Table of contents for Anatomy and physiology : from science to life / Gail W. Jenkins, Christopher P. Kemnitz, Gerard J. Tortora.

Bibliographic record and links to related information available from the Library of Congress catalog.

Note: Contents data are machine generated based on pre-publication provided by the publisher. Contents may have variations from the printed book or be incomplete or contain other coding.


Counter
CONTENTS
1 AN INTRODUCTION TO THE HUMAN BODY
1.1 THE HUMAN BODY IS COMPOSED OF SIX LEVELS OF STRUCTURAL ORGANIZATION AND CONTAINS ELEVEN ORGAN SYSTEMS.
1.2 THE HUMAN BODY CARRIES ON BASIC LIFE PROCESSES THAT DISTINGUISH IT FROM NONLIVING OBJECTS. 
1.3 HOMEOSTASIS, THE DYNAMIC EQUILIBRIUM OF THE BODY?S INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT, IS CONTROLLED THROUGH FEEDBACK SYSTEMS. 
1.4 THE DESCRIPTION OF THE HUMAN BODY ASSUMES A STANDARD ANATOMICAL POSITION AND USES SPECIFIC REGIONAL AND DIRECTIONAL TERMS. 
1.5 BODY CAVITIES ARE SPACES WITHIN THE BODY THAT HELP PROTECT, SEPARATE, AND SUPPORT INTERNAL ORGANS. 
1.6 SEROUS MEMBRANES LINE THE WALLS OF BODY CAVITIES AND COVER ORGANS WITHIN THEM. 
1.7 THE ABDOMINOPELVIC CAVITY IS DIVIDED INTO REGIONS OR QUADRANTS. 
2 THE CHEMICAL LEVEL OF ORGANIZATION
2.1 CHEMICAL ELEMENTS ARE COMPOSED OF SMALL UNITS CALLED ATOMS, MADE UP OF PROTONS, NEUTRONS, AND ELECTRONS. 
2.2 ATOMS ARE HELD TOGETHER BY CHEMICAL BONDS, WHICH RESULT FROM THE GAIN, LOSS, OR SHARING OF ELECTRONS. 
2.3 CHEMICAL REACTIONS OCCUR WHEN ATOMS COMBINE WITH OR BREAK APART FROM OTHER ATOMS. 
2.4 INORGANIC COMPOUNDS INCLUDE WATER, SALTS, ACIDS, AND BASES. 
2.6 CARBOHYDRATES, WHICH INCLUDE SUGARS, STARCHES, GLYCOGEN AND CELLULOSE, FUNCTION AS BUILDING BLOCKS AND SOURCES OF ENERGY. 
2.7 LIPIDS ARE NONPOLAR ORGANIC MOLECULES IMPORTANT FOR CELL MEMBRANE STRUCTURE, ENERGY STORAGE, AND HORMONE PRODUCTION. 
2.8 PROTEINS, COMPLEX ORGANIC MOLECULES CONSTRUCTED FROM AMINO ACIDS, GIVE STRUCTURE TO THE BODY, REGULATE METABOLIC PROCESSES, HELP MUSCLES TO CONTRACT, AND FUNCTION AS ENZYMES. 
2.9 THE NUCLEIC ACIDS INCLUDE DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID (DNA), THE PRIMARY CHEMICAL IN GENES, AND RIBONUCLEIC ACID (RNA), WHICH TAKES PART IN PROTEIN SYNTHESIS. 
2.10 ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE (ATP) IS THE PRINCIPAL ENERGY-TRANSFERRING MOLECULE IN LIVING SYSTEMS. 
3 THE CELLULAR LEVEL OR ORGANIZATION
3.1 THE PRINCIPAL PARTS OF A CELL ARE THE PLASMA MEMBRANE, THE CYTOPLASM, AND THE NUCLEUS. 
3.2 THE PLASMA MEMBRANE SURROUNDS AND CONTAINS THE CYTOPLASM, AND PROVIDES A SELECTIVE BARRIER THAT REGULATES FLOW OF MATERIALS INTO AND OUT OF THE CELL. 
3.3 TRANSPORT OF A SUBSTANCE ACROSS THE PLASMA MEMBRANE OCCURS BY BOTH PASSIVE AND ACTIVE PROCESSES. 
3.4 CYTOPLASM CONSISTS OF THE CYTOSOL AND ORGANELLES. 
3.5 THE NUCLEUS CONTAINS NUCLEOLI AND GENES. 
3.6 CELLS MAKE PROTEINS BY TRANSCRIBING AND TRANSLATING THE GENETIC INFORMATION CONTAINED IN DNA. 
