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Contents Introduction and Rationale Part I. Terrorism: A Conceptual Review 1. Terrorism: First Impressions OPENING VIEWPOINT: THE IDEOLOGY OF AL QAEDA First Considerations An Overview of Extremism and Terrorism Terrorism at First Glance Sources of Extremism and Terrorism Recent Attacks in the United States: Symbolism and Aftermath The Significance of Symbolism The Oklahoma City Bombing September 11, 2001 Reorganization of Homeland Security and Intelligence in the United States CHAPTER PERSPECTIVE 1.1. WAGING WAR IN THE ERA OF THE NEW TERRORISM Terrorism and Criminal Skill: Three Cases in Point Case 1: Richard Baumhammers Case 2: Theodore ?Ted? Kaczynski Case 3: Ramzi Yousef Conceptual Considerations: Understanding Political Violence Political Violence: Mala in Se or Mala Prohibita? The Just War Doctrine The Past as Prologue: Historical Perspectives on Terrorism Antiquity The Roman Age The Ancient and Medieval Middle East The French Revolution: Prelude to Modern Terrorism CHAPTER PERSPECTIVE 1.2. THE GUNPOWDER PLOT OF GUY FAWKES Nineteenth-Century Europe: Two Examples From the Left The Modern Era and the War on Terrorism Chapter Summary Key Terms and Concepts Recommended Web Sites and Web Exercise Recommended Readings Discussion Box: Total War 2. The Nature of the Beast: Defining Terrorism OPENING VIEWPOINT: ARE ?HATE CRIMES? ACTS OF TERRORISM? Understanding Extremism: The Foundation of Terrorism Defining Extremism Common Characteristics of Violent Extremists The World of the Extremist Defining Terrorism: An Ongoing Debate A Sampling of Formal Definitions The American context: Defining Terrorism in the United States CHAPTER PERSPECTIVE 2.1. THE PROBLEM OF LABELING THE ENEMY IN THE NEW ERA OF TERRORISM Types of Terrorism A Definitional Problem: Perspectives on Terrorism Perspective 1:Four Quotations Perspective 2 : Participants in a Terrorist Environment Perspective 3: Terrorism or Freedom Fighting? Perspective 4: Extremism or ?Mainstreamism?? The Political Violence Matrix Combatants, Noncombatants, and the Use of Force Chapter Summary Key Terms and Concepts Recommended Web Sites and Web Exercise Recommended Readings Discussion Box: Cold War Revolutionaries 3. Beginnings: The Causes of Terrorism OPENING VIEWPOINT: THE CASE OF CARLOS Political Violence as the Fruit of Injustice Intergroup Conflict and Collective Violence: Sociological Explanations of Terrorism Rationality and Terrorist Violence: Psychological Explanations of Terrorism CHAPTER PERSPECTIVE 3.1. PROFILES OF VIOLENT EXTREMISTS: LEILA KHALED AND ABU NIDAL CHAPTER PERSPECTIVE 3.2. WOMEN AS TERRORISTS Political Violence as Strategic Choice Making Revolution: Acts of Political Will Lighting the Fuse: Adversaries in the War on Terrorism The Morality of Political Violence Moral Convictions of Terrorists CHAPTER PERSPECTIVE 3.3. A VIET CONG DIRECTIVE ORDERING SELECTIVE TERRORISM Simplified Definitions of Good and Evil Seeking Utopia Codes of Self-Sacrifice Understanding Codes of Self-Sacrifice Chapter Summary Key Terms and Concepts Recommended Web Sites and Web Exercise Recommended Readings Discussion Box: Bloody Sunday and Black September Part II. The Terrorists 4. Terror From Above: State Terrorism OPENING VIEWPOINT: STATE TERRORISM AS DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN POLICY The State as Terrorist: A State Terrorism Paradigm Understanding State-Sponsored Terrorism State Sponsorship: The Patronage Model State Sponsorship: The Assistance Model CHAPTER