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CONTENTS List of Articles ix Introduction 00 Encyclopedia of African American History 1896 to the Present FROM THE AGE OF SEGREGATION TO THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY Chronology of African American History, 1896 to the Present volume 5, 000 Topical Outline of Entries volume 5, 000 Directory of Contributors volume 5, 000 Index volume 5, 000 [page viii: blank] [page ix: list of entries] LIST OF ENTRIES Aaron, Hank Abernathy, Ralph David Abu-Jamal, Mumia Abyssinian Baptist Church Actors and Actresses Adoption Affirmative Action Africa, Idea of African Blood Brotherhood African Diaspora African Liberation Support Committee Afro-American Council Afrocentrism Agriculture and Agricultural Labor AIDS Ailey, Alvin Alabama Alabama State University Alaska Albany Movement Alcorn State University Ali, Muhammad Alvin Ailey American Dance Theater AME Church AME Church Review Amenia Conferences: Amenia Conference of 1916 Amenia Conferences: Amenia Conference of 1933 American Colonization Society American Dilemma, An American Negro Academy American Negro Labor Congress AME Zion Church Amos 'n' Andy Amsterdam News Anderson, Charles William Anderson, Eddie Anderson, Marian Angelou, Maya Anna T. Jeanes Fund Antiapartheid Anticommunism and Civil Rights Antilynching Campaign Antiwar Movement, Vietnam Apollo Theater Aptheker, Herbert Architects and Architecture Arizona Arkansas Armstrong, Louis Asante, Molefi Ashe, Arthur Associated Negro Press Association for the Study of African American Life and History Astronauts Atlanta Atlanta Exposition Address (Atlanta Compromise) Atlanta Life Insurance Company Atlanta Riot Atlanta University Atlanta World Baker, Ella Baker, Josephine Baker, Ray Stannard Baldwin, James Baltimore Baltimore Afro-American Bambara, Toni Cade Banks, Ernie Banks, Tyra Banks, African American-Owned Baptist Church, African Americans and Baraka, Amiri Barbershops Barnett, Ferdinand L. Barry, Marion Barth¿, Richmond Baseball: Integrated Professional Baseball Baseball: Negro League Basie, Count Basketball Basquiat, Jean-Michel Bass, Charlotta Bassett, Angela Bates, Daisy Lee Bearden, Romare Belafonte, Harry Bell, Cool Papa Bell, Derrick Belton, Sharon Sayles Benevolent Societies Benga, Ota Bennett, Gwendolyn Bennett, Lerone Berry, Chuck Berry, Halle Berry, Mary F. Bethune, Mary McLeod Bethune-Cookman College Beyonc¿ Biggers, John Bing, Dave Birmingham Campaign Birth of a Nation, The Birth of a Race, The Black Arts Movement Black Cabinets Black Capitalism Black Church Black Coaches Association Black Entertainment Television Black-Jewish Relations Black Liberation Army Black Migration Black Nationalism Black Panther Party Black Politics Black Power Movement Black Press Black Radical Congress Black Star Line Black Studies Black Towns Black Workers Congress Black Workers for Justice Blake, Eubie Blakey, Art Blaxploitation Films Blige, Mary J. Blues Boas, Franz Bo Diddley Bond, Horace Mann Bond, Julian Bonds, Barry Bontemps, Arna Boston Boston Guardian Boston Riot Boxing Bradley, Ed Bradley, Tom Braithwaite, William Stanley Branton, Wiley Brawley, Benjamin Briggs, Cyril Brimmer, Andrew F. Broadcast Industry, African Americans in the Brooke, Edward Brookins, H. Hartford Brooks, Gwendolyn Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters Brown, Charlotte Hawkins Brown, Clarence Brown, H. Rap Brown, James Brown, Jim Brown, Lee Brown, Ron Brown, Sterling Brown, Tony