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BRIEF CONTENTS # Chapter 1 Introduction 1 PART ONE Mechanics Chapter 2 Force 23 Chapter 3 Acceleration and Newton?s Second Law of Motion 69 Chapter 4 Motion with a Changing Velocity 107 Chapter 5 Circular Motion 143 Chapter 6 Conservation of Energy 181 Chapter 7 Linear Momentum 221 Chapter 8 Torque and Angular Momentum 255 Chapter 9 Fluids 309 Chapter 10 Elasticity and Oscillations 349 Chapter 11 Waves 385 Chapter 12 Sound 415 PART TWO Thermal Physics Chapter 13 Temperature and Ideal Gas 453 Chapter 14 Heat 485 Chapter 15 Thermodynamics 523 PART THREE Electomagnetism Chapter 16 Electric Forces and Fields 561 Chapter 17 Electric Potential 599 Chapter 18 Electric Current and Circuits 637 Chapter 19 Magnetic Forces and Fields 687 Chapter 20 Electromagnetic Induction 733 Chapter 21 Alternating Current 771 PART FOUR Electromagnetic Waves and Optics Chapter 22 Electromagnetic Waves 801 Chapter 23 Reflection and Refraction of Light 837 Chapter 24 Optical Instruments 879 Chapter 25 Interference and Diffraction 909 PART FIVE Quantum and Particle Physics and Relativity Chapter 26 Relativity 953 Chapter 27 Early Quantum Physics and the Photon 983 Chapter 28 Quantum Physics 1015 Chapter 29 Nuclear Physics 1049 Chapter 30 Particle Physics 1089 Appendix A Mathematics Review A-1 Appendix B Table of Selected Nuclides A-15 CONTENTS List of Selected Applications x Preface xiii To the Student xxi Acknowledgments xxix Chapter 1 Introduction 1 1.1 Why Study Physics? 2 1.2 Talking Physics 2 1.3 The Use of Mathematics 3 1.4 Scientific Notation and Significant Figures 4 1.5 Units 7 1.6 Dimensional Analysis 10 1.7 Problem-Solving Techniques 12 1.8 Approximation 13 1.9 Graphs 14 PART ONE Mechanics Chapter 2 Force 23 2.1 Force 24 2.2 Net Force 26 2.3 Inertia and Equilibrium: Newton?s First Law of Motion 29 2.4 Vector Addition Using Components 33 2.5 Interaction Pairs: Newton?s Third Law of Motion 38 2.6 Gravitational Forces 40 2.7 Contact Forces 43 2.8 Tension 50 2.9 Fundamental Forces 54 Chapter 3 Acceleration and Newton?s Second Law of Motion 69 3.1 Position and Displacement 70 3.2 Velocity 74 3.3 Newton?s Second Law of Motion 80 3.4 Applying Newton?s Second Law 87 3.5 Velocity Is Relative; Reference Frames 93 Chapter 4 Motion with a Changing Velocity 107 4.1 Motion Along a Line Due to a Constant Net Force 108 4.2 Visualizing Motion Along a Line with Constant Acceleration 114 4.3 Free Fall 118 4.4 Motion of Projectiles 120 4.5 Apparent Weight 126 4.6 Air Resistance 129 Chapter 5 Circular Motion 143 5.1 Description of Uniform Circular Motion 144 5.2 Radial Acceleration 149 5.3 Unbanked and Banked Curves 153 5.4 Circular Orbits of Satellites and Planets 156 5.5 Nonuniform Circular Motion 160 5.6 Tangential and Angular Acceleration 164 5.7 Apparent Weight and Artificial Gravity 166 Review and Synthesis: Chapters 1?5 178 Chapter 6 Conservation of Energy 181 6.1 The Law of Conservation of Energy 182 6.2 Work Done by a Constant Force 183 6.3 Kinetic Energy 190 6.4 Gravitational Potential Energy (1) 192 6.5 Gravitational Potential Energy (2) 197 6.6 Work Done by Variable Forces: Hooke?s Law 200 6.7 Elastic Potential Energy 