Table of contents for The mind and heart of the negotiator / Leigh L. Thompson.

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Brief Contents
PART I:	ESSENTIALS OF NEGOTIATION 
Chapter 1 Negotiation: The Mind and the Heart 
Chapter 2 Preparation: What to Do Before Negotiation 
Chapter 3 Distributive Negotiation: Slicing the Pie 
Chapter 4 Win-Win Negotiation: Expanding the Pie 
PART II:	ADVANCED NEGOTIATION SKILLS 
Chapter 5 Developing a Negotiating Style 
Chapter 6 Establishing Trust and Building a Relationship 
Chapter 7 Power, Persuasion, and Ethics 
Chapter 8 Creativity and Problem Solving in Negotiations 
PART III:	APPLICATIONS AND SPECIAL SCENARIOS 
Chapter 9 Multiple Parties, Coalitions, and Teams 
Chapter 10 Cross-Cultural Negotiation 
Chapter 11 Tacit Negotiations and Social Dilemmas 
Chapter 12 Negotiating via Information Technology 
APPENDICES 
Appendix 1 Are You a Rational Person? Check Yourself 
Appendix 2 Nonverbal Communication and Lie Detection 
Appendix 3 Third-Party Intervention 
Appendix 4 Negotiating a Job Offer 
 
Contents
Preface 
PART I:	ESSENTIALS OF NEGOTIATION 
CHAPTER 1	Negotiation: The Mind and the Heart 
Negotiation: Definition and Scope
Negotiation as a Core Management Competency
Dynamic Nature of Business
Interdependence
Competition
Information Age
Globalization
Most People are Ineffective Negotiators
Negotiation Sandtraps
Why are People Ineffective Negotiators?
Egocentrism
Confirmation Bias
Satisficing
Self-Reinforcing Incompetence
Debunking Negotiation Myths
Myth 1: Negotiations Are Fixed-Sum
Myth 2: You Need to Be Either Tough or Soft
Myth 3: Good Negotiators Are Born
Myth 4: Experience Is a Great Teacher
Myth 5: Good Negotiators Take Risks
Myth 6: Good Negotiators Rely on Intuition
Learning Objectives
The Mind and Heart
CHAPTER 2	Preparation: What to Do Before Negotiation 
Self-Assessment
What Do I Want?
What Is My Alternative to Reaching Agreement in This Situation?
Determine Your Reservation Point
Be Aware of Focal Points
Beware of Sunk Costs
Do Not Confuse Your Target Point with Your Reservation Point
Identify the Issues in the Negotiation
Identify the Alternatives for Each Issue
Identify Equivalent Packages of Offers
Assess Your Risk Propensity
Endowment Effects
Am I Going to Regret This?
Violations of the Sure Thing Principle
Do I Have an Appropriate Level of Confidence?
Sizing up the Other Party
Who Are the Other Parties?
Are the Parties Monolithic?
Issue Mix
Others¿ Interests and Position
Other Negotiators¿ BATNAs
Situation Assessment
Is the Negotiation One Shot, Long Term, or Repetitive?
Do the Negotiations Involve Scarce Resources, Ideologies, or Both?
Is the Negotiation One of Necessity or Opportunity?
Is the Negotiation an Exchange or Dispute Situation?
Are Linkage Effects Present?
Is Agreement Required?
Is It Legal to Negotiate?
Is Ratification Required?
Are Time Constraints or Other Time-Related Costs Involved?
Are Contracts Official or Unofficial?
Where Do the Negotiations Take Place?
Are Negotiations Public or Private?
Is Third-Party Intervention a Possibility?
What Conventions Guide the Process of Negotiation (Such as Who Makes the First Offer)?
Do Negotiations Involve More Than One Offer?
Do Negotiators Communicate Explicitly or Tacitly?
Is a Power Differential a Factor Between Parties?
Is Precedent Important?
Conclusion
CHAPTER 3	Distributive Negotiation: Slicing the Pie
The Bargaining Zone and the Negotiation Dance
Bargaining Surplus
Negotiator¿s Surplus
Pie-Slicing Strategies
Strategy 1: Assess Your BATNA and Improve It
Strategy 2: Determine Your Reservation Point, But Do Not Reveal It
Strategy 3: Research the Other Party¿s BATNA and Estimate Their Reservation Point
Strategy 4: Set High Aspirations (Be Realistic, But Optimistic)
Strategy 5: Make the First Offer (If You Are Prepared)
Strategy 6: Immediately Reanchor if the Other Party Opens First
Strategy 7: Plan Your Concessions
Pattern of Concessions
Magnitude of Concessions
Timing of Concessions
Strategy 8: Support Your Offers with Facts
Strategy 9: Appeal to Norms of Fairness
Strategy 10: Do Not Fall for the ¿Even Split¿ Ploy
The Most Commonly Asked Questions
Should I Reveal My Reservation Point?