Brown, Willie Brownies' Book, The Brownsville Raid Brown v. Board of Education Broyard, Anatole Bryant, Kobe Buchanan v. Warley Bullins, Ed Bumstead, Horace Bunche, Ralph Johnson Burnham, Louis Burns, Haywood Burrell Communications Bush, George H. W., Administration of Bush, George W., Administration of Butler, Octavia Butts, Calvin California Campanella, Roy Caribbean, The Carmichael, Stokely Carnegie Corporation Carnegie Hall Conference Carroll, Diahann Carson, Benjamin Carter, Benny Carter, Betty Carter, Jimmy, Administration of Carter, Robert Carter, Ron Cartoonists Carver, George Washington Catlett, Elizabeth Chamberlain, Wilt Chambers, Julius Charitable Institutions, African American Charles, Ray Charleston, Oscar Chase, W. Calvin Chase-Riboud, Barbara Chavis-Muhammad, Benjamin Chenault, Kenneth Chesnutt, Charles W. Cheyney University of Pennsylvania Chicago Chicago Defender Chicago Riot Childhood Childress, Alice Childress, Alvin China Chisholm, Shirley Chitlin Circuit Choreographers Church, Robert R. Church of God in Christ Civil Disobedience Civil Rights Civil Rights, International Civil Rights, State Actions and Civil Rights, White Responses and Resistance to Civil Rights Act of 1957 Civil Rights Act of 1960 Civil Rights Act of 1964 Civil Rights and the Media Civil Rights Movement Clansman, The Clark, Mamie Phipps and Kenneth Clark, Septima Clark Atlanta University Clarke, John Henrik Class Clay, William, Sr. Cleage, Albert and Pearl Cleaver, Eldridge Cleaver, Kathleen Neal Clemente, Roberto Cleveland Cleveland, Grover, Administration of Clifton, Lucille Clinton, Bill, Administration of CME Church Coalition of Black Trade Unionists Cobb, Charles Sr., and Jr. Cochran, Johnnie COINTELPRO Cold War Cole, Bob Cole, Johnnetta Cole, Nat King Collectibles, Black Collins, Cardiss Colorado Colored American Magazine Coltrane, John Combs, Sean Comedians Comer, James Commission on Interracial Cooperation Committee of Twelve Communism and African Americans Composers Conductors and Bandleaders Congress, African Americans in Congressional Black Caucus Congress of African People Congress of Racial Equality Connecticut Connerly, Ward Conservatism and Conservatives, Black Constitution, U.S. Conyers, John Cook, Will Marion Cooke, Sam Coolidge, Calvin, Administration of Cooper, Anna J. Cortez, Jayne Cosby, Bill Cotton Club Council on African Affairs Craft, Juanita Criminal Justice Crisis, The: A Record of the Darker Races Crocker, Frankie Crockett, George Crothers, Scatman Crown Heights Riot Crummell, Alexander Cruse, Harold Wright Cruz, Celia Cullen, Count¿e Dallas Dance Dance Theatre of Harlem Dandridge, Dorothy Dash, Damon Davis, Angela Davis, Benjamin J., Jr. Davis, Benjamin O., Jr. Davis, Benjamin O., Sr. Davis, John P. Davis, Miles Davis, Ossie Davis, Sammy, Jr. Deacons for Defense and Justice DeCarava, Roy Dee, Ruby Delany, Hubert T. Delaware Dellums, Ronald V. Democratic Party Demographics De Priest, Oscar Desegregation and Integration: Overview Desegregation and Integration: Armed Forces Desegregation and Integration: Higher Education Desegregation and Integration: Public Education Desegregation and Integration: Professional Athletics Detroit Detroit Riots: Detroit Riots of 1943 Detroit Riots: Detroit Riots of 1967 Dexter Avenue Baptist Church Diggs, Charles Dillard University Dinkins, David Discrimination Disfranchisement of African Americans Divine, Father Dixiecrat Party Dixon, Julian Dixon, Thomas, Jr. Doby, Lawrence Eugene Domino, Fats