3.7 CELL DIVISION ALLOWS THE REPLACEMENT OF CELLS OR THE ADDITION OF NEW CELLS (SOMATIC CELL DIVISION) OR THE PRODUCTION OF GAMETES (REPRODUCTIVE CELL DIVISION). 
4 THE TISSUE LEVEL OF ORGANIZATION
4.1 HUMAN BODY TISSUES CAN BE CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO THEIR FUNCTION AND STRUCTURE INTO FOUR GROUPS: EPITHELIAL, CONNECTIVE, MUSCLE, OR NERVOUS. 
4.2 EPITHELIAL TISSUE COVERS BODY SURFACES, LINES ORGANS AND BODY CAVITIES, OR SECRETES SUBSTANCES INTO THE BLOOD, TO A BODY SURFACE, OR INTO THE LUMEN OF A HOLLOW ORGAN. 
4.3 CONNECTIVE TISSUE BINDS ORGANS TOGETHER, STORES ENERGY RESERVES AS FAT, AND HELPS PROVIDE IMMUNITY AGAINST DISEASE-CAUSING ORGANISMS. 
4.4 MEMBRANES COVER THE SURFACE OF THE BODY, LINE BODY CAVITIES, AND COVER ORGANS. 
4.5 MUSCLE TISSUE GENERATES THE PHYSICAL FORCE NEEDED TO MAKE BODY STRUCTURES MOVE. 
4.6 NERVOUS TISSUE CONSISTS OF NEURONS AND NEUROGLIA. 
4.7 THE ABILITY OF AN INJURED TISSUE TO REPAIR ITSELF DEPENDS ON THE EXTENT OF DAMAGE AND THE REGENERATIVE ABILITY OF THE INJURED TISSUE, AND MAY INCLUDE THE FORMATION OF SCAR TISSUE. 
5 THE INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM
5.1 SKIN IS COMPOSED OF A SUPERFICIAL EPIDERMIS AND A DEEPER DERMIS, AND IS ANCHORED BY THE HYPODERMIS. 
5.2 THE LAYERS OF THE EPIDERMIS INCLUDE THE STRATUM BASALE, STRATUM SPINOSUM, STRATUM GRANULOSUM, STRATUM LUCIDUM, AND STRATUM CORNEUM. 
5.3 THE DERMIS CONTAINS BLOOD VESSELS, LYMPHATIC VESSELS, NERVES, SENSORY RECEPTORS, HAIR FOLLICLES, AND GLANDS. 
5.4 SKIN COLOR IS A RESULT OF THE PIGMENTS MELANIN, CAROTENE, AND HEMOGLOBIN. 
5.5 THE FUNCTIONS OF HAIR, SKIN GLANDS, AND NAILS INCLUDE PROTECTION AND BODY TEMPERATURE REGULATION. 
5.6 SKIN DAMAGE SETS IN MOTION A SEQUENCE OF EVENTS THAT REPAIRS THE SKIN TO ITS NORMAL (OR NEAR-NORMAL) STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION. 
5.7 SKIN REGULATES BODY TEMPERATURE, PROTECTS UNDERLYING TISSUES, PROVIDES CUTANEOUS SENSATIONS, EXCRETES BODY WASTES, AND SYNTHESIZES VITAMIN D. 
6 INTRODUCTION TO THE SKELETAL SYSTEM
6.1 SKELETAL SYSTEM FUNCTIONS INCLUDE SUPPORT, PROTECTION, MOVEMENT, MINERAL HOMEOSTASIS, BLOOD CELL PRODUCTION, AND ENERGY STORAGE. 
6.2 BONES ARE CLASSIFIED ON THE BASIS OF SHAPE AS LONG, SHORT, FLAT, IRREGULAR, ORSESAMOID. 
6.3 LONG BONES CONTAIN A DIAPHYSIS, A MEDULLARY CAVITY, EPIPHYSES, METAPHYSES, AND SOMETIMES PERIOSTEUM. 
6.4 OSSEOUS TISSUE CAN BE ARRANGED IN TWO WAYS: AS COMPACT BONE TISSUE AND SPONGY BONE TISSUE. 
6.5 BONES ARE RICHLY SUPPLIED WITH BLOOD VESSELS AND NERVES. 
6.6 THE TWO TYPES OF BONE FORMATION INCLUDE INTRAMEMBRANEOUS OSSIFICATION AND ENDOCHONDRAL OSSIFICATION. 
6.7 BONES GROW LONGER DUE TO ACTIVITY OF THE EPIPHYSEAL PLATE AND INCREASE IN DIAMETER BY THE ADDITION OF NEW OSSEOUS TISSUE AROUND THE OUTER SURFACE. 
6.8 BONE REMODELING RENEWS OSSEOUS TISSUE, REDISTRIBUTES BONE EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX, AND REPAIRS BONE INJURIES. 
GLOSSARY
INDEX

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Human anatomy.
Human physiology.