PERSPECTIVE 4.1. CHAOS AS LIBERATION: STATE REPRESSION IN ZIMBABWE Violence Abroad: State Terrorism as Foreign Policy Moral Support: Politically Sympathetic Sponsorship Technical Support: Logistically Supportive Sponsorship Selective Participation: Episode-Specific Sponsorship Active Participation: Joint Operations CHAPTER PERSPECTIVE 4.2. CALCULATION OR MISCALCULATION? THE THREAT FROM WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION AND THE IRAQ CASE Violence at Home: State Terrorism as Domestic Policy Legitimizing State Authority Unofficial Repression: Vigilante Domestic State Terrorism Repression as Policy: Official Domestic State Terrorism CHAPTER PERSPECTIVE 4.3. CLEANSING SOCIETY Mass Repression: Genocidal Domestic State Terrorism CHAPTER PERSPECTIVE 4.4. THE ANFAL CAMPAIGN: GENOCIDAL STATE TERRORISM IN IRAQ CHAPTER PERSPECTIVE 4.5. THE KHMER ROUGE: GENOCIDAL STATE TERRORISM IN CAMBODIA Postscript: Death Squads in Latin America The Problem of Accountability: Monitoring State Terrorism Chapter Summary Key Terms and Concepts Recommended Web Sites and Web Exercise Recommended Readings Discussion Box: Authoritarianism and Democracy 5. Terror From Below: Dissident Terrorism OPENING VIEWPOINT: THE TUPAMAROS The Rebel as Terrorist: A Dissident Terrorism Paradigm Revolutionary Dissident Terrorism: A Clear World Vision Nihilist Dissident Terrorism: Revolution for the Sake of Revolution Nationalist Dissident Terrorism: The Aspirations of a People Revolutionaries, Nihilists, and Nationalists: Freedom Fighters? CHAPTER PERSPECTIVE 5.1. CHECHEN TERRORISM IN RUSSIA Warring Against the State: Antistate Dissident Terrorism Intensities of Conflict: Antistate Terrorist Environments Defeat Is Unthinkable: The Terrorists? Faith in Victory Warring Against a People: Communal Terrorism Ethno-Nationalist Communal Terrorism CHAPTER PERSPECTIVE 5.2. THE PALESTINIAN MOVEMENT Religious Communal Terrorism Ideological Communal Terrorism Operational Shifts: Dissidents and the New Terrorism The New Dissident Terrorist Morality CHAPTER PERSPECTIVE 5.3. CHILD SOLDIERS Terrorist Cells and Lone Wolves: New Models for a New War Chapter Summary Key Terms and Concepts Recommended Web Sites and Web Exercise Recommended Readings Discussion Box: The Tamil Tigers 6. Violence in the Name of the Faith: Religious Terrorism OPENING VIEWPOINT: THE JOURNEY OF ABU MUSAB AL-ZARQAWI Primary and Secondary Motives: The Idiosyncratic Quality of Religious Terrorism Understanding Jihad as a Primary Religious Motive: An Observation and Caveat CHAPTER PERSPECTIVE 6.1. JIHAD: STRUGGLING IN THE WAY OF GOD A Case of Secondary Religious Motive: The Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion CHAPTER PERSPECTIVE 6.2. THE PROTOCOLS OF THE LEARNED ELDERS OF ZION: A CONSPIRACY OF THE EXTREME RIGHT CHAPTER PERSPECTIVE 6.3. HOLOCAUST DENIAL Historical Cases in Point: Fighting, Dying, and Killing in the Name of the Faith Judeo-Christian Antiquity CHAPTER PERSPECTIVE 6.4. THE CONQUEST OF CANAAN Christian Crusades The Assassins A Secret Cult of Murder Modern Arab Islamist Extremism Cult Case: Mysticism and Rebellion in Uganda State-Sponsored Religious Terrorism in the Modern Era National Case: Iran Regional Case: Pakistan and India Dissident Religious Terrorism in the Modern Era Regional Case: Religious Zealotry in the Middle East Movement Case: The International Mujahideen?Holy Warriors for the Faith Organization Case: Al Qaeda?s Religious Foundation National Case: The Algerian Jihadis Cult Case: Aum Shinriky? (Supreme Truth) The