Table of contents for Understanding terrorism : challenges, perspectives, and issues / Gus Martin.

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Counter
 Contents
Introduction and Rationale
Part I. Terrorism: A Conceptual Review
1. Terrorism: First Impressions
OPENING VIEWPOINT: THE IDEOLOGY OF AL QAEDA	
 First Considerations
 An Overview of Extremism and Terrorism
 Terrorism at First Glance
 Sources of Extremism and Terrorism	
 Recent Attacks in the United States: Symbolism and Aftermath
 The Significance of Symbolism
 The Oklahoma City Bombing	
 September 11, 2001	
 Reorganization of Homeland Security and Intelligence in the United States	
CHAPTER PERSPECTIVE 1.1. WAGING WAR IN THE ERA OF THE NEW TERRORISM	
 Terrorism and Criminal Skill: Three Cases in Point	
 Case 1: Richard Baumhammers	
 Case 2: Theodore ?Ted? Kaczynski	
 Case 3: Ramzi Yousef	
 Conceptual Considerations: Understanding Political Violence	
 Political Violence: Mala in Se or Mala Prohibita?
 The Just War Doctrine
 The Past as Prologue: Historical Perspectives on Terrorism	
 Antiquity	
 The Roman Age	
 The Ancient and Medieval Middle East	
 The French Revolution: Prelude to Modern Terrorism	
CHAPTER PERSPECTIVE 1.2. THE GUNPOWDER PLOT OF GUY FAWKES	
 Nineteenth-Century Europe: Two Examples From the Left	
 The Modern Era and the War on Terrorism	
 Chapter Summary	
Key Terms and Concepts	
Recommended Web Sites and Web Exercise	
Recommended Readings	
Discussion Box: Total War	
2. The Nature of the Beast: Defining Terrorism
OPENING VIEWPOINT: ARE ?HATE CRIMES? ACTS OF TERRORISM? 	
 Understanding Extremism: The Foundation of Terrorism	
 Defining Extremism	
 Common Characteristics of Violent Extremists	
 The World of the Extremist	
 Defining Terrorism: An Ongoing Debate	
 A Sampling of Formal Definitions	
 The American context: Defining Terrorism in the United States	
CHAPTER PERSPECTIVE 2.1. THE PROBLEM OF LABELING THE ENEMY IN THE NEW ERA OF TERRORISM	
 Types of Terrorism	
 A Definitional Problem: Perspectives on Terrorism	
 Perspective 1:Four Quotations
 Perspective 2 : Participants in a Terrorist Environment 
 Perspective 3: Terrorism or Freedom Fighting? 	
 Perspective 4: Extremism or ?Mainstreamism?? 	
 The Political Violence Matrix	
 Combatants, Noncombatants, and the Use of Force	
 Chapter Summary	
Key Terms and Concepts	
Recommended Web Sites and Web Exercise	
Recommended Readings	
Discussion Box: Cold War Revolutionaries	
3. Beginnings: The Causes of Terrorism 
OPENING VIEWPOINT: THE CASE OF CARLOS	
 Political Violence as the Fruit of Injustice
 Intergroup Conflict and Collective Violence: Sociological Explanations of Terrorism	
 Rationality and Terrorist Violence: Psychological Explanations of Terrorism	
CHAPTER PERSPECTIVE 3.1. PROFILES OF VIOLENT EXTREMISTS: LEILA KHALED AND ABU NIDAL	
CHAPTER PERSPECTIVE 3.2. WOMEN AS TERRORISTS	
 Political Violence as Strategic Choice
 Making Revolution: Acts of Political Will	
 Lighting the Fuse: Adversaries in the War on Terrorism	
 The Morality of Political Violence
 Moral Convictions of Terrorists	
CHAPTER PERSPECTIVE 3.3. A VIET CONG DIRECTIVE ORDERING SELECTIVE TERRORISM	
 Simplified Definitions of Good and Evil	
 Seeking Utopia	
 Codes of Self-Sacrifice	
 Understanding Codes of Self-Sacrifice	
 Chapter Summary	
Key Terms and Concepts	
Recommended Web Sites and Web Exercise	
Recommended Readings	
Discussion Box: Bloody Sunday and Black September	
Part II. The Terrorists
4. Terror From Above: State Terrorism
OPENING VIEWPOINT: STATE TERRORISM AS DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN POLICY	
 The State as Terrorist: A State Terrorism Paradigm	
 Understanding State-Sponsored Terrorism	
 State Sponsorship: The Patronage Model	
 State Sponsorship: The Assistance Model	
CHAPTER PERSPECTIVE 4.1. CHAOS AS LIBERATION: STATE REPRESSION IN ZIMBABWE	
 Violence Abroad: State Terrorism as Foreign Policy	
 Moral Support: Politically Sympathetic Sponsorship	
 Technical Support: Logistically Supportive Sponsorship	
 Selective Participation: Episode-Specific Sponsorship	