Should I Lie About My Reservation Point?
Should I Try to Manipulate the Other Party¿s Reservation Point?
Should I Make a ¿Final Offer¿ or Commit to a Position?
Saving Face
The Power of Fairness
Multiple Methods of Fair Division
Situation-Specific Rules of Fairness
Social Comparison
The Equity Principle
Restoring Equity
Procedural Justice
Fairness in Relationships
Egocentrism
Wise Pie Slicing
Consistency
Simplicity
Effectiveness
Justifiability
Consensus
Generalizability
Satisfaction
Conclusion
CHAPTER 4	Win-Win Negotiation: Expanding the Pie 
What is Win-Win Negotiation Anyway?
Telltale Signs of Win-Win Potential
Does the Negotiation Contain More Than One Issue?
Can Other Issues Be Brought In?
Can Side Deals Be Made?
Do Parties Have Different Preferences Across Negotiation Issues?
A Pyramid Model
Most Common Pie-Expanding Errors
False Conflict
Fixed-Pie Perception
Strategies That Do Not Really Work
Commitment to Reaching a Win-Win Deal
Compromise
Focusing on a Long-Term Relationship
Adopting a Cooperative Orientation
Taking Extra Time to Negotiate
Strategies That Work
Perspective-Taking
Ask Questions about Interests and Priorities
Reservation Price
Target
BATNA
Provide Information about your interests and priorities
Unbundle the Issues
Be Aggressive in Anchoring
Gain Better Information About the Other Party
Be More Persistent and More Persuasive Regarding the Value of an Offer
Overcome Concession Aversion
Structure Contingency Contracts by Capitalizing on Differences
Differences in Valuation
Differences in Expectations
Differences in Risk Attitudes
Differences in Time Preferences
Differences in Capabilities
Cautionary Note
Presettlement Settlements (PreSS)
Search for Postsettlement Settlements
A Strategic Framework for Reaching Integrative Agreements
Resource Assessment
Assessment of Differences
Offers and Trade-Offs
Acceptance/Rejection Decision
Prolonging Negotiation and Renegotiation
Do Not Forget About Claiming
CONCLUSION
PART II:	ADVANCED NEGOTIATION SKILLS 
CHAPTER 5	Developing a Negotiating Style 
Part II: Advanced Negotiation Skills
Tough Versus Soft Negotiators
Motivational Orientation
Assessing Your Motivational Style
Strategic Issues Concerning Motivational Style
Interests, Rights, and Power Model of Disputing
Assessing Your Approach
Interests
Rights
Power
Strategic Issues Concerning Approaches
The Principle of Reciprocity
Interests Are Effective for Pie Expansion
How to Refocus Your Opponent on Interests (and Move Them from Rights and Power)
High Costs Associated with Power and Rights
Know When to Use Rights and Power
Know How to Use Rights and Power
Emotions and Emotional Knowledge
Emotions and Moods
Expressed versus Felt Emotion
Genuine versus Strategic Emotion
Positive Emotion
Negative Emotion
Emotional Intelligence
Positive Emotion
Emotional Intelligence and Negotiated Outcomes
Accuracy
Empathy
Self-efficacy
Strategic Advice for Dealing with Emotions at the Table
Conclusion
CHAPTER 6	Establishing Trust and Building a Relationship 
The People Side of Win-Win
Trust as the Bedrock of Relationships
Three Types of Trust in Relationships
Deterrence-Based Trust
Knowledge-Based Trust
Identification-Based Trust
Building Trust: Rational and Deliberate Mechanisms
Transform Personal Conflict into Task Conflict
Agree on a Common Goal or Shared Vision
Capitalize on Network Connections
Find a Shared Problem or a Shared Enemy
Focus on the Future
Building Trust: Psychological Strategies
Similarity
Mere Exposure
Physical Presence
Reciprocity
Schmoozing
Flattery
Self-Disclosure
What Leads to Mistrust?