Future of Religious Terrorism Chapter Summary Key Terms and Concepts Recommended Web Sites and Web Exercise Recommended Readings Discussion Box: The One True Faith 7. Violent Ideologies: Terrorism from the Left and Right OPENING VIEWPOINT: RACIST SKINHEADS AS A SUPPORTIVE ENVIRONMENT CHAPTER PERSPECTIVE 7.1. THE RACIST SKINHEAD COUNTERCULTURE Reactionaries and Radicals: The Classical Ideological Continuum An Ideological Analysis: From the Left Fringe to the Right Fringe Ideologies and Ideals CHAPTER PERSPECTIVE 7.2. THE SPANISH FALANGE: A MODEL FOR FASCISM Left-Wing Ideologies and Activism CHAPTER PERSPECTIVE 7.3. REQUIRED READING ON THE ?NEW LEFT? For the Exploited: Class Struggle For the People: Leftist Nationalism Special-Interest Extremism Problems on the Radical Left CHAPTER PERSPECTIVE 7.4. SUPPORTIVE ENVIRONMENTS ON THE LEFT?PARIS IN 1968 Class Struggle and National Liberation: The Terrorist Left CHAPTER PERSPECTIVE 7.5.VANGUARD THEORY Regional Case: Latin America Regional Case: Europe Right-Wing Activism and Extremism Violent Reactionaries: Characteristics of the Extreme Right Political Parties and Dissident Movements Tradition and Order Right-Wing Nationalism Religion and Mysticism Race and Order: The Terrorist Right CHAPTER PERSPECTIVE 7.6. VIOLENT REACTIONARIES: CHARACTERISTICS OF THE EXTREME RIGHT Regional Case: Europe Violent Ideologies in the New Era of Terrorism The ?New Terrorism? The Terrorist Left in the New Era The Terrorist Right in the New Era Chapter Summary Key Terms and Concepts Recommended Web Sites and Web Exercise Recommended Readings Discussion Box 7.1: Young Nationalist Idealists Discussion Box 7.2: Order From Chaos 8. Terrorist Spillovers: International Terrorism OPENING VIEWPOINT: TERRORISM IN THE AGE OF GLOBALIZATION CHAPTER PERSPECTIVE 8.1. THE CHANGING ENVIRONMENT OF INTERNATIONAL TERRORISM Defining International Terrorism Expanding the Struggle: The Spillover Effect Unambiguous International Implications Terrorist Environments and International Terrorism Globalized Revolution: Reasons for International Terrorism Ideological Reasons: Modern ?isms? and International Revolutionary Solidarity CHAPTER PERSPECTIVE 8.2: COOPERATION BETWEEN TERRORISTS: THE EUROPEAN CONNECTION Practical Reasons: Perceived Efficiency Tactical Reasons: Adaptations of Revolutionary Theory to International Operations Historical Reasons: Perceptions of International Terrorism Globalized Solidarity: International Terrorist Networks CHAPTER PERSPECTIVE 8.3. A REMARKABLE EXAMPLE OF INTERNATIONAL TERRORISM: THE JAPANESE RED ARMY AND THE LOD (LYDDA) AIRPORT MASSACRE Cold War Terrorist-Networking Theory International Terrorist Environments The International Dimension of the New Terrorism Movement Case: The Afghan Arabs at War Organization Case: Al Qaeda and International Terrorism CHAPTER PERSPECTIVE 8.4. BEYOND AL QAEDA Incident Case: The Madrid Train Bombings Incident Case: The London Transportation System Attacks Wartime Case: Terrorist Violence in Iraq Postscript: The ?Stateless Revolutionaries? Chapter Summary Key Terms and Concepts Recommended Web Sites and Web Exercise Recommended Readings Discussion Box: Understanding Terrorist ?Spillovers?: Middle Eastern and North African Spillovers in Europe 9. Emerging Terrorist Environments: Gender-Selective Political Violence and Criminal Dissident Terrorism OPENING VIEWPOINT: THE JANJAWEED CAMPAIGN AGAINST ?ENEMY? WOMEN IN DARFUR, SUDAN Culture and Conflict: Gender-Selected Victims of Terrorist Violence Gender-Selective Terrorism Against