203 6.8 Power 206 Chapter 7 Linear Momentum 221 7.1 A Vector Conservation Law 222 7.2 Momentum 222 7.3 The Impulse-Momentum Theorem 224 7.4 Conservation of Momentum 230 7.5 Center of Mass 233 7.6 Motion of the Center of Mass 235 7.7 Collisions in One Dimension 237 7.8 Collisions in Two Dimensions 242 Chapter 8 Torque and Angular Momentum 255 8.1 Rotational Kinetic Energy and Rotational Inertia 256 8.2 Torque 261 8.3 Work Done by a Torque 266 8.4 Equilibrium Revisited 267 8.5 Equilibrium in the Human Body 275 8.6 Rotational Form of Newton?s Second Law 280 8.7 The Motion of Rolling Objects 281 8.8 Angular Momentum 284 8.9 The Vector Nature of Angular Momentum 287 Review and Synthesis: Chapters 6-8 303 Chapter 9 Fluids 309 9.1 States of Matter 310 9.2 Pressure 310 9.3 Pascal?s Principle 313 9.4 The Effect of Gravity on Fluid Pressure 314 9.5 Measuring Pressure 317 9.6 Archimedes? Principle 320 9.7 Fluid Flow 324 9.8 Bernoulli?s Equation 327 9.9 Viscosity 331 9.10 Viscous Drag 334 9.11 Surface Tension 336 Chapter 10 Elasticity and Oscillations 349 10.1 Elastic Deformations of Solids 350 10.2 Hooke?s Law for Tensile and Compressive Forces 350 10.3 Beyond Hooke?s Law 352 10.4 Shear and Volume Deformations 355 10.5 Simple Harmonic Motion 359 10.6 The Period and Frequency for SHM 362 10.7 Graphical Analysis of SHM 366 10.8 The Pendulum 368 10.9 Damped Oscillations 373 10.10 Forced Oscillations and Resonance 373 Chapter 11 Waves 385 11.1 Waves and Energy Transport 386 11.2 Transverse and Longitudinal Waves 388 11.3 Speed of Transverse Waves on a String 390 11.4 Periodic Waves 391 11.5 Mathematical Description of a Wave 393 11.6 Graphing Waves 394 11.7 Principle of Superposition 396 11.8 Reflection and Refraction 397 11.9 Interference and Diffraction 400 11.10 Standing Waves 402 Chapter 12 Sound 415 12.1 Sound Waves 416 12.2 The Speed of Sound Waves 418 12.3 Amplitude and Intensity of Sound Waves 419 12.4 Standing Sound Waves 424 12.5 Timbre 428 12.6 The Human Ear 429 12.7 Beats 431 12.8 The Doppler Effect 433 12.9 Shock Waves 437 12.10 Echolocation and Medical Imaging 438 Review and Synthesis: Chapters 9?12 449 PART TWO Thermal Physics Chapter 13 Temperature and the Ideal Gas 453 13.1 Temperature 454 13.2 Temperature Scales 455 13.3 Thermal Expansion of Solids and Liquids 456 13.4 Molecular Picture of a Gas 460 13.5 Absolute Temperature and the Ideal Gas Law 462 13.6 Kinetic Theory of the Ideal Gas 466 13.7 Temperature and Reaction Rates 471 13.8 Collisions Between Gas Molecules 473 Chapter 14 Heat 485 14.1 Internal Energy 486 14.2 Heat 488 14.3 Heat Capacity and Specific Heat 490 14.4 Specific Heat of Ideal Gases 493 14.5 Phase Transitions 495 14.6 Thermal Conduction 502 14.7 Thermal Convection 505 14.8 Thermal Radiation 508 Chapter 15 Thermodynamics 523 15.1 The First Law of Thermodynamics 524 15.2 Thermodynamic Processes 525 15.3 Thermodynamic Processes for an Ideal Gas 529 15.4 Reversible and Irreversible Processes 532 15.5 Heat Engines 533 15.6 Refrigerators and Heat Pumps 536 15.7 Reversible Engines and Heat Pumps 538 15.8 Details of the Carnot Cycle 541 15.9 Entropy 542 15.10 Statistical Interpretation of Entropy 545 15.11 The Third Law of