 Active Participation: Joint Operations	
CHAPTER PERSPECTIVE 4.2. CALCULATION OR MISCALCULATION? THE THREAT FROM WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION AND THE IRAQ CASE	
 Violence at Home: State Terrorism as Domestic Policy	
 Legitimizing State Authority	
 Unofficial Repression: Vigilante Domestic State Terrorism	
 Repression as Policy: Official Domestic State Terrorism	
CHAPTER PERSPECTIVE 4.3. CLEANSING SOCIETY	
 Mass Repression: Genocidal Domestic State Terrorism	
CHAPTER PERSPECTIVE 4.4. THE ANFAL CAMPAIGN: GENOCIDAL STATE TERRORISM IN IRAQ	
CHAPTER PERSPECTIVE 4.5. THE KHMER ROUGE: GENOCIDAL STATE TERRORISM IN CAMBODIA	
 Postscript: Death Squads in Latin America	
 The Problem of Accountability: Monitoring State Terrorism	
 Chapter Summary	
Key Terms and Concepts	
Recommended Web Sites and Web Exercise	
Recommended Readings	
Discussion Box: Authoritarianism and Democracy	
5. Terror From Below: Dissident Terrorism
OPENING VIEWPOINT: THE TUPAMAROS	
 The Rebel as Terrorist: A Dissident Terrorism Paradigm	
 Revolutionary Dissident Terrorism: A Clear World Vision	
 Nihilist Dissident Terrorism: Revolution for the Sake of Revolution	
 Nationalist Dissident Terrorism: The Aspirations of a People	
 Revolutionaries, Nihilists, and Nationalists: Freedom Fighters? 	
CHAPTER PERSPECTIVE 5.1. CHECHEN TERRORISM IN RUSSIA	
 Warring Against the State: Antistate Dissident Terrorism	
 Intensities of Conflict: Antistate Terrorist Environments	
 Defeat Is Unthinkable: The Terrorists? Faith in Victory	
 Warring Against a People: Communal Terrorism	
 Ethno-Nationalist Communal Terrorism	
CHAPTER PERSPECTIVE 5.2. THE PALESTINIAN MOVEMENT	
 Religious Communal Terrorism	
 Ideological Communal Terrorism	
 Operational Shifts: Dissidents and the New Terrorism	
 The New Dissident Terrorist Morality	
CHAPTER PERSPECTIVE 5.3. CHILD SOLDIERS	
 Terrorist Cells and Lone Wolves: New Models for a New War	
 Chapter Summary	
Key Terms and Concepts	
Recommended Web Sites and Web Exercise	
Recommended Readings	
Discussion Box: The Tamil Tigers	
6. Violence in the Name of the Faith: Religious Terrorism
OPENING VIEWPOINT: THE JOURNEY OF ABU MUSAB AL-ZARQAWI	
 Primary and Secondary Motives: The Idiosyncratic Quality of Religious Terrorism	
 Understanding Jihad as a Primary Religious Motive: An Observation and Caveat	
CHAPTER PERSPECTIVE 6.1. JIHAD: STRUGGLING IN THE WAY OF GOD	
 A Case of Secondary Religious Motive: The Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion	
CHAPTER PERSPECTIVE 6.2. THE PROTOCOLS OF THE LEARNED ELDERS OF ZION: A CONSPIRACY OF THE EXTREME RIGHT	
CHAPTER PERSPECTIVE 6.3. HOLOCAUST DENIAL	
 Historical Cases in Point: Fighting, Dying, and Killing in the Name of the Faith	
 Judeo-Christian Antiquity	
CHAPTER PERSPECTIVE 6.4. THE CONQUEST OF CANAAN	
 Christian Crusades	
 The Assassins	
 A Secret Cult of Murder	
 Modern Arab Islamist Extremism	
 Cult Case: Mysticism and Rebellion in Uganda	
 State-Sponsored Religious Terrorism in the Modern Era	
 National Case: Iran	
 Regional Case: Pakistan and India	
 Dissident Religious Terrorism in the Modern Era	
 Regional Case: Religious Zealotry in the Middle East	
 Movement Case: The International Mujahideen?Holy Warriors for the Faith	
 Organization Case: Al Qaeda?s Religious Foundation	
 National Case: The Algerian Jihadis	
 Cult Case: Aum Shinriky? (Supreme Truth) 	
 The Future of Religious Terrorism	
 Chapter Summary	
Key Terms and Concepts	
Recommended Web Sites and Web Exercise	
Recommended Readings	
Discussion Box: The One True Faith	
7. Violent Ideologies: Terrorism from the Left and Right
OPENING VIEWPOINT: RACIST SKINHEADS AS A SUPPORTIVE ENVIRONMENT	
CHAPTER PERSPECTIVE 7.1. THE RACIST SKINHEAD COUNTERCULTURE	
 Reactionaries and Radicals: The Classical Ideological Continuum	
 An Ideological Analysis: From the Left Fringe to the Right Fringe	
 Ideologies and Ideals	
CHAPTER PERSPECTIVE 7.2. THE SPANISH FALANGE: A MODEL FOR FASCISM	
 Left-Wing Ideologies and Activism	
CHAPTER PERSPECTIVE 7.3. REQUIRED READING ON THE ?NEW LEFT? 	