Men Background to Terrorism Against Women: Cultural Repression and Violence An Emerging Recognition: Terrorism Against Women Responding to Gender-Selective Political Violence Protecting the Enterprise: Criminal Dissident Terrorism The Criminal and Political Terrorism Nexus CHAPTER PERSPECTIVE 9.1: THE BEKA?A VALLEY Traditional Criminal Enterprises Criminal-Political Enterprises Case in Point: The Logic of Narco-Terrorism A Global Problem: Regional Cases of Criminal Dissident Terrorism Regional Case: Asia Regional Case: Europe Regional Case: Latin America Chapter Summary Key Terms and Concepts Recommended Web Sites and Web Exercise Recommended Readings Discussion Box: Political Violence Against Women: Gender Communal Terrorism? Part III. The Terrorist Trade 10. Tools of the Trade: Tactics and Targets of Terrorists OPENING VIEWPOINT: THE ENGINEER The Purpose: Terrorist Objectives Typical Objectives Playing to the Audience: Objectives, Victims, and Constituencies The New Terrorism and New Objectives The Means: Terrorist Methods Concept: Asymmetrical Warfare An Introduction to Common Methods of Terrorists Weapons Old and New CHAPTER PERSPECTIVE 10.1. THE AL QAEDA ?TERRORIST MANUAL? The Focus: Terrorist Targets The Symbolism of Targets CHAPTER PERSPECTIVE 10.2. THE SYMBOLISM OF TARGETS: TERRORIST ATTACKS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES The Outcome: Is Terrorism Effective? Media and Political Attention Having an Impact on an Audience CHAPTER PERSPECTIVE 10.3. TACTICAL HORROR: DIGITAL, VIDEO, AND AUDIO TERRORISM Forcing Concessions From an Enemy Interest Disruption of Normal Routines Provoking the State to Overreact Effective Terrorism: The King David Hotel Bombing Chapter Summary Key Terms and Concepts Recommended Web Sites and Web Exercise Recommended Readings Discussion Box: Attacks Against the U.S. Marine and French Paratrooper Headquarters in Beirut 11. The Information Battleground: Terrorist Violence and the Role of the Media OPENING VIEWPOINT: MEDIA-ORIENTED TERROR AND LEBANON?S HEZBOLLAH Two Perspectives: The Media and Governments The Perspective of the Media The Perspective of Governments Exploring the Role of the Media Publicizing the Cause Spreading the Word: Mass Communications and the Terrorists? Message CHAPTER PERSPECTIVE 11.1. DELIVERING THE MESSAGE No More Printing Presses: Mass Communications and the ?New Media? Truth and Consequences: The Reporting of Terrorism A New Battleground: The War for the Information High Ground Practical Considerations: Using the Media Information Is Power: The Media as a Weapon Problems on the New Battleground: The Risk of Backlash The Public?s Right to Know: Regulating the Media The Free Press CHAPTER PERSPECTIVE 11.2. SELF-REGULATION AND THE AMERICAN MEDIA The State-Regulated Press Chapter Summary Key Terms and Concepts Recommended Web Sites and Web Exercise Recommended Readings Discussion Box: Freedom of Reporting and Security Issues Part IV. Final Analysis 12. The American Case: Terrorism in the United States OPENING VIEWPOINT: LYNCHING?VIGILANTE COMMUNAL TERRORISM IN THE UNITED STATES An Introduction to the American Case CHAPTER PERSPECTIVE 12.1. AMERICAN CULTS AND TERRORIST VIOLENCE Weighing the Origins of Terrorism in the United States Background to Terrorism: Leftist Activism and Ideological Extremism in America Origins of the Modern Civil Rights Movement The Rise of Black Power Growth of the New Left Left-Wing Terrorism in the United States CHAPTER PERSPECTIVE 12.2. SEEDS OF TERRORISM: RADICALS ON THE AMERICAN LEFT