Thermodynamics 547 Review and Synthesis: Chapters 13?15 557 PART THREE Electromagnetism Chapter 16 Electric Forces and Fields 561 16.1 Electric Charge 562 16.2 Electrical Conductors and Insulators 565 16.3 Coulomb?s Law 569 16.4 The Electric Field 573 16.5 Motion of a Point Charge in a Uniform Electric Field 580 16.6 Conductors in Electrostatic Equilibrium 582 16.7 Gauss?s Law for Electric Fields 585 Chapter 17 Electric Potential 599 17.1 Electric Potential Energy 600 17.2 Electric Potential 603 17.3 The Relationship Between Electric Field and Potential 610 17.4 Conservation of Energy for Moving Charges 613 17.5 Capacitors 614 17.6 Dielectrics 618 17.7 Energy Stored in a Capacitor 623 Chapter 18 Electric Current and Circuits 637 18.1 Electric Current 638 18.2 Emf and Circuits 640 18.3 Microscopic View of Current in a Metal: The Free-Electron Model 642 18.4 Resistance and Resistivity 644 18.5 Kirchhoff?s Rules 650 18.6 Series and Parallel Circuits 651 18.7 Circuit Analysis Using Kirchhoff?s Rules 657 18.8 Power and Energy in Circuits 659 18.9 Measuring Currents and Voltages 661 18.10 RC Circuits 663 18.11 Electrical Safety 667 Review and Synthesis: Chapters 16?18 683 Chapter 19 Magnetic Forces and Fields 687 19.1 Magnetic Fields 688 19.2 Magnetic Force on a Point Charge 692 19.3 Charged Particle Moving Perpendicularly to a Uniform Magnetic Field 697 19.4 Motion of a Charged Particle in a Uniform Magnetic Field: General 701 19.5 A Charged Particle in Crossed #$E and #$B Fields 702 19.6 Magnetic Force on a Current-Carrying Wire 706 19.7 Torque on a Current Loop 708 19.8 Magnetic Field Due to an Electric Current 711 19.9 Amp¿re?s Law 716 19.10 Magnetic Materials 718 Chapter 20 Electromagnetic Induction 733 20.1 Motional Emf 734 20.2 Electric Generators 737 20.3 Faraday?s Law 740 20.4 Lenz?s Law 745 20.5 Back Emf in a Motor 747 20.6 Transformers 748 20.7 Eddy Currents 749 20.8 Induced Electric Fields 751 20.9 Mutual- and Self-Inductance 752 20.10 LR Circuits 756 Chapter 21 Alternating Current 771 21.1 Sinusoidal Currents and Voltages; Resistors in ac Circuits 772 21.2 Electricity in the Home 774 21.3 Capacitors in ac Circuits 776 21.4 Inductors in ac Circuits 779 21.5 RLC Series Circuits 781 21.6 Resonance in an RLC Circuit 785 21.7 Converting ac to dc; Filters 787 Review and Synthesis: Chapters 19?21 797 PART FOUR Electromagnetic Waves and Optics Chapter 22 Electromagnetic Waves 801 22.1 Accelerating Charges Produce Electromagnetic Waves 802 22.2 Maxwell?s Equations 803 22.3 Antennas 804 22.4 The Electromagnetic Spectrum 807 22.5 Speed of EM Waves in Vacuum and in Matter 811 22.6 Characteristics of Electromagnetic Waves in Vacuum 815 22.7 Energy Transport by EM Waves 817 22.8 Polarization 821 22.9 The Doppler Effect for EM Waves 828 Chapter 23 Reflection and Refraction of Light 837 23.1 Wavefronts, Rays, and Huygens?s Principle 838 23.2 The Reflection of Light 841 23.3 The Refraction of Light: Snell?s Law 842 23.4 Total Internal Reflection 847 23.5 Polarization by Reflection 852 23.6 The Formation of Images Through Reflection or Refraction 853 23.7 Plane Mirrors 856 23.8 Spherical Mirrors 858 23.9 Thin Lenses 864 Chapter 24 Optical Instruments 879 24.1 