 For the Exploited: Class Struggle	
 For the People: Leftist Nationalism	
 Special-Interest Extremism	
 Problems on the Radical Left	
CHAPTER PERSPECTIVE 7.4. SUPPORTIVE ENVIRONMENTS ON THE LEFT?PARIS IN 1968	
 Class Struggle and National Liberation: The Terrorist Left	
CHAPTER PERSPECTIVE 7.5.VANGUARD THEORY 	
 Regional Case: Latin America	
 Regional Case: Europe	
 Right-Wing Activism and Extremism
 Violent Reactionaries: Characteristics of the Extreme Right	
 Political Parties and Dissident Movements	
 Tradition and Order	
 Right-Wing Nationalism	
 Religion and Mysticism	
 Race and Order: The Terrorist Right	
CHAPTER PERSPECTIVE 7.6. VIOLENT REACTIONARIES: CHARACTERISTICS OF THE EXTREME RIGHT	
 Regional Case: Europe	
 Violent Ideologies in the New Era of Terrorism	
 The ?New Terrorism?
 The Terrorist Left in the New Era	
 The Terrorist Right in the New Era	
 Chapter Summary	
Key Terms and Concepts	
Recommended Web Sites and Web Exercise	
Recommended Readings	
Discussion Box 7.1: Young Nationalist Idealists	
Discussion Box 7.2: Order From Chaos	
8. Terrorist Spillovers: International Terrorism
OPENING VIEWPOINT: TERRORISM IN THE AGE OF GLOBALIZATION	
CHAPTER PERSPECTIVE 8.1. THE CHANGING ENVIRONMENT OF INTERNATIONAL TERRORISM	
 Defining International Terrorism	
 Expanding the Struggle: The Spillover Effect	
 Unambiguous International Implications
 Terrorist Environments and International Terrorism	
 Globalized Revolution: Reasons for International Terrorism	
 Ideological Reasons: Modern ?isms? and International Revolutionary Solidarity	
CHAPTER PERSPECTIVE 8.2: COOPERATION BETWEEN TERRORISTS: THE EUROPEAN CONNECTION	
 Practical Reasons: Perceived Efficiency	
 Tactical Reasons: Adaptations of Revolutionary Theory to International Operations	
 Historical Reasons: Perceptions of International Terrorism	
 Globalized Solidarity: International Terrorist Networks	
CHAPTER PERSPECTIVE 8.3. A REMARKABLE EXAMPLE OF INTERNATIONAL TERRORISM: THE JAPANESE RED ARMY AND THE LOD (LYDDA) AIRPORT MASSACRE	
 Cold War Terrorist-Networking Theory	
 International Terrorist Environments	
 The International Dimension of the New Terrorism	
 Movement Case: The Afghan Arabs at War	
 Organization Case: Al Qaeda and International Terrorism	
CHAPTER PERSPECTIVE 8.4. BEYOND AL QAEDA	
 Incident Case: The Madrid Train Bombings	
 Incident Case: The London Transportation System Attacks	
 Wartime Case: Terrorist Violence in Iraq	
 Postscript: The ?Stateless Revolutionaries? 	
