Table of contents for Exchanges : a global history reader / Trevor R. Getz, Richard J. Hoffman, Jarbel Rodriguez.

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Preface xiii 
What Is World History?: An Introduction for Students of the Premodern World 1 Questions and Connections: The World before c. 1500 C.E. 2 Geography and Periodization 2 Sources 5 Themes in Premodern World History 7 Civilization: A Student's Introduction 10 The Evolution of the Term civilization 11 
>> 1. FERDNAND BRAUDEL, A History of Civilizations 
The "Clash of Civilizations" 12 
>> 2. SAMUEL P. HUNTINGTON, "The Clash of Civilizations?" 
An Afrocentric Critique of Civilization 13 
>> 3. CHEIKH ANTA DIOP, The African Origin of Civilization: Myth or Reality 
A Transnational Critique of Civilization Theory 16 
>> 4. ANDRE GUNDER FRANK, "Toward Humano- and Eco-centrism: 
Unity in Diversity, Not Clash in Civilizations
Part 1 
Interrogating the Origins and Development of Civilization and City-State Societies 
(c. 8000-600 B.C.E.) 19 
Chapter 1 
The Natural Environment and Human Beings: Constraints 
and Advantages 24 The Importance of Geography in History 26 
>> 5. FERNAND BRAUDEL, A History of Civilizations 
The Physical Environment of Early Mesopotamia 27 
>> 6. J. N. POSTGATE, Early Mesopotamia: Society and Economy 
at the Dawn of History
Gilgamesh and the Great Flood 
>> 7. The Epic of Gilgamesh, translated by N. K. Sandars 
Hymn to Hapy 
>> 8. "Hymn to Hapy" 
iv Contents 
The Physical Environment of Mesoamerica 34 
>> 9. Popol Vuh: The Mayan Book of the Dawn of Life, translated 
by Dennis Tedlock 
Chapter 2 
The Origins of Agriculture and Civilization 38 
The First Farmers 40 
>> 10. JARED DIAMOND, "Location, Location, Location: The First Farmers" 
The Eloquent Peasant 43 
>> 11. "The Eloquent Peