford University Clinical Medical School, Oxford, UK Jane Collier MD FRCP Consultant Hepatologist, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, UK Jenny I.O. Craig MD FRCP(Ed) FRCPath Consultant Haematologist, Addenbrooke¿s Hospital, Cambridge, UK Allan D. Cumming MBChB MD FRCP(Ed) FRCP(Lond) Director of Undergraduate Learning and Teaching and Professor of Medical Education, University of Edinburgh; Consultant Renal Physician, Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, UK Martin Dennis MD FRCP(Ed) Professor of Stroke Medicine, University of Edinburgh, UK Michael Doherty MA MD FRCP Professor of Rheumatology, University of Nottingham; Consultant Rheumatologist, City Hospital, Nottingham, UK Michael John Field MD BS BSc FRACP Professor of Medicine, University of Sydney; Associate Dean and Head, Northern Clinical School, Royal North Shore Hospital of Sydney, Australia Miles Fisher MD FRCP(Glas) FRCP(Ed) Consultant Physician, Glasgow Royal Infirmary; Honorary Clinical Senior Lecturer, University of Glasgow, UK Brian M. Frier BSc(Hons) MD FRCP(Ed) FRCP(Glas) Consultant Physician, Department of Diabetes, Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh; Honorary Professor of Diabetes, University of Edinburgh, UK Jane Goddard PhD FRCP(Ed) Consultant Nephrologist, Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh; Honorary Senior Lecturer, University of Edinburgh, UK Ian S. Grant FRCP(Ed) FRCP(Glas) FFARCSI Consultant in Intensive Care Medicine and Anaesthesia, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh, UK Neil Grubb MD MRCP Consultant in Cardiac Electrophysiology, Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh; Honorary Senior Lecturer, University of Edinburgh, UK Phil Hanlon MD FRCP FFPH MRCGP Professor of Public Health, University of Glasgow, UK Peter Clive Hayes MD PhD FRCP Professor of Hepatology and Honorary Consultant Gastroenterologist, Scottish Liver Transplant Unit and Gastroenterology and Liver Unit, Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, UK J. Alastair Innes PhD FRCP(Ed) Consultant Physician and Honorary Reader in Respiratory Medicine, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh, UK George John MD FRACP FJFICM Professor of Medicine, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India Alison L. Jones BSc(Hons) MD FRCP(Ed) FRCP FiBiol Professor of Medicine and Clinical Toxicology, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, Australia Lakshman Karalliedde MBBS DA FRCA Medical Toxicologist, Chemical Hazards and Poisons Division, Health Protection Agency; Visiting Senior Lecturer, King¿s College London, Department of Public Health Sciences, School of Medicine, London, UK Peter C. Lanyon DM FRCP MRCGP Consultant Rheumatologist, University Hospital, Queen¿s Medical Centre, Nottingham, UK Diana N.J. Lockwood BSc MD FRCP Professor of Tropical Medicine, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine; Consultant Physician and Leprologist, Hospital for Tropical Diseases, London, UK Christopher A. Ludlam MBChB BSc PhD FRCP FRCPath Professor of Haematology and Coagulation Medicine, University of Edinburgh; Director, Haemophilia and Thrombosis Centre, Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, UK Christian J. Lueck PhD FRCP FRCP(Ed) FRACP Head, Department of Neurology, Canberra Hospital; Associate Professor, Australian National University Medical School, Canberra, Australia D.B.L. McClelland PhD(Leiden) FRCP FRCPath Consultant, Scottish National Blood Transfusion Service, Edinburgh, UK Sara Marshall MRCP(Eire) FRCPath(UK) PhD Professor of Clinical Immunology, University of Dundee, UK David E. Newby PhD DM FRCP Professor of Cardiology, University of Edinburgh, UK David Richard Oxenham FRCP(Ed) FAChPM Medical Director, Marie Curie Hospice, Edinburgh; Honorary Senior Lecturer, University of Edinburgh, UK Kelvin R. Palmer MD FRCP(Ed) FRCP(Lond) FRCS(Ed) Consultant Gastroenterologist, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh, UK Simon Paterson-Brown MS MPhil FRCS Consultant General and Upper Gastrointestinal Surgeon, Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, UK Honorary Senior Lecturer, University of Edinburgh, UK Ian D. Penman MD FRCP(Ed) Consultant Gastroenterologist, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh; part-time Senior Lecturer, University of Edinburgh, UK Stephen Potts MA MRCPsych Consultant Liaison Psychiatrist, Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh; Honorary Senior Clinical Lecturer, University of Edinburgh, UK Stuart H. Ralston MD FRCP FMedSci FRSE ARC Professor of Rheumatology, University of Edinburgh; Honorary Consultant Rheumatologist, NHS Lothian, Edinburgh, UK Jonathan L. Rees BMedSci FRCP FRCP(Ed) FMedSci Grant Chair of Dermatology, University of Edinburgh; Honorary Consultant, Lothian Health, University Hospitals Division, Edinburgh, UK Peter T. Reid MD FRCP(Ed) Consultant Physician and Honorary Senior Lecturer in Respiratory Medicine, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh, UK Olivia M.V. Schofield FRCP(Ed) Consultant Dermatologist, Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, UK Gordon R. Scott BSc FRCP Consultant in Genitourinary Medicine and Honorary Senior Lecturer, University of Edinburgh, UK Michael C. Sharpe MA MD FRCP FRCP(Ed) FRCPsych Professor of Psychological Medicine and Symptoms Research, University of Edinburgh, UK Laurence H. Stewart MD FRCS(Ed) FRCS(Urol) Consultant Urological Surgeon, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh, UK Peter Stewart FRACP FRCPA MBA Clinical Director, Sydney South West Pathology Service; Associate Professor of Biochemistry, University of Sydney, Australia Mark W.J. Strachan BSc(Hons) MD FRCP(Ed) Consultant Physician, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh; Part-time Senior Lecturer, University of Edinburgh, UK David Richmond Sullivan FRACP FRCPA Senior Staff Specialist, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Camperdown, New South Wales; Clinical Associate Professor, University of Sydney, Australia Christopher B. Summerton MA MD FRCP FRCP(Ed) Consultant in Gastroenterology and General Medicine, Trafford Healthcare NHS Trust, Manchester, UK Shyam Sundar MD FRCP(Lond) FAMS FNA Professor of Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, India W.T. Andrew Todd BSc FRCP FRCPS(Glas) Consultant Physician, Lanarkshire Area Infectious Diseases Unit, Monklands Hospital, Airdrie; Honorary Senior Lecturer, University of Glasgow, UK David F. Treacher MA FRCP Consultant Physician in Intensive Care, Guy¿s and St Thomas¿ NHS Trust, London, UK Neil Turner PhD FRCP Professor of Nephrology, University of Edinburgh; Honorary Consultant Nephrologist, Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, UK Ed Wilkins FRCP FRCPath Consultant Physician in Infectious Diseases, North Manchester General Hospital, Manchester, UK
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