Lenses in Combination 880 24.2 Cameras 883 24.3 The Eye 886 24.4 The Simple Magnifier 891 24.5 Compound Microscopes 893 24.6 Telescopes 895 24.7 Aberrations of Lenses and Mirrors 899 Chapter 25 Interference and Diffraction 909 25.1 Constructive and Destructive Interference 910 25.2 The Michelson Interferometer 914 25.3 Thin Films 917 25.4 Young?s Double-Slit Experiment 922 25.5 Gratings 926 25.6 Diffraction and Huygens?s Principle 929 25.7 Diffraction by a Single Slit 931 25.8 Diffraction and the Resolution of Optical Instruments 935 25.9 X-Ray Diffraction 937 25.10 Holography 939 Review and Synthesis: Chapters 22?25 950 PART FIVE Quantum and Particle Physics and Relativity Chapter 26 Relativity 953 26.1 Postulates of Relativity 954 26.2 Simultaneity and Ideal Observers 957 26.3 Time Dilation 960 26.4 Length Contraction 963 26.5 Velocities in Different Reference Frames 965 26.6 Relativistic Momentum 967 26.7 Mass and Energy 969 26.8 Relativistic Kinetic Energy 971 Chapter 27 Early Quantum Physics and the Photon 983 27.1 Quantization 984 27.2 Blackbody Radiation 984 27.3 The Photoelectric Effect 985 27.4 X-Ray Production 991 27.5 Compton Scattering 992 27.6 Spectroscopy and Early Models of the Atom 994 27.7 The Bohr Model of the Hydrogen Atom; Atomic Energy Levels 998 27.8 Pair Annihilation and Pair Production 1005 Chapter 28 Quantum Physics 1015 28.1 The Wave-Particle Duality 1016 28.2 Matter Waves 1017 28.3 Electron Microscopes 1020 28.4 The Uncertainty Principle 1022 28.5 Wave Functions for a Confined Particle 1024 28.6 The Hydrogen Atom: Wave Functions and Quantum Numbers 1026 28.7 The Exclusion Principle; Electron Configurations for Atoms Other Than Hydrogen 1028 28.8 Electron Energy Levels in a Solid 1032 28.9 Lasers 1034 28.10 Tunneling 1038 Chapter 29 Nuclear Physics 1049 29.1 Nuclear Structure 1050 29.2 Binding Energy 1053 29.3 Radioactivity 1057 29.4 Radioactive Decay Rates and Half-Lives 1063 29.5 Biological Effects of Radiation 1069 29.6 Induced Nuclear Reactions 1073 29.7 Fission 1075 29.8 Fusion 1080 Chapter 30 Particle Physics 1089 30.1 Fundamental Particles 1090 30.2 Fundamental Interactions 1092 30.3 Unification 1095 30.4 Particle Accelerators 1097 30.5 Twenty-First-Century Particle Physics 1098 Review and Synthesis: Chapters 26?30 1102 Appendix A Mathematics Review A-1 Appendix B Table of Selected Nuclides A-15 Answers to Selected Questions and Problems AP-1 Credits C-1 Index I-1 LIST OF SELECTED APPLICATIONS # Biology/Life Science Energy transformation in a jumping flea, Section 6.7, p. 205 Energy conversion in animal jumping, Example 6.12, p. 205 Flexor versus extensor muscles, Section 8.5, p. 275 Force to hold arm horizontal, Section 8.10, p. 276 Forces on the human spine during heavy lifting, Section 8.5, p. 278 Sphygmomanometer and blood pressure, Section 9.5, p. 320 Floating and sinking of fish and animals, Example 9.8, p. 324 Speed of blood flow, Example 9.9, p. 326 Plaque buildup and narrowed arteries, Section 9.8, p. 330 Narrowing arteries and high blood pressure, Section 9.9, p. 333 Arterial blockage, Example 9.12, p. 333 How insects can walk on the surface of a pond, Section 9.11, p. 336 Surfactant in the lungs, Section 