Douglas, Aaron Douglass, Frederick, in American Memory Dove, Rita Drake, St. Clair Dr. Dre Drew, Charles Richard Drugs Du Bois, Shirley Graham Du Bois, W. E. B.: Life and Career Du Bois, W. E. B.: Historical Writing Du Bois, W. E. B.: Literary Writing Dunbar, Paul Laurence Dunbar-Nelson, Alice Dunham, Katherine Dunjee, Roscoe Dyer Antilynching Bill Dymally, Mervyn East Saint Louis Riot Ebenezer Church Ebony Economic Life Edelman, Marian Wright Edison, Harry Education Educators and Academics Edwards, Harry Edwards, Harry Eisenhower, Dwight D., Administration of Elder, Lee Elderly, The Elders, Joycelyn Ellington, Duke Ellison, Ralph Emperor Jones, The Encyclopedia of the Negro Entertainment Industry and African Americans Entrepreneurship Equal Employment Opportunity Commission Espy, Michael Eugenics Movement Europe, James Reese Evers, Charles Evers, Medgar Wylie Evers-Williams, Myrlie Executive Order 8802 Executive Order 9981 Expatriates Fair Employment Practices Commission Fair Housing Act Family Farmer, James Farmers and Land Ownership Farr, Mel Farrakhan, Louis Fauntroy, Walter Fauset, Jessie Redmon Federal Bureau of Investigation Feminism Ferguson, Roger Film and Filmmakers Film and Television Depictions of African Americans Fire!! Fishburne, Laurence Fisher, Rudolph Fisk Jubilee Singers Fisk University Fitzgerald, Ella Flake, Floyd Fletcher, Arthur Flipper, Henry Ossian Florida Florida A&M University Folklore Football Ford, Gerald, Administration of Ford, Harold, Jr. Ford, Harold, Sr. Foreign Policy Foreman, George Forman, James Fortune, Timothy Thomas Foster, Rube France Frank, Leo Franklin, Aretha Louise Franklin, C. L. Franklin, John Hope Franks, Gary Fraternal Organizations, African American Fraternities, University and College Frazier, E. Franklin Freedom Rides Freedomways Freeman, Morgan Fudge, Ann Fuller, Meta Warrick Gans, Joe Gantt, Harvey Garvey, Marcus Gates, Henry Louis, Jr. Gaye, Marvin Gender Genealogy General Education Board Georgia Gibson, Althea Gibson, Bob Gibson, Joshua Gillespie, Dizzy Gillespie, Marcia Giovanni, Nikki Glover, Danny Glover, Savion Goldberg, Whoopi Golf Goode, Wilson Gordon, Dexter Gordone, Charles Gordy, Berry, Jr. Gospel Music Grambling State University Grandfather Clause Grandmaster Flash Graves, Earl G. Great Depression Great Migration Great Migration, Second Gregory, Dick Grier, Pam Griffey, Ken, Jr. Griffith-Joyner, Florence Griggs, Sutton E. Grimk¿, Angelina Weld Grimk¿, Archibald Henry Grimk¿, Francis James Guess Who's Coming to Dinner Guinier, Lani Gulf War Guy, Rosa Gwynn, Tony Hair and Beauty Culture Haiti Haley, Alex Hamer, Fannie Lou Hampton, Fred Hampton, Henry Hampton, Lionel Hampton Institute Hampton Negro Conferences Hancock, Herbie Handy, W. C. Hansberry, Lorraine Harding, Warren G., Administration of Harlem Harlem Globetrotters Harlem Hell Fighters Harlem Renaissance Harlem Riots: Harlem Riots of 1935 Harlem Riots: Harlem Riots of 1943 Harlem Riots: Harlem Riots of 1964 Harper, Frances Ellen Watkins Harris, Abram, Jr. Harris, E. Lynn Harris, Joel Chandler Harris, Patricia Roberts Harvard, Beverly Hastie, William Henry Hastings, Alcee Hatcher, Richard Hate Crimes Hate Groups Hate Speech Hawaii Hayden, Palmer Hayes, Isaac Hayes, Rutherford B. Haywood, Harry Head Start Health and Medicine Hedgeman, Anna A. Height, Dorothy Hemphill, Essex Henderson, Fletcher Hamilton, Jr. Hendrix, Jimi Henry, Aaron Herman, Alexis Herndon, Angelo, Case of Herskovits, Melville Higginbotham, A. Leon, Jr. Higher