Table of contents for The art of public speaking / Stephen Lucas.

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Contents 
Preface xvii
Reviewers and Focus Group Participants xxxPART I SPEAKING AND LISTENING
CHAPTER 1
Speaking in Public2The Power of Public Speaking 4
The Tradition of Public Speaking 6
Similarities Between Public Speaking and Conversation 6
Differences Between Public Speaking and Conversation 9
Developing Confidence: Your Speech Class 9
Nervousness Is Normal 10
Dealing with Nervousness 11
Public Speaking and Critical Thinking 16
The Speech Communication Process 17
Speaker 17
Message 18
Channel 18
Listener 19
Feedback 20
Interference 20
Situation 21
The Speech Communication Process:
Example with Commentary 22
Public Speaking in a Multicultural World 22
Cultural Diversity in the Modern World 22
Cultural Diversity and Public Speaking 24
Avoiding Ethnocentrism 25
CHAPTER 2
Ethics and Public Speaking
The Importance of Ethics 34
Guidelines for Ethical Speaking 36
Make Sure Your Goals Are Ethically Sound 36
Be Fully Prepared for Each Speech 36
Be Honest in What You Say 38
Avoid Name-Calling and Other Forms of Abusive Language 39
Put Ethical Principles into Practice 41
Plagiarism 41
Global Plagiarism 43
Patchwork Plagiarism 43
Incremental Plagiarism 44
Plagiarism and the Internet 46
Guidelines for Ethical Listening 47
Be Courteous and Attentive 47
Avoid Prejudging the Speaker 48
Maintain the Free and Open Expression of Ideas 49
CHAPTER 3
Listening
Listening Is Important 56
Listening and Critical Thinking 57
Four Causes of Poor Listening 58
NOT CONCENTRATING 58
Listening Too Hard 59
Jumping to Conclusions 60
Focusing on Delivery and Personal Appearance 61
How to Become a Better Listener 62
Take Listening Seriously 62
Be an Active Listener 62
Resist Distractions 64
Don¿t Be Diverted by Appearance or Delivery 65
Suspend Judgment 66
Focus Your Listening 66
Develop Note-Taking Skills 68
APPENDIX 
Giving Your First Speech
Preparing Your Speech 74
Developing the Speech 74
Organizing the Speech 75
Delivering Your Speech 78
Speaking Extemporaneously 78
Rehearsing the Speech 79
Presenting the Speech 80
Sample Speeches with Commentary 81
CHAPTER 4
Selecting a Topic and a Purpose
Choosing a Topic 86
Topics You Know a Lot About 87
Topics You Want to Know More About 88
Brainstorming for Topics 89
Determining the General Purpose 93
Determining the Specific Purpose 94
Tips for Formulating the Specific 
Purpose Statement 95
Questions to Ask About Your 
Specific Purpose 98
Phrasing the Central Idea 101
What Is the Central Idea? 101
Guidelines for the Central Idea 103
CHAPTER 5
Analyzing the Audience
Audience-Centeredness 112
Your Classmates as an Audience 113
The Psychology of Audiences 114
Demographic Audience Analysis 116
Age 116
Gender 117
Sexual Orientation 118
Racial, Ethnic, and Cultural Background 119
Religion 121
Group Membership 122
Situational Audience Analysis 123
Size 123
Physical Setting 124
DISPOSITION TOWARD THE TOPIC 124
Disposition Toward the Speaker 126
Disposition Toward the Occasion 127
Getting Information About the
Audience 127
Interviewing 128
Questionnaires 128
Adapting to the Audience 131
Audience Adaptation Before the Speech 132
Audience Adaptation During the Speech 133
CHAPTER 6
Gathering Materials
Using Your Own Knowledge and Experience 140
Doing Library Research 141
Librarians 141
The Catalogue 141
Periodical Databases 142
Newspapers 145
Reference Works 146
Searching the Internet 149
Search Aids 149
Keyword Searches 151
Subject Searches 152
Bookmarks 152
Specialized Research Resources 153
Evaluating Internet Documents 156
Citing Internet Sources 158
Interviewing 159
Before the Interview 160