9.11, p. 336 Surface tension of alveoli in the lungs, Example 9.14, p. 337 Tension and compression in bone, Example 10.2, p. 352 Osteoporosis, Section 10.3, p. 353 Size limitations on organisms, Section 10.3, p. 355 Comparison of walking speeds for various creatures, Example 10.10, p. 371 Sensitivity of the human ear, Section 11.1, p. 387 Sound waves from a songbird, Example 12.2, p. 420 Human ear, Section 12.6, p. 429 Echolocation of bats and dolphins, Section 12.10, p. 438 Medical applications of ultrasound, ultrasonic imaging, Section 12.10, p. 439 Evolutionary advantages of warm-blooded versus cold-blooded animals, Example 13.8, p. 471; Section 13.7, p. 472 Diffusion of oxygen into the bloodstream, Section 13.8 and Example 13.10, p. 475 Using ice to protect buds from freezing, Section 14.5, p. 496 Thermography, Section 14.8, p. 510 Thermal radiation from the human body, Example 14.15, p. 511 Electrolocation in fish, Section 16.4, p. 579 Transmission of nerve impulses, Section 17.2, p. 609 Electrocardiogram (EKG) and electroencephalogram (EEG), Section 17.2, p. 609 Neuron capacitance, Example 17.11, p. 621 Defibrillator, Example 17.12, p. 624; Section 18.11, p. 667 Simplified electrical model of a myelinated axon, Section 18.10, p. 666 Magnetotactic bacteria, Section 19.1, p. 691 Medical uses of cyclotrons, Section 19.3, p. 699 Electromagnetic blood flowmeter, Section 19.5, p. 704 Magnetoencephalography, Section 20.3, p. 744 Thermograms of the human body, Section 22.4, p. 808 Fluorescence, Section 22.4, p. 809 X-rays in medicine and dentistry, CAT scans, Section 22.4, p. 810 Navigation of bees, Section 22.8, p. 827 Endoscope, Section 23.4, p. 852 Human eye, Section 24.3, p. 886 Correcting myopia/hyperopia, Section 24.3, pp. 888?889; Example 24.4, p. 889; Example 24.5, p. 890 Iridescent colors in butterfly wings, Section 25.3, p. 921 Resolution of the human eye, Section 25.8, p. 937 Positron emission tomography (PET) scans, Section 27.8, p. 1006; Section 29.5, p. 1072 Electron microscopes, Section 28.3, p. 1020 Laser Surgery, Section 28.9, p. 1037 Radiocarbon dating, Section 29.4, p. 1066 Biological effect of radiation, Section 29.5, p. 1069 Radioactive tracers in medical diagnosis, Section 29.5, p. 1072 Radiation therapy, Section 29.5, p. 1073 Gamma knife radiosurgery, Section 29.5, p. 1073 Chemistry Collision between krypton atom and water molecule, Example 7.9, p. 239 Why reaction rates increase with temperature, Section 13.7, Example 13.8, p. 471 Polarization of charge in water, Section 16.1, p. 565 Current in electrolytes, Section 18.1, p. 639 Spectroscopic analysis of elements, Section 27.6, p. 996 Electronic configurations of atoms, Section 28.7, p. 1029 Periodic table, Section 28.7, p. 1030 Geology/Earth Science Angular speed of Earth, Example 5.1, p. 145 Hidden depths of an iceberg, Example 9.7, p. 322 Why ocean waves approach shore nearly head on, Section 11.8, p. 399 Ocean currents and global warming, Section 14.7, p. 506 Electric Potential Energy in a Thundercloud, Example 17.1, p. 601 Thunderclouds and lightning, Section 17.6, p. 622 Earth?s magnetic field, Section 19.1, p. 690 Cosmic rays, Example 19.1, p. 694 Magnetic force