 Chapter Summary	
Key Terms and Concepts	
Recommended Web Sites and Web Exercise	
Recommended Readings	
Discussion Box: Understanding Terrorist ?Spillovers?: Middle Eastern and North African Spillovers in Europe	
9. Emerging Terrorist Environments: Gender-Selective Political Violence and Criminal Dissident Terrorism
OPENING VIEWPOINT: THE JANJAWEED CAMPAIGN AGAINST ?ENEMY? WOMEN IN DARFUR, SUDAN	
 Culture and Conflict: Gender-Selected Victims of Terrorist Violence	
 Gender-Selective Terrorism Against Men	
 Background to Terrorism Against Women: Cultural Repression and Violence	
 An Emerging Recognition: Terrorism Against Women	
 Responding to Gender-Selective Political Violence	
 Protecting the Enterprise: Criminal Dissident Terrorism	
 The Criminal and Political Terrorism Nexus	
CHAPTER PERSPECTIVE 9.1: THE BEKA?A VALLEY	
 Traditional Criminal Enterprises	
 Criminal-Political Enterprises	
 Case in Point: The Logic of Narco-Terrorism	
 A Global Problem: Regional Cases of Criminal Dissident Terrorism	
 Regional Case: Asia	
 Regional Case: Europe	
 Regional Case: Latin America	
 Chapter Summary	
Key Terms and Concepts	
Recommended Web Sites and Web Exercise	
Recommended Readings	
Discussion Box: Political Violence Against Women: Gender Communal Terrorism? 	
Part III. The Terrorist Trade
10. Tools of the Trade: Tactics and Targets of Terrorists
OPENING VIEWPOINT: THE ENGINEER	
 The Purpose: Terrorist Objectives	
 Typical Objectives	
 Playing to the Audience: Objectives, Victims, and Constituencies	
 The New Terrorism and New Objectives	
 The Means: Terrorist Methods	
 Concept: Asymmetrical Warfare	
 An Introduction to Common Methods of Terrorists	
 Weapons Old and New	
CHAPTER PERSPECTIVE 10.1. THE AL QAEDA ?TERRORIST MANUAL? 	
 The Focus: Terrorist Targets	
 The Symbolism of Targets	
CHAPTER PERSPECTIVE 10.2. THE SYMBOLISM OF TARGETS: TERRORIST ATTACKS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES	
 The Outcome: Is Terrorism Effective? 	
 Media and Political Attention	
 Having an Impact on an Audience	
CHAPTER PERSPECTIVE 10.3. TACTICAL HORROR: DIGITAL, VIDEO, AND AUDIO TERRORISM	
 Forcing Concessions From an Enemy Interest	
 Disruption of Normal Routines	
 Provoking the State to Overreact	
 Effective Terrorism: The King David Hotel Bombing	
 Chapter Summary	
Key Terms and Concepts	
Recommended Web Sites and Web Exercise	
Recommended Readings	
Discussion Box: Attacks Against the U.S. Marine and French Paratrooper Headquarters in Beirut	
11. The Information Battleground: Terrorist Violence and the Role of the Media
OPENING VIEWPOINT: MEDIA-ORIENTED TERROR AND LEBANON?S HEZBOLLAH	
 Two Perspectives: The Media and Governments	
 The Perspective of the Media	
 The Perspective of Governments	
 Exploring the Role of the Media	
 Publicizing the Cause	
 Spreading the Word: Mass Communications and the Terrorists? Message	
CHAPTER PERSPECTIVE 11.1. DELIVERING THE MESSAGE	
 No More Printing Presses: Mass Communications and the ?New Media? 	
 Truth and Consequences: The Reporting of Terrorism	
 A New Battleground: The War for the Information High Ground	
 Practical Considerations: Using the Media	
 Information Is Power: The Media as a Weapon	
 Problems on the New Battleground: The Risk of Backlash	
 The Public?s Right to Know: Regulating the Media	
 The Free Press	
CHAPTER PERSPECTIVE 11.2. SELF-REGULATION AND THE AMERICAN MEDIA	
 The State-Regulated Press	
 Chapter Summary	
Key Terms and Concepts	
Recommended Web Sites and Web Exercise	
Recommended Readings	
Discussion Box: Freedom of Reporting and Security Issues	
Part IV. Final Analysis
12. The American Case: Terrorism in the United States
OPENING VIEWPOINT: LYNCHING?VIGILANTE COMMUNAL TERRORISM IN THE UNITED STATES	
 An Introduction to the American Case	
CHAPTER PERSPECTIVE 12.1. AMERICAN CULTS AND TERRORIST VIOLENCE	
 Weighing the Origins of Terrorism in the United States	
 Background to Terrorism: Leftist Activism and Ideological Extremism in America	
 Origins of the Modern Civil Rights Movement	
 The Rise of Black Power	
 Growth of the New Left	
 Left-Wing Terrorism in the United States	
CHAPTER PERSPECTIVE 12.2. SEEDS OF TERRORISM: RADICALS ON THE AMERICAN LEFT	
 Generational Rebellion: New Left Terrorism	
 Civil Strife: Ethno-Nationalist Terrorism on the Left	
 The Revolution Continues: Leftist Hard Cores	
 Case: The United Freedom Front	
 Single-Issue Violence on the Left	
 Background to Terrorism: Rightist Activism and Ideological Extremism in America	
 Religious Politics and the ?Christian Right? 	