Education Highlander Folk School Hightower, Dennis Hill, Oliver W. Hilliard, Earl Hip Hop Historians Historically Black Colleges and Universities Historiography Holiday, Billie Homelessness Homosexuality and Transgenderism Hooker, John Lee hooks, bell Hooks, Benjamin Hoover, Herbert, Administration of Hope, John Hopkins, Sam Lightnin' Horizon, The Horne, Lena Horseracing Hose, Sam, Lynching of House, Son Houston, Charles Hamilton Houston, Whitney Houston Houston Informer Houston Mutiny Howard University Howlin' Wolf Hudlin, Warrington and Reggie Hughes, Langston Hughes Brothers Hunter, Alberta Hunter-Gault, Charlayne Hunton, Alphaeus Hurricane Katrina Hurston, Zora Neale Hutson, Jean Blackwell Ice Cube Idaho Identity Ifill, Gwen Illinois Immigrants and African Americans Immigration to the United States, Black Indiana Indianapolis Freeman Industrial Education Movement Industrialization and Deindustrialization Innis, Roy Insurance Companies, African American-Owned Intellectuals Intelligence Tests Internet Iowa Iraq War Jabbar, Kareem Abdul Jack and Jill of America, Inc. Jackson, George Jackson, Janet Jackson, Jesse Jackson, Jesse, Jr. Jackson, Mahalia Jackson, Maynard Jackson, Michael Jackson, Reggie Jackson, Samuel L. Jackson, Shirley Ann Jackson State University Jacob, John Jakes, T. D. James, Daniel, Jr. Jamison, Judith Japan Jay-Z Jazz Jefferson, Blind Lemon Jefferson, William Jemison, Mae Jet Jews, Black Jim Crow Laws Johnson, Charles S. Johnson, Eddie Bernice Johnson, J. Rosamond Johnson, Jack Johnson, James Weldon Johnson, John H. Johnson, Lyndon B. Johnson, Lyndon B., Administration of Johnson, Magic Johnson, Michael Johnson Publishing Company Jones, Elaine Jones, James Earl Jones, K. C. Jones, Lois Mailou Jones, Nathaniel Jones, Quincy Jones, Roy Joplin, Scott Jordan, Barbara Jordan, June Jordan, Michael Jordan, Vernon Journalism, Print and Broadcast Journal of Negro Education Journal of Negro History Journey of Reconciliation Joyner-Kersee, Jackie Judges and the Judiciary Julian, Percy Julius Rosenwald Fund Juneteenth Kansas Karenga, Maulana Ron Keith, Damon Kennedy, Flo Kennedy, John F., Administration of Kennedy, Robert F. Kentucky Kerner Commission Report Keyes, Alan Kincaid, Jamaica King, B. B. King, Coretta Scott King, Don King, Martin Luther, Jr. King, Martin Luther, Jr., Assassination of King, Martin Luther, Jr., Philosophy of King, Martin Luther, Sr. King, Mel King, Woodie Kirk, Ron Kitt, Eartha Knight, Etheridge Knight, Suge Komunyakaa, Yusef Korean War Krigwa Players Ku Klux Klan Kwanzaa Lampkin, Daisy Language Larsen, Nella Last Poets Latinos and Black Latinos Lawrence, Jacob Laws and Legislation Lawson, James M. Leadbelly League of Revolutionary Black Workers Lee, Barbara Lee, Don L. Lee, Sheila Jackson Lee, Spike Legal Profession Leland, Mickey Leonard, Buck Leonard, Sugar Ray Lewis, Carl Lewis, Delano Lewis, John Lewis, Reginald Liberation Theology Liberia Lincoln, Abraham, in African American Memory Lincoln University (Missouri) Lincoln University (Pennsylvania) Literacy Tests Literature Little Richard Little Rock, Arkansas Locke, Alain Logan, Adella Hunt Logan, Rayford W. Longview Riot Lorde, Audre Los Angeles Louis, Joe Louisiana Louisville, Kentucky Loury, Glenn Loving v. Virginia Lowery, Joseph Lucy, William Lynching and Mob Violence Mabley, Moms McCall, H. Carl McCarthyism McGruder, Aaron, and Boondocks McKay, Claude McKinlay, Whitefield McKinley, William, Administration of McKinney, Cynthia McKissick, Floyd