on an ion in the air, Example 19.2, p. 695 Intensity of sunlight reaching the Earth, Example 22.6, p. 820 Colors of the sky during the day and at sunset, Section 22.8, p. 826 Rainbows, Section 23.3, p. 847 Cosmic rays, Example 26.2, p. 965; Example 26.4, p. 968 Radioactive dating of geologic formations, Section 29.4, p. 1068 Neutron activation of geological objects, Section 29.6, p. 1075 Astronomy/Space Science Speed of Hubble Telescope orbiting the Earth, Example 5.8, p. 157 Kepler?s laws of planetary motion, Section 5.4, p. 158; Section 8.8, p. 286 Orbit of geostationary satellite, Example 5.9, p. 159 Apparent weightlessness of orbiting astronauts, Section 5.7, p. 166 Work done on an orbiting satellite, Section 6.2, p. 186 Escape speed from Earth, Example 6.8, p. 199 Center of mass of a binary star system, Example 7.7, p. 234 Motion of an exploding model rocket, Example 7.8, p. 236 Orbital speed of Earth, Example 8.15, p. 287 Composition of planetary atmospheres, Section 13.6, p. 470 Temperature of the Sun, Example 14.14, p. 509 Global warming and the greenhouse effect, Section 14.8, p. 512 Aurorae on Earth, Jupiter, and Saturn, Section 19.4, p. 702 Cosmic microwave background radiation, Section 22.4, p. 810 Light from a supernova, Example 22.2, p. 813 Doppler shift for distant stars and galaxies, Section 22.9, p. 830 Reflecting telescopes, Section 24.6, p. 897 Hubble Space Telescope, Section 24.6, p. 898 Radio telescopes, Section 24.7, p. 899 Observing active galactic nuclei, Section 26.2, p. 959 Aging of astronauts during space voyages, Example 26.1, p. 962 Nuclear fusion in stars, Section 29.8, p. 1081 The Big Bang and the history of the universe, Section 30.3, p. 1095 Architecture Cantilever building construction, Section 8.4, p. 269 Strength of building materials, Section 10.3, p. 353 Vibration of a bridge, Section 10.10, p. 374 Expansion joints in bridges and buildings, Section 13.3, p. 457 Heat transfer through window glass, Example 14.10, p. 503; Example 14.11, p. 504 Technology/Machines Advantages of a pulley, Section 2.8, p. 53 Catapults and projectile motion, Example 4.9, p. 123 Products to protect the human body from injury, Example 7.2, p. 225 Safety features in a modern car, Section 7.3, p. 226 Recoil of a rifle, Section 7.4, p. 232 Atwood?s machine, Example 8.2, p. 260 Angular momentum of a gyroscope, Section 8.9, p. 287 Hydraulic lift, Example 9.2, p. 314 Mercury manometer, Example 9.5, p. 318 Venturi meter, Example 9.11, p. 329 Sedimentation velocity and centrifuge, Section 9.10, p. 335 Operation of sonar, Section 12.10, p. 439 Bimetallic strip in a thermostat, Section 13.3, p. 459 Operation of an internal combustion engine, Section 15.5, p. 534 Efficiency of a heat engine, Section 15.5, p. 535 Photocopier, Section 16.2, p. 568 Cathode ray tube, Example 16.8, p. 580 Electrostatic shielding, Section 16.6, p. 583 Lightning rods, Section 16.6, p. 584 Electrostatic precipitator, Section 16.6, p. 585 Battery-powered lantern, Example 17.3, p. 604 van de Graaff generator, Section 17.2, p. 607 Computer keyboard, Example 17.9, p. 616 Condenser microphone, Section 17.5, p. 617 Random-access memory (RAM) chips, Section 17.5, p. 617 