 Rise of the Antigovernment Patriots	
CHAPTER PERSPECTIVE 12.3. CONSPIRACY THEORIES ON THE AMERICAN RIGHT	
 Racial Supremacy: An Old Problem With New Beginnings	
 Racial Mysticism	
 Race and the Bible: The Christian Identity Creation Myth	
 Right-Wing Terrorism in the United States	
CHAPTER PERSPECTIVE 12.4. SEEDS OF TERRORISM: REACTIONARIES ON THE AMERICAN RIGHT	
 Homegrown Racism: The Legacy of the Ku Klux Klan	
CHAPTER PERSPECTIVE 12.5. WE THE KLAN BELIEVE	
 Racial Mysticism: Neo-Nazi Terrorism	
 Patriot Threats	
 Case: Moralist Terrorism	
 International Terrorism in the United States	
 The Spillover Effect in the United States	
 The New Terrorism in the United States	
 Chapter Summary	
Key Terms and Concepts	
Recommended Web Sites and Web Exercise	
Recommended Readings	
Discussion Box: Domestic Terrorism in the American Context	
13. Responding to Terror: The Options
OPENING VIEWPOINT: EXTRAORDINARY RENDITIONS	
 Background: The Scope of Options	
 Use of Force	
 Operations Other Than War	
 Legalistic Options	
 Warlike Operations: Counterterrorism and the Use of Force	
 Maximum Use of Force: Suppression Campaigns	
CHAPTER PERSPECTIVE 13.1. OPERATION EL DORADO CANYON	
 War in the Shadows, Part 1: Coercive Covert Operations	
 Surgical Use of Force: Special Operations Forces	
CHAPTER PERSPECTIVE 13.2. HOSTAGE RESCUES	
 Operations Other Than War: Repressive Options	
 War in the Shadows, Part 2: Nonviolent Covert Operations	
 Knowing the Enemy: Intelligence	
 Hardening the Target: Enhanced Security	
 Long-Term Coercion: Economic Sanctions	
 Operations Other Than War: Conciliatory Options	
 Reasoned Dialogue: Diplomatic Options	
 Responding to Grievances: Social Reform	
 Giving Them What They Want: Concessionary Options	
 Applying the Rule of Law: Legalistic Options	
 Law Enforcement and Counterterrorism	
CHAPTER PERSPECTIVE 13.3. THE CAPTURE OF MIR AIMAL KANSI
 Domestic Laws and Counterterrorism
CHAPTER PERSPECTIVE 13.4. THE TORTURE DEBATE
 International Law: Legalistic Responses by the World Community	
 Chapter Summary
Key Terms and Concepts	
Recommended Web Sites and Web Exercise	
Recommended Readings	
Discussion Box: The Utility of Elite Counterterrorist Units	
14. What Next? The Future of Terrorism
OPENING VIEWPOINT: THE TECHNOLOGY OF SURVEILLANCE	
 An Overview of Near-Term Projections	
 Terrorism by States and Dissidents	
 Whither the ?Old Terrorism?? 	
 The Future of Terrorism: New Threats	
 Terrorist Environments in the 21st Century	
 The World in Conflict: Future Sources of Terrorism	
 High-Tech Terrorism	
 Soft Targets and Terrorist Symbolism	
 Controlling Terrorism: New Challenges	
 Government Responses	
 Societal Responses	
 Countering Extremism	
 New Fronts in a New War	
 The Continued Utility of Force	
 Countering Terrorist Financial Operations	
 Counterterrorist Surveillance Technologies	
 The Case for International Cooperation	
 Prospects for Terrorism in the United States	
 The Future of International Terrorism in the United States	
 The Future of the Violent Left in the United States	
 The Future of the Violent Right in the United States	
 Chapter Summary	
Key Terms and Concepts	
Recommended Readings	
Discussion Box: Toward Big Brother? 	
Appendix A: Map References A?1
Appendix B: Historical Examples B?1
Glossary/Index I?1

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Terrorism.