Miscommunication
Poor Pie Expansion
Dispositional Attributions
Focusing on the ¿Bad Apple¿
Repairing Broken Trust
Step 1: Suggest a Personal Meeting
Step 2: Put the Focus on the Relationship
Step 3: Apologize
Step 4: Let Them Vent
Step 5: Do Not Get Defensive
Step 6: Ask for Clarifying Information
Step 7: Test Your Understanding
Step 8: Formulate a Plan
Step 9: Think About Ways to Prevent a Future Problem
Step 10: Do a Relationship Checkup
Reputation
Relationships in Negotiation
Negotiating with Friends
Why People Are Uncomfortable Negotiating with Friends
Friends Are Less Competitive with Each Other
Friends May Not Reach Level 3 Integrative Agreements
Friendship and the Mismanagement of Agreement
If We Have to Negotiate, We Should Divide It Down the Middle
Negotiating with Businesspeople
We Choose Our Friends, but Not Our Coworkers
Business Relationships Often Have Status and Rank Issues Associated with Them
The Need for Swift Trust
No Such Thing as a One-Shot Business Situation
When in Business with Friends and Family
The Emotional Potential Is Higher
Internal Value Conflict
Myopia
Bottom Line on Relationships
Conclusion
CHAPTER 7	Power, Persuasion, and Ethics 
Your BATNA is your Most Important Source of Power in Negotiation
Sources of Power
Analyzing Your Power
Persuasion Tactics
Two Routes to Persuasion
Central Route Persuasion Tactics
Peripheral Route Persuasion Tactics
Status
GENDER
Social Networks
Physical Appearance
The Effects of Power on Those Who Hold Power
The Effects of Power on Those with Less Power
Ethical Negotiation
Lying
Other Questionable Negotiation Strategies
Sins of Omission and Commission
Costs of Lying
Under What Conditions Do People Engage in Deception?
Psychological Bias and Unethical Behavior
Conclusion
CHAPTER 8	Creativity and Problem Solving in Negotiations 
Creativity in Negotiation
Test Your Own Creativity
What Is Your Mental Model of Negotiation?
Haggling
Cost-Benefit Analysis
Game Playing
Partnership
Problem Solving
Creative Negotiation Agreements
Fractionating Problems into Solvable Parts
Finding Differences: Issue Alignment and Realignment
Expanding the Pie
Bridging
Cost Cutting
Nonspecific Compensation
Structuring Contingencies
Threats to Effective Problem Solving and Creativity
The Inert Knowledge Problem
Availability Heuristic
Representativeness
Anchoring and Adjustment
Unwarranted Causation
Belief Perseverance
Illusory Correlation
Just World
Functional Fixedness
Set Effect
Selective Attention
Overconfidence
The Limits of Short-Term Memory
Creative Negotiation Strategies
Multiple Roads Lead to Rome (and an Expert Understanding)
Feedback
Creativity Templates
Incubation
Rational Problem-Solving Model
Fluency, Flexibility, and Originality
Brainstorming
Convergent Versus Divergent Thinking
Deductive Reasoning
Inductive Reasoning
Flow
Conclusion
PART III:	Applications and Special Scenarios 
CHAPTER 9	Multiple Parties, Coalitions, and Teams 
Analyzing Multiparty Negotiations
Multiparty Negotiations
Key Challenges of Multiparty Negotiations
Dealing with Coalitions
Formulating Trade-Offs
Voting and Majority Rule
Communication Breakdowns
Key Strategies for Multiparty Negotiations
Know Who Will Be at the Table
Manage the Information and Systematize Proposal Making
Use Brainstorming Wisely
Develop and Assign Process Roles
Stay at the Table
Strive for Equal Participation
Allow for Some Points of Agreement, Even If Only on Process
Avoid the ¿Equal Shares¿ Bias
Avoid the Agreement Bias
Avoid Sequential Bargaining
Coalitions
Key Challenges of Coalitions
Optimal Coalition Size
Trust and Temptation in Coalitions
Dividing the Pie
Strategies for Maximizing Coalitional Effectiveness
Make Your Contacts Early
Seek Verbal Commitments
Use Unbiased-Appearing Rationale to Divide the Pie
Principal-Agent Negotiations
Disadvantages of Agents
Shrinking ZOPA
Incompatible Incentive Structure
Communication Distortion
Loss of Control
Agreement at Any Cost
Strategies for Working Effectively with Agents
Shop Around
Know Your BATNA Before Meeting with Your Agent
Communicate Your Interests to Your Agent Without Giving Away Your BATNA
Capitalize on the Agent¿s Expertise
Tap into Your Agent¿s Sources of Information
Discuss Ratification
Use Your Agent to Help Save Face
Use Your Agent to Buffer Emotions
Constituent Relationships
Challenges for Constituent Relationships
Identification
Accountability
Conflicts of Interest
Strategies for Improving Constituent Relationships
Communicate with Your Constituents
Do Not Expect Homogeneity of Constituent Views
Educate Your Constituents on Your Role and Your Limitations
Help Your Constituents Do Horizon Thinking
Team Negotiation
Challenges That Face Negotiating Teams
Picking Your Teammates
How Many on the Team?