Camera flash attachments, Section 17.5, p. 618; Section 18.10, p. 666 Electron drift velocity in household wiring, Example 18.2, p. 644 Resistance thermometer, Section 18.4, p. 647 Battery connection in a flashlight, Section 18.6, p. 652 Household wiring, Section 18.11, p. 668; Section 21.2, p. 774 Magnetic compass, Section 19.1, p. 689 Bubble chamber, Section 19.3, p. 697 Mass spectrometer, Section 19.3, p. 698 Proton cyclotron, Example 19.5, p. 700 Electric motor (dc), Section 19.7, p. 710 Galvanometer, Section 19.7, p. 710 Audio speakers, Section 19.7, p. 711 Electromagnets, Section 19.10, p. 720 Computer hard disks, magnetic tape, Section 19.10, p. 720 Electric generators, Section 20.2, p. 737 Ground fault interrupter, Section 20.3, p. 744 Moving coil microphone, Section 20.3, p. 744 Back emf in a motor, Section 20.5, p. 747 Transformers, Section 20.6, p. 748 Electric power distribution, Section 20.6, p. 749 Eddy-current braking, Section 20.7, p. 750 Induction stove, Section 20.7, p. 751 Radio tuning circuit, Example 21.3, p. 780, Example 21.6, p. 786 Laptop computer power supply, Example 21.5, p. 784 Diodes and rectifiers, Section 21.7, p. 787 Filters for audio tweeters and woofers, Section 21.7, p. 788 Radio/TV antennas, Section 22.3, p. 805 Microwave ovens, Section 22.4, p. 809 Liquid crystal displays, Section 22.8, p. 825 Radar guns, Example 22.9, p. 829 Periscope, Section 23.4, p. 850 Fiber optics, Section 23.4, p. 851 Zoom lens, Example 23.9, p. 868 Cameras, Section 24.2, p. 883 Microscopes, Section 24.5, p. 893 Telescopes, Section 24.6, p. 895 Reading a compact disk (CD), Section 25.1, p. 914 Michelson interferometer, Section 25.2, p. 914 Interference microscope, Section 25.2, p. 916 Antireflective coating, Section 25.3, p. 921 CD player tracking, Section 25.5, p. 927 Grating spectroscope, Section 25.5, p. 928 Diffraction and photolithography, Example 25.7, p. 930 Resolution of a laser printer, Example 25.9, p. 936 X-ray diffraction, Section 25.9, p. 937 Photocells used for sound tracks, burglar alarms, garage door openers, Section 27.3, p. 990 Diagnostic x-rays in medicine, Example 27.4, p. 991 Lasers, Section 28.9, p. 1034 Scanning tunneling microscope, Section 28.10, p. 1039 Nuclear fission reactors, Section 29.7, p. 1078 Nuclear fusion reactors, Section 29.8, p. 1082 High-energy particle accelerators, Section 30.4, p. 1097 Transportation Motion of a train, Section 3.1, p. 70 Acceleration of a sports car, Example 3.7, p. 84 Braking a car, Practice Problem 3.7, p. 86 Relative velocities for pilots and sailors, Section 3.5, p. 94 Airplane flight in a wind, Example 3.12, p. 94 Length of runway for airplane takeoff, Example 4.4, p. 113 Angular speed of a motorcycle wheel, Example 5.3, p. 148 Banked roadways, Section 5.3, p. 154 Banking angle of an airplane, Section 5.3, p. 156 Circular motion of stunt pilot, Example 5.14, p. 167 Damage in a high-speed collision, Example 6.3, p. 191 Power of a car climbing a hill, Example 6.13, p. 207 Momentum of a moving car, Example 7.1, p. 224 Force acting on a car passenger in a crash, Example 7.3, p. 227 Jet, rockets, and airplane wings, Section 7.4, p. 232 Torque on a spinning bicycle wheel, Example 