During the Interview 162
After the Interview 163
Tips for Doing Research 164
Start Early 164
Make a Preliminary Bibliography 164
Take Notes Efficiently 166
Think About Your Materials as You Research 168
CHAPTER 7
Supporting Your Ideas
Supporting Materials and Critical Thinking 177
Examples 178
Brief Examples 178
Extended Examples 179
Hypothetical Examples 179
Tips for Using Examples 180
Statistics 183
Understanding Statistics 184
Tips for Using Statistics 187
Where to Find Statistics 191
Testimony 192
Expert Testimony 193
Peer Testimony 194
Quoting Versus Paraphrasing 194
Tips for Using Testimony 195
Sample Speech with Commentary 197
CHAPTER 8
Organizing the Body of the Speech
Organization Is Important 206
Main Points 207
Number of Main Points 209
Strategic Order of Main Points 210
Tips for Preparing Main Points 215
Supporting Materials 217
Connectives 219
Transitions 219
Internal Previews 220
Internal Summaries 220
Signposts 221
CHAPTER 9
Beginning and Ending the Speech
The Introduction 228
Get Attention and Interest 228
Reveal the Topic 236
Establish Credibility and Goodwill 237
Preview the Body of the Speech 238
Sample Introduction with Commentary 241
Tips for Preparing the Introduction 242
The Conclusion 242
Signal the End of the Speech 242
Reinforce the Central Idea 244
Sample Conclusion with Commentary 247
Tips for Preparing the Conclusion 248
CHAPTER 10
Outlining the Speech
The Preparation Outline 254
Guidelines for the Preparation Outline 254
Sample Preparation Outline with Commentary 260
The Speaking Outline 263
Guidelines for the Speaking Outline 263
Sample Speaking Outline with Commentary 266
CHAPTER 11
Using Language
Language Is Important 272
Meanings of Words 274
Using Language Accurately 275
Using Language Clearly 277
Use Familiar Words 277
Choose Concrete Words 280
Eliminate Clutter 281
Using Language Vividly 282
Imagery 283
Rhythm 285
Using Language Appropriately 288
APPROPRIATENESS TO THE OCCASION 288
Appropriateness to the Audience 289
Appropriateness to the Topic 290
Appropriateness to the Speaker 290
A Note on Inclusive Language 290
CHAPTER 12
Delivery
What Is Good Delivery? 300
Methods of Delivery 301
Reading from a Manuscript 301
Reciting from Memory 302
Speaking Impromptu 302
Speaking Extemporaneously 304
The Speaker¿s Voice 305
Volume 305
Pitch 305
Rate 306
Pauses 307
Vocal Variety 308
Pronunciation 309
Articulation 310
Dialect 311
The Speaker¿s Body 312
Personal Appearance 313
Movement 314
Gestures 315
Eye Contact 315
Practicing Delivery 317
Answering Audience Questions 318
Preparing for the Question-and-Answer Session 319
Managing the Question-and-Answer Session 320
CHAPTER 13
Using Visual Aids
Advantages of Visual Aids 328
Kinds of Visual Aids 329
Objects 329
Models 330
Photographs 331
Drawings 331
Graphs 333
Charts 335
Video 336
Transparencies 336
Multimedia Presentations 336
The Speaker 337
Guidelines for Preparing Visual Aids 338
Prepare Visual Aids in Advance 338
Keep Visual Aids Simple 338
Make Sure Visual Aids Are Large Enough 339
Use Fonts That Are Easy to Read 340
Use a Limited Number of Fonts 340
Use Color Effectively 341
Guidelines for Presenting Visual Aids 342
Avoid Using the Chalkboard for Visual Aids 342
Display Visual Aids Where Listeners Can
See Them 343
Avoid Passing Visual Aids Among the Audience 343
Display Visual Aids Only While Discussing Them 343
Talk to Your Audience, Not to Your Visual Aid 344
Explain Visual Aids Clearly and Concisely 344
PRACTICE WITH YOUR VISUAL AIDS 345
Pluses and Minuses of PowerPoint 350
Planning to Use PowerPoint 350
Getting Started in PowerPoint 351
Screen Elements 351
Templates 352
Slide Layouts 353
Elements of PowerPoint Slides 354
