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Contents Acknowledgments About the Author Introduction 1. Examining the Many Purposes of Assessment Demystify Performance-based Assessments Define Performance-based Assessments Involve Learning Options and Opportunities Incorporate Teaching Principles and Practices Meet Six Components of Assessment Know Your Learners Reflect on Your Practices Clarify Functions of Learner Achievement Picture the Continuous Flow of Assessment Start with Assessments and Objectives Differentiate Assessment from Evaluation Connect with Accountability Know the reasons for selecting your assessments 2. Planning Assessments to Promote Understanding Use Formal and Informal Assessments Reflect on Understanding Conduct Assessments at Multiple Times Consider All Kinds of Evidence Become a Data-Driven Teacher Balance Quantitative with Qualitative Data Itemize Criterion-referenced Assessments Describe Norm-referenced Assessments Justify Validity and Reliability Ensure Salience and Fairness Separate Objectivity from Subjectivity Watch Out for Errors in Assessing Visualize the overall process . . . 3. Collecting Baseline Data for Preassessments Set Three Goals to Guide Your Preassessments Know Where to Begin the Learning Plan Where to Begin Your Teaching Establish a Foundation to Note Progress Question Each of the Six Components of Assessment Gather Baseline Data Be Aware of Your Rater Reliability Generate Preassessment Ideas Investigate the Three Spheres of Learning Keep Anecdotal Records Follow These Guidelines As You Preassess Realize that assessment is a continuous process . . . 4. Aligning Appropriate Formative Assessments Consider the Six Components of Assessment Design Your Curriculum Start with the End Organize Outcomes and Coordinate Levels Align Assessments with Curriculum and Instruction Develop Your Assessments Include All Kinds of Questions Pose Powerful Questions Try Socratic Questioning Follow Strategic Guidelines Explore Cognition via Patterns of Thought Consider Sequential and Spatial Thinking Promote Deductive and Inductive Thinking Remember Divergent and Convergent Thinking Plan with competence and confidence . . . 5. Incorporating Learning, Feedback, and Correction Assign Your Instruction and Activities Scaffold the Learning Spiral Prior Learning Compact Learning Logically Integrate Learning across the Curriculum Offer Project-based Learning Explore Holistic Learning Try Constructivist Learning Employ Multiple Instructional Strategies Consider These Assessment Recommendations Optimize the Feedback Refine Correction and Redirection Respond to Interventions Involve Your Learners in the Process Have fun with formative assessments . . . 6. Administering Summative Assessments Diversify Your Summative Assessments Write Meaningful and Purposeful Assessments Prepare Learners for Summative Assessments Score Assessments Objectively Organize Projects and Presentations Feature Portfolios Understand Standardized Testing Set Your Sights on Five Essential Guidelines Strive for Academic Rigor Promote Active Learning and Assessments Ensure Authentic Outcomes Include Alternative Approaches Showcase Achievement Continue the assessment cycle . . . 7. Identifying What to Assess: Inviting the Five Types of Inquiry and Information Introducing the Five Types of Inquiry Note Immediate, Continuous, and Unending Learning Rely on Recognition and Recall Promote Logic and Reasoning Analyze Skills and Applications Demonstrate Productivity and Creativity Explain Outlooks and Dispositions Balance Three Conditions with Types of Inquiry Delve into Responses Enhance Variety in Your Inquiries Include all types of thinking, acting, and feeling . . . 8. Analyzing How to Assess: Applying the Five Forms of Appraisal and Authentication Analyze the Five Forms of Appraisal Identify Your Appraisal Purpose Include Various Appraisal Tasks Pick Selected Answers Use Written Responses Show Demonstrated Performances Express Spoken Communications Integrate Combined Forms of Appraisals Clarify Directions Seek a Balance Give Learners Choices Develop appraisals to showcase learning . . . 9. Creating Assessment Templates and Rubrics Construct the Template Complete a Sample Template Examine Template Examples Build Rubrics Follow the 3 x 3 x 3 Model Use All Kinds of Rubrics Score Your Rubrics Collaborate with Learners Let Learners Self-Assess and Peer Assess Use Rubrics to Report to Parents Let your templates and rubrics do the work for you . . . 10. Conducting Evaluations and Accountability Prepare to Evaluate Outcomes Establish Evaluation Criteria Focus on Learners Plan Your Grading Procedures Account for Progress Document and Maintain Record Report Outcomes Concentrate on Yourself Understand Teachers? Practices Reflect on Your Practices Develop a performance-based assessment mindset . . . Appendices A. Standards for the Educational Assessment of Students B. Domains and Taxonomies C. Poem D. Websites E. References and Readings
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:
Educational tests and measurements -- United States.
Competency-based educational tests -- United States.
School children -- Rating of -- United States.