8.3, p. 263 Airplane wings and lift, Section 9.8, p. 330 Shock absorbers in a car, Section 10.9, p. 373 Shock wave of a supersonic plane, Section 12.9, p. 437 Air temperature changes in car tires, Section 13.5, p. 464 Efficiency of an automobile engine, Example 15.7, p. 540 Starting a car using flashlight batteries, Example 18.5, p. 649 Bicycle generator, Example 20.2, p. 739 Sports Velocity and acceleration of an inline skater, Example 3.6, p. 83 Terminal speed of skydivers, Example 4.13, p. 130 The hammer throw, Example 5.5, p. 151 Bungee jumping, Example 6.4, p. 191 Rock climbers rappelling, Example 6.5, p. 194 Speed of a downhill skier, Example 6.6, p. 195 Work done in drawing a bow, Section 6.6, p. 200; Example 6.9, p. 201 Energy in a dart gun, Example 6.11, p. 204 Elastic collision in a game of pool, Example 7.12, p. 243 Muscle forces for the iron cross (gymnastics), Section 8.5, p. 277 Rotational inertia of a figure skater, Section 8.7, p. 284 Pressure on a diver, Example 9.3, p. 316 Compressed air tanks for a scuba diver, Example 13.6, p. 465 Everyday Life Buying clothes, unit conversions, Example 1.5, p. 9 Hauling a crate up to a third-floor window, Example 4.2, p. 110 Apparent weight in an elevator, Example 4.12, p. 128 Circular motion of a CD, Example 5.4, p. 150 Speed of roller coaster car in vertical loop, Example 5.11, p. 162 Circular motion of a potter?s wheel, Example 5.13, p. 165 Antique chest delivery, Example 6.1, p. 186 Pulling a sled through snow, Example 6.2, p. 189 Getting down to nuts and bolts, Example 6.10, p. 202 Motion of a raft on a still lake, Example 7.5, p. 231 Automatic screen door closer, Example 8.4, p. 265 Work done on a potter?s wheel, Example 8.5, p. 267 Climbing a ladder on a slippery floor, Example 8.7, p. 270 Pushing a file cabinet so it doesn?t tip, Example 8.9, p. 273 Torque on a grinding wheel, Example 8.11, p. 280 Pressure exerted by wearing high-heeled shoes, Example 9.1, p. 311 Cutting action of a pair of scissors, Example 10.4, p. 357 Difference between musical sound and noise, Section 11.4, p. 391 Sound of a horn in air and water, Example 11.5, p. 398 Sound from a guitar, Section 12.1, p. 416 Sound from a loudspeaker, Section 12.1, p. 416 Sound intensity of a jackhammer, Example 12.3, p. 421 Sources of musical sound, Section 12.4, p. 424 Tuning a piano, Section 12.7, p. 432; Example 12.7, p. 433 Temperature conversion, Example 13.1, p. 456 Chill caused by perspiration, Section 14.5, p. 500 Offshore and onshore breezes, Section 14.7, p. 505 Double-paned windows and down jackets, Section 14.7, p. 505 Static charge from walking across a carpet, Example 16.1, p. 563 Electrostatic charge of adhesive tape, Section 16.2, p. 568 Colors from reflection and absorption of light, Section 23.1, p. 838 Mirages, Section 23.3, p. 846 Height needed for a full-length mirror, Example 23.5, p. 857 Shaving or cosmetic mirrors, Section 23.8, p. 860 Side-view mirrors on cars, Example 23.7, p. 863 Colors in soap films, oil slicks, Section 25.3, p. 917 Neon signs, Section 27.6, p. 995 Fluorescent dyes in laundry detergent, Section 27.7, p. 1003

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Physics -- Textbooks.