B. McMillan, Terry Maine Malcolm X Malcolm X, Memory of Marches on Washington, D.C.: Overview Marches on Washington, D.C.: 1941 Marches on Washington, D.C.: 1963 Marriage, Mixed Marsalis Family Marshall, Paule Marshall, Thurgood Martin, Louis Martin Luther King Jr. Day Martyrdom and Civil Rights Maryland Massachusetts Massive Resistance Mathis, Johnny Matthews, Victoria Earle Mayfield, Curtis Mayors Mays, Benjamin E. Mays, Willie Howard Medical Profession Meharry Medical College Memphis Meredith, James H. Meriwether, Louise Messenger, The Metcalfe, Ralph Mfume, Kweisi Miami Micheaux, Oscar Michigan Middle Class Military Military, Racism in the Miller, Dorie Miller, Kelly Million Man March Mills, Florence Milner, Ron Mingus, Charles, Jr. Minnesota Minstrel Tradition Miscegenation Laws Mississippi Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party Mississippi Freedom Summer Missouri Missouri ex rel. Gaines v. Canada Mitchell, Arthur Mitchell, Arthur W. Mitchell, Clarence Mitchell, Parren Models Modern Jazz Quartet Mohonk Conferences on the Negro Question Monk, Thelonious Montana Montgomery Bus Boycott Montgomery Conference Monuments, Museums, and Public Markers Moon Illustrated Weekly Moore, Fred R. Moore, Harry T. Moore, Queen Mother Moore, Richard Morehouse College Moreland, Mantan Morgan State University Morial, Ernest and Marc Morrison, Toni Morton, Jelly Roll Mosaic Templars Moseley Braun, Carol Moses, Robert P. Mosley, Walter Motley, Archibald J., Jr. Motley, Constance Baker Moton, Robert Russa Motown MOVE Bombing Muhammad, Elijah Murphy, Eddie Murphy, Isaac Murray, Albert L. Murray, Pauli Music Musical Theater Music Industry Muslims, Black NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund Nabrit, James M. Nash, Diane Nashville National Alliance against Racist and Political Repression National Association for the Advancement of Colored People National Association of Black Journalists National Association of Colored Women National Baptist Convention National Baptist Publishing Board National Bar Association National Committee for the Advancement of the Negro National Conference for Community and Justice National Conference of Black Lawyers National Council of Negro Women National Federation of Afro-American Women National Medical Association National Negro Business League National Negro Conference National Negro Congress National Newspaper Publishers Association National Urban League National Welfare Rights Organization Nation of Islam Naylor, Gloria Neal, Larry Nebraska Negro: An Anthology Negro History Week/Month """Negro in Art"" Symposium" Negro in the South, The Negro World Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Left, The New Mexico New Negro New Negro, The (book) New Orleans New South Newton, Huey P. New York Age New York City New York City Riot New York State Niagara Movement Nigger Heaven Nix, Robert N. C. Nixon, Edgar Daniel Nixon, Richard, Administration of No Child Left Behind Norfolk State University North Carolina North Carolina A&T State University North Dakota Norton, Eleanor Holmes Notorious B.I.G. NWA Obama, Barack Ohio Oklahoma O'Leary, Hazel Olympics O'Neal, Shaquille O'Neal, Stanley Opportunity Orangeburg Massacre Oratory and Verbal Arts Oregon Organized Crime Organized Labor Ovington, Mary White Owen, Chandler Owens, Major Page, Clarence Paige, Rod Paige, Satchel Pan-African Conference, London Pan-African Congresses, Paris and London Pan-Africanism Park, Robert E. Parker, Charles