Text 355
Photographs 355
Clip Art 356
Graphs 356
Sounds 356
Video 357
Formatting Slides 358
Color 358
Fonts 359
Space 360
Animation 361
Delivering Your Speech with PowerPoint 361
Recheck Your Slides 362
Know Slide Show Commands 362
Practice Your Speech with PowerPoint 363
Display Slides Only While Discussing Them 364
Check the Room and Equipment 364
Develop a Backup Plan 365
Copyright and Fair Use 365
Sample Speech with Commentary 366
CHAPTER 14
Speaking to Inform
Types of Informative Speeches: Analysis and Organization 373
Speeches About Objects 373
Speeches About Processes 375
Speeches About Events 378
Speeches About Concepts 380
Guidelines for Informative Speaking 383
Don¿t Overestimate What the Audience Knows 383
Relate the Subject Directly to the Audience 385
Don¿t Be Too Technical 387
Avoid Abstractions 389
Personalize Your Ideas 391
Sample Speech with Commentary 392
CHAPTER 15
Speaking to Persuade
The Importance of Persuasion 400
Ethics and Persuasion 401
The Psychology of Persuasion 402
The Challenge of Persuasive Speaking 402
How Listeners Process Persuasive Messages 403
The Target Audience 405
Persuasive Speeches on Questions of Fact 406
What Are Questions of Fact? 406
Analyzing Questions of Fact 406
Organizing Speeches on Questions of Fact 407
Persuasive Speeches on Questions of Value 409
What Are Questions of Value? 409
Analyzing Questions of Value 409
Organizing Speeches on Questions of Value 410
Persuasive Speeches on Questions of Policy 411
What Are Questions of Policy? 411
Types of Speeches on Questions of Policy 412
Analyzing Questions of Policy 414
Organizing Speeches on Questions of Policy 416
Sample Speech with Commentary 423
CHAPTER 16
Methods of Persuasion
Building Credibility 434
Factors of Credibility 435
Types of Credibility 436
Enhancing Your Credibility 437
Using Evidence 439
How Evidence Works: A Case Study 440
Tips for Using Evidence 441
Reasoning 444
Reasoning from Specific Instances 445
Reasoning from Principle 447
Causal Reasoning 449
Analogical Reasoning 450
Fallacies 452
Appealing to Emotions 455
What Are Emotional Appeals? 456
Generating Emotional Appeal 457
Ethics and Emotional Appeal 458
Sample Speech with Commentary 460
CHAPTER 17
Speaking on Special Occasions
Speeches of Introduction 470
Speeches of Presentation 473
Speeches of Acceptance 474
Commemorative Speeches 475
After-Dinner Speeches 479
CHAPTER 18
Speaking in Small Groups
What Is a Small Group? 486
Leadership in Small Groups 487
Kinds of Leadership 487
Functions of Leadership 488
Responsibilities in a Small Group 490
Commit Yourself to the Goals of Your Group 490
Fulfill Individual Assignments 491
Avoid Interpersonal Conflicts 492
Encourage Full Participation 493
Keep the Discussion on Track 494
The Reflective-Thinking Method 496
Define the Problem 496
Analyze the Problem 497
Establish Criteria for Solutions 498
Generate Potential Solutions 499
Select the Best Solution 500
Presenting the Recommendations of 
the Group 502
Oral Report 502
Symposium 503
Panel Discussion 503
Questions of Culture Sajjid Zahir Chinoy A¿2
Choices and Change Barbara Bush A¿4
I Have a Dream Martin Luther King, Jr. A¿7
The Hidden World of Chili Peppers A¿10
Bursting the Antibacterial Bubble A¿12
The Ultimate Gift A¿15
My Crazy Aunt Sue A¿17
Photo Credits C¿1
Index I325473PART II SPEECH PREPARATION: GETTING STARTED84110138174PART III SPEECH PREPARATION: ORGANIZING AND OUTLINING204226252PART IV PRESENTING THE SPEECH270298326APPENDIX 
Using PowerPoint349PART V VARIETIES OF PUBLIC SPEAKING370398432468484APPENDIX 
Speeches for Analysis and DiscussionA¿1

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Public speaking.