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CONTENTS PREFACE vii Acknowledgments viii 1 SPORTS IN EARLY AMERICA Britain's Festive Culture, The Puritan Assault upon Britain's Festive Culture, "Lawful Sport" in New England and the Middle Colonies, Sporting Ways of the Southern Colonies, Tavern Pastimes, The Backcountry's Sporting Ways, Pastimes of the Revolutionary Era, Conclusion, Notes, 2 THE SETTING FOR NINETEENTH-CENTURY SPORTS Conquering Space and Time, The Rise of Middle-Class Victorian Culture, "Rational" Recreation and Muscular Christianity, An Oppositional Culture, Enclaves of the Oppositional Culture, Nineteenth-Century Sporting Groups, Conclusion, Notes, 3 THE SPORTING FRATERNITY AND ITS SPECTACLES John Cox Stevens: Wealthy Patron of Antebellum Sporting Spectacles, Pedestrianism, Rowing, and Billiards, Early History of American Prizefighting, Meanings of Prizefighting, Prizefighting in the Postbellum Era, Enter John L. Sullivan, Postbellum Thoroughbred Horse Racing, Conclusion, Notes, 4 THE RISE OF AMERICA'S NATIONAL GAME The Club-Based Fraternal Game, Baseball as a Commercial Enterprise, The National League, The Players' Revolt, Ethnics and African Americans, Between the Foul Lines and in the Stands, Conclusion, Notes, 5 NINETEENTH-CENTURY SPORTING COMMUNITIES Ethnic (or Immigrant) Sporting Communities, Turner Societies, African American Sporting Communities, The Wealthy New York Sporting Community, Sports and the Forging of an American Upper Class, Athletic Clubs, Amateurism and Its Uses, Cricket Clubs and Country Clubs, Conclusion, Notes, 6 THE RISE OF INTERCOLLEGIATE SPORTS The First Intercollegiate Sport, Early Intercollegiate Baseball, Track, and Football, Walter Camp: Father of American Football, Football and the Making of College Communities, Football Becomes an Upper-Class Sporting Spectacle, Conclusion, Notes, 7 THE RISE OF ORGANIZED YOUTH SPORTS, 1880-1920 The Social Context, The Cultural Context, Luther Halsey Gulick Jr., The Evolutionary Theory of Play, The Public Schools Athletic League, The Playground Movement, Private Academy and High School Sports, Conclusion, Notes, 8 THE SETTING FOR ORGANIZED SPORTS, 1890-1950 The Media and Sports, The New Middle Class, Modern Consumer Culture, and the Quest for Excitement, Islands of Pleasure, The Strenuous Life, Changing Ideals of Physical Beauty, An Age of Racial Segregation, Conclusion, Notes, 9 THE AGE OF SPORTS HEROES Babe Ruth, Red Grange, Jack Johnson, The Golden Age of Boxing, Conclusion, Notes, 10 BASEBALL'S GOLDEN AGE Baseball's Coming of Age, An Age of the Pitcher, Ty Cobb, Organized Baseball's Quest for Order, The Black Sox Scandal and the Reign of Kenesaw Mountain Landis, An Age of Team Dynasties, Black Baseball, Conclusion, Notes, 11 THE INTERCOLLEGIATE FOOTBALL SPECTACLE The Age of Crisis, 1890-1913, The Issue of Brutality and Major Rule Changes, The Formation of Conferences, The Reign of King Football, The Football Coach as Hero, The Incomplete Democratization of College Football, Continuing Controversies, Conclusion, Notes, 12 THE CLUB SPORTS GO PUBLIC Tennis Goes Public, Golf Goes Public, The Emperor, Bobby Jones, Track and Field, The Revived Olympic Games, Conclusion, Notes, 13 THE RISE AND DECLINE OF ORGANIZED WOMEN'S SPORTS, 1890-1960 The Athletic Girl, Early Women's Basketball, The Arrival of the Women Sports' Heroes, The War over Turf and Principles, Female Cheerleaders, The Rise and Decline of Women's Softball and Baseball, Conclusion, Notes, 14 THE SETTING OF ORGANIZED SPORTS SINCE 1950 The Sprawling Metropolises, The Inner City and the Suburbs, The Nation's Sporting Ideology The Sporting Ideology Under Assault The Quest for Self-Sufficiency and the Fitness Cult, The Advent of Televised Sports, Roone Arlege and Howard Cosell, The New Era of Sport and the Media, An Assessment of the Media, Conclusion, Notes, 15 PROFESSIONAL TEAM SPORTS IN THE AGE OF TELEVISON The Woes of Baseball, On the Diamond, The Early Days of Pro Football, The Making of Pro Football, The Golden Age of Pro Football, Professional Basketball, Marketing Pro Team Sports, A New Age of Pro Team Sports, Conclusion, Notes, 16 COLLEGE SPORTS IN THE AGE OF TELEVISION The NCAA Becomes a Cartel, The Soaring Popularity of College Football, A New Era of Television Rights, College Basketball Enters the National Arena, The Rising Popularity of College Basketball, The Scandals of the 1980s, The Financial Arms Race, Conclusion, Notes, 17 AMERICAN SPORTS IN A GLOBAL ARENA The Politics of the Olympic Games, The Escalation of the Stakes, Amateurism Abandoned, Television and the Ascent of Golf, Tennis-Open to All, The New Global Sports Marketplace Conclusion, Notes, 18 THE AFRICAN AMERICAN QUEST FOR EQUITY IN SPORTS The Origins of Desegregation, Rickey and Robinson Integrate the National Game, Muhammad Ali, The Black Athletic Revolt, Continuing Discrimination, Have Sports Damaged Black America? Conclusion, Notes, 19 THE QUEST FOR EQUITY IN WOMEN'S SPORTS Continuing Issues in Women's Sports, The Impetus for Change, Rising Hopes and Expectations, Resistance to Equity in Women's Sports, Continuing Constraints on Women's Sports, Conclusion, Notes, 20 THE ATHLETES Heroes or Merely Celebrities? Escaping Serfdom, Free Agency, Mixed Responses, Youth Athletes, Conclusion, Notes, 21 AMERICAN SPORTS: A CONCLUDING STATEMENT INDEX
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:
Sports -- United States -- History.
Sports -- Social aspects -- United States.