Parks, Gordon, Sr. Parks, Henry Parks, Rosa Parsons, Richard Passing Paterson, David A. Patrick, Deval Patterson, William Patton, Charlie Payton, Walter Peabody Education Fund Peace Movements, International Peacock Records Pennsylvania Peonage Petry, Ann Phelps-Stokes Fund Philadelphia Philanthropy Photography and Photographers Phylon Pickett, William Pittsburgh Courier Plessy v. Ferguson and Segregation Poitier, Sidney Political Participation Political Parties and Civil Rights Politics and Politicians Pollard, Fritz Poll Taxes Poor People's Campaign Populist Party Port Chicago Naval Magazine Explosion Porter, Dorothy Poussaint, Alvin Poverty, Culture of Powell, Adam Clayton, Jr. Powell, Adam Clayton, Sr. Powell, Colin Prairie View A&M University Pratt, Geronimo Price, Leontyne Pride, Charley Primus, Pearl Prince Prisoners' Rights and Reform Movements Professional Organizations, African American Progressive National Baptist Convention Progressive Party (1948) Prohibition and Temperance Prophet, Nancy Elizabeth Pryor, Richard Public Assistance Public Enemy Quakers Quarles, Benjamin Queen Latifah Race, Theories of Racial Profiling Racism Radicalism Radio Radio and Television Stations, African American Ragtime Railroad Segregation Raines, Franklin Rainey, Ma Randolph, A. Philip Rangel, Charles Reagan, Ronald, Administration of Redman, Joshua Reed, Ishmael Reggae Reid, Ira De Augustine Religion Religious Communities and Practices Reparations Republican Party Republic of New Afrika Restrictive Covenants Rhode Island Rhythm and Blues Rice, Condoleezza Rice, Jerry Richards, Lloyd Rickey, Wesley Branch Riggs, Marlon Riles, Wilson Riots and Rebellions: Overview Riots and Rebellions: Riots during World War I Riots and Rebellions: Riots of 1919 Riots and Rebellions: Riots during World War II Riots and Rebellions: Riots and Rebellions of the 1960s Roach, Max Roberts, Marcus Robeson, Paul Robinson, Bill Robinson, Eddie Robinson, Frank Robinson, Jackie Robinson, Max Robinson, Randall Robinson, Ruby Doris Smith Rock, Chris Rodney King Riots Rogers, Joel Augustus Rollins, Sonny Roosevelt, Eleanor, and African Americans Roosevelt, Franklin D., Administration of Roosevelt, Theodore, Administration of Roots Rowan, Carl T. Rudolph, Wilma G. Ruffin, Josephine St. Pierre Run DMC Russell, Bill Rustin, Bayard Saar, Alison Saar, Betye Saint Louis Sampson, Edith Sanchez, Sonia Sanders, Barry San Francisco Savage, Augusta Sayers, Gale Schmoke, Kurt Schomburg, Arthur A. Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture Schuyler, George Samuel Science and Scientists Scott, Emmett J. Scott-Heron, Gil Scottsboro Incident Seale, Bobby Segregation Segregation in Federal Government September 11 Sexuality Shabazz, Betty Shakur, Assata Shakur, Tupac Shange, Ntozake Sharecropping Sharpton, Al Shaw, Bernard Shuttlesworth, Fred L. Simmons, Russell Simmons, Ruth Simone, Nina Simpson, O. J., Trial of Sims, Naomi Single-Parent Households Singleton, John Sissle, Noble Sit-ins Sixteenth Street Baptist Church Slater Fund Smiley, Tavis Smith, Anna Deavere Smith, Barbara Smith, Bessie Smith, Emmett Smith, Will Smith v. Allwright Snipes, Wesley Socialist Party Social Sciences and Civil Rights Sororities, University and College Soul Food Soul Music Souls of Black Folk, The South Carolina South Dakota Southern Christian Leadership Conference Southern Conference for Human Welfare Southern Education Board Southern Politics and Race Southern Poverty Law Center Southern Regional Council Southern