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Contents Acknowledgements / ix Embarkation / xiii 1 'And over here, ladies and gentlemen: the strategic management beast' / 1 Why ten? / 4 A field review / 7 Five Ps for strategy / 9 Strategies for better and for worse / 16 Strategic management as an academic discipline / 19 2 The design school: strategy formation as a process of conception / 23 Origins of the design school / 24 The basic design school model / 25 Premises of the design school / 29 Critique of the design school / 34 The design school: contexts and contributions / 44 3 The planning school: strategy formation as a formal process / 47 The basic strategic planning model / 49 Sorting out the hierarchies / 55 Premises of the planning school / 55 Some more recent developments / 59 Planning's unplanned troubles / 66 The fallacies of strategic planning / 70 The context and contribution of the planning school / 81 4 The positioning school: strategy formation as an analytical process / 83 Enter Porter / 84 Premises of the positioning school / 85 The first wave: origins in the military maxims / 87 The second wave: the search for consulting imperatives / 95 The third wave: the development of empirical propositions / 101 Critique of the positioning school / 113 Contribution and context of the positioning school / 122 5 The entrepreneurial school: strategy formation as a visionary process / 127 Origins in economics / 129 The literature of the entrepreneurial school / 133 Visionary leadership / 139 Premises of the entrepreneurial school / 147 Contribution, critique, and context of the entrepreneurial school / 149 6 The cognitive school: strategy formation as a mental process / 153 Cognition as confusion / 155 Cognition as information processing / 160 Cognition as mapping / 164 Cognition as concept attainment / 167 Cognition as construction / 171 Premises of the cognitive school / 179 Critique, contribution, and the context of the cognitive school / 180 7 The learning school: strategy formation as an emergent process / 183 Formation vs formulation / 185 Emergence of a learning model / 187 New directions for the learning school / 215 From organizational learning to the learning organization / 220 Critique of the learning school / 231 Contribution and context of the learning school / 235 8 The power school: strategy formation as a process of negotiation / 241 Micro power / 247 Upper echelons theory: strategic management at the top / 257 Macro power / 259 Conclusion / 272 9 The cultural school: strategy formation as a collective process / 275 The nature of culture / 277 Premises of the cultural school / 281 Culture and strategy / 281 The Swedish wing of the cultural school / 286 Resources as the basis of competitive advantage / 290 Critique, contribution and context of the cultural school / 298 10 The environmental school: strategy formation as a reactive process / 301 Premises of the environmental school / 304 The contingency view / 305 The population ecology view / 307 Institutional pressures to conform / 310 Critique, contribution, and context of the environmental school / 312 11 The configuration school: strategy formation as a process of transformation / 317 Configuration and transformation / 318 Splitters and lumpers / 319 Premises of the configuration school / 321 Researching configuration / 322 Transforming organizations / 343 Critique, context, and contribution of the configuration school / 357 12 'Hang on, ladies and gentlemen, you have yet to meet the whole beast' / 361 Of tails and tusks, plans and patterns / 364 Taming the wilds of strategic management / 373 Toward seeing the whole beast / 380 The hunt for strategic management / 394 References / 397 Index / 407
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