Communication on the Team
Team Cohesion
Information Processing
Strategies for Improving Team Negotiations
Prepare Together
Plan Scheduled Breaks
Assess Accountability
Intergroup Negotiation
Challenges of Intergroup Negotiations
Stereotyping
Changing Identities
In-Group Bias
Extremism
Strategies for Optimizing Intergroup Negotiations
Separate Conflict of Interest from Symbolic Conflict
Search for Common Identity
Avoid the Out-Group Homogeneity Bias
Contact
The GRIT Strategy
Conclusion
CHAPTER 10	Cross-Cultural Negotiation 
Learning About Cultures
Defining Culture
Culture as an Iceberg
Cultural Values and Negotiation Norms
Individualism Versus Collectivism
Individualism
Collectivism
Implications for Negotiation
Egalitarianism Versus Hierarchy
Egalitarian Power Relationships
Hierarchical Power Relationships
Implications for Negotiation
Direct Versus Indirect Communications
Direct Communication
Indirect Communication
Implications for Negotiation
Key Challenges of Intercultural Negotiation
Expanding the Pie
Dividing the Pie
Sacred Values and Taboo Trade-Offs
Biased Punctuation of Conflict
Ethnocentrism
Affiliation Bias
Faulty Perceptions of Conciliation and Coercion
Naïve Realism
Predictors of success in Intercultural Interactions
Advice for Cross-Cultural Negotiations
Anticipate Differences in Strategy and Tactics That May Cause Misunderstandings
Analyze Cultural Differences to Identify Differences in Values That Expand the Pie
Recognize That the Other Party May Not Share Your View of What Constitutes Power
Avoid Attribution Errors
Find Out How to Show Respect in the Other Culture
Find out about how Time is perceived in the culture
Know Your Options for Change
Conclusion
CHAPTER 11	Tacit Negotiations and Social Dilemmas 
Business as a Social Dilemma
The Prisoner¿s Dilemma
Cooperation and Defection as Unilateral Choices
Rational Analysis
Case 1: One-Shot Decision
Case 2: Repeated Interaction over a Fixed Number of Trials
Case 3: Repeated Interaction for an Infinite or Indefinite Amount of Time
The Tournament of Champions
The Winner Is a Loser
Psychological Analysis of Why Tit-for-Tat Is Effective
Recovering from Defection
Social Dilemmas
The Tragedy of the Commons
Types of Social Dilemmas
How to Build Cooperation in Social Dilemmas
Structural Strategies
Psychological Strategies
How to Encourage Cooperation in Social Dilemmas When Parties Should Not Collude
Escalation of Commitment
Avoiding the Escalation of Commitment in Negotiations
Set Limits
Avoid Decision Myopia
Recognize Sunk Costs
Diversify Responsibility and Authority
Redefine the Situation
Conclusion
CHAPTER 12	Negotiating via Information Technology 
Place-Time Model of Social Interaction
Face-to-Face Communication
Same Time, Different Place
Loss of Informal Communication
Lost Opportunity
Separation of Feedback
Negotiation Timing
Different Time, Same Place
Different Place, Different Time
Temporal Synchrony Bias
Burned Bridge Bias
Squeaky Wheel Bias
Sinister Attribution Bias
Information Technology and its Effects on Social Behavior
Trust
Status and Power: The ¿Weak Get Strong¿ Effect
Social Networks
Risk Taking
Rapport and Social Norms
Paranoia
Strategies for Enhancing Technology-Mediated Negotiations
Initial Face-to-Face Experience
One-Day Videoconference/Teleconference
Schmoozing
CONCLUSION
Appendix 1 Are You a Rational Person? Check Yourself 
Appendix 2 Nonverbal Communication and Lie Detection 
Appendix 3 Third-Party Intervention 
Appendix 4 Negotiating a Job Offer 
Academic References 
Popular Press References 
Subject Index 
Author Index 

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Negotiation in business.
Negotiation.