Generational Rebellion: New Left Terrorism Civil Strife: Ethno-Nationalist Terrorism on the Left The Revolution Continues: Leftist Hard Cores Case: The United Freedom Front Single-Issue Violence on the Left Background to Terrorism: Rightist Activism and Ideological Extremism in America Religious Politics and the ?Christian Right? Rise of the Antigovernment Patriots CHAPTER PERSPECTIVE 12.3. CONSPIRACY THEORIES ON THE AMERICAN RIGHT Racial Supremacy: An Old Problem With New Beginnings Racial Mysticism Race and the Bible: The Christian Identity Creation Myth Right-Wing Terrorism in the United States CHAPTER PERSPECTIVE 12.4. SEEDS OF TERRORISM: REACTIONARIES ON THE AMERICAN RIGHT Homegrown Racism: The Legacy of the Ku Klux Klan CHAPTER PERSPECTIVE 12.5. WE THE KLAN BELIEVE Racial Mysticism: Neo-Nazi Terrorism Patriot Threats Case: Moralist Terrorism International Terrorism in the United States The Spillover Effect in the United States The New Terrorism in the United States Chapter Summary Key Terms and Concepts Recommended Web Sites and Web Exercise Recommended Readings Discussion Box: Domestic Terrorism in the American Context 13. Responding to Terror: The Options OPENING VIEWPOINT: EXTRAORDINARY RENDITIONS Background: The Scope of Options Use of Force Operations Other Than War Legalistic Options Warlike Operations: Counterterrorism and the Use of Force Maximum Use of Force: Suppression Campaigns CHAPTER PERSPECTIVE 13.1. OPERATION EL DORADO CANYON War in the Shadows, Part 1: Coercive Covert Operations Surgical Use of Force: Special Operations Forces CHAPTER PERSPECTIVE 13.2. HOSTAGE RESCUES Operations Other Than War: Repressive Options War in the Shadows, Part 2: Nonviolent Covert Operations Knowing the Enemy: Intelligence Hardening the Target: Enhanced Security Long-Term Coercion: Economic Sanctions Operations Other Than War: Conciliatory Options Reasoned Dialogue: Diplomatic Options Responding to Grievances: Social Reform Giving Them What They Want: Concessionary Options Applying the Rule of Law: Legalistic Options Law Enforcement and Counterterrorism CHAPTER PERSPECTIVE 13.3. THE CAPTURE OF MIR AIMAL KANSI Domestic Laws and Counterterrorism CHAPTER PERSPECTIVE 13.4. THE TORTURE DEBATE International Law: Legalistic Responses by the World Community Chapter Summary Key Terms and Concepts Recommended Web Sites and Web Exercise Recommended Readings Discussion Box: The Utility of Elite Counterterrorist Units 14. What Next? The Future of Terrorism OPENING VIEWPOINT: THE TECHNOLOGY OF SURVEILLANCE An Overview of Near-Term Projections Terrorism by States and Dissidents Whither the ?Old Terrorism?? The Future of Terrorism: New Threats Terrorist Environments in the 21st Century The World in Conflict: Future Sources of Terrorism High-Tech Terrorism Soft Targets and Terrorist Symbolism Controlling Terrorism: New Challenges Government Responses Societal Responses Countering Extremism New Fronts in a New War The Continued Utility of Force Countering Terrorist Financial Operations Counterterrorist Surveillance Technologies The Case for International Cooperation Prospects for Terrorism in the United States The Future of International Terrorism in the United States The Future of the Violent Left in the United States The Future of the Violent Right in the United States Chapter Summary Key Terms and Concepts Recommended Readings Discussion Box: Toward Big Brother? Appendix A: Map References A?1 Appendix B: Historical Examples B?1 Glossary/Index I?1
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