University Southern Workman Sowell, Thomas Space Program, U.S., African Americans in Spanish-American War Spelman College Spingarn, Arthur Barnett Spingarn, Joel Elias Spirituals Sports: College and Amateur Sports Sports: Professional Sports Springfield, Illinois, Riot Stereotypes of African Americans Still, William Grant Stokes, Carl B. Stokes, Louis Storey, Moorfield Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee Sullivan, Louis Sundown Towns Sun Ra Sun Records Supreme Court Supremes, The Sutton, Percy Sweatt v. Painter Sweet, Ossian Taft, William Howard, Administration of Talented Tenth Tanner, Henry Ossawa Taylor, Susan Technology and Engineering Television Temptations, The Tennessee Tennessee State University Tennis Terrell, Mary Church Texas Texas Southern University Theater Thomas, Clarence Thornton, Willie Mae Thurgood Marshall Law School Thurman, Howard Thurman, Wallace Thurmond, Strom Till, Emmett, Lynching of Tolson, Melvin Toomer, Jean To Secure These Rights Towns, Edolphus Track and Field Trotter, William Monroe Truman, Harry S., Administration of Tulsa Riot Turner, Henry M. Turner, Tina Tuskegee Airmen Tuskegee Experiment Tuskegee Farmers' Conference Tuskegee Institute Tuskegee Model Abroad Tyler, Ralph W. Tyson, Mike Union of Soviet Socialist Republics United Negro College Fund Universal Negro Improvement Association Up from Slavery Urbanization Utah VanDerZee, James A. Vann, Robert L. Vaudeville, African Americans in Vaughan, Sarah Vermont Vietnam War Villard, Oswald Garrison Violence against African Americans Virginia Visual Arts Voting Rights Voting Rights Act Waco Lynching Walker, A'Lelia Walker, Alice Walker, Madam C. J. Walker, Margaret Walker, Wyatt Tee Wallace, George Waller, Fats Ward, Clara, and the Ward Singers War on Poverty Washington, Booker T. Washington, Denzel Washington, Forrester Washington, Harold Washington, Kenny Washington, Margaret James Murray Washington, D.C. Washington State Washington, D.C., Riot Washington Bee Washington-Du Bois Conflict Waters, Ethel Waters, Maxine Waters, Muddy Watts, Andre Watts, J. C. Watts Riot Weaver, Robert C. Wells-Barnett, Ida B. West, Cornel West, Dorothy West Indians in the United States West Virginia Wharton, Clifton White, Lulu White, Walter: Life and Career White, Walter: Novels and Other Writings White Citizens' Council Whiteness White Primary White Supremacy Wideman, John Edgar Wilberforce University Wilder, Douglas Wiley College Wilkins, Roy O. Williams, Bert Williams, Fannie Barrier Williams, George Washington Williams, Robert F. Williams, Samuel Laing Williams, Serena Williams, Venus Williams v. Mississippi Wilmington, North Carolina, Riot Wilson, August Wilson, William Julius Wilson, Woodrow, Administration of Winfield, Dave Winfrey, Oprah Wisconsin Women Women's Clubs Women's Suffrage Wonder, Stevie Woodruff, Hale Woods, Tiger Woodson, Carter G. Work, Monroe N. Work Works Progress Administration Slave Narratives World's Columbian Exposition World War I World War I and African American Women World War II World War II and African American Women Wright, Richard Wu-Tang Clan Wyoming Xavier University of Louisiana Yerby, Frank Young, Andrew Young, Charles Young, Coleman Young, Lester Young, Whitney
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:
African Americans -- History -- Encyclopedias.
African Americans -- History -- 1877-1964 -- Encyclopedias.
African Americans -- History -- 1964- -- Encyclopedias.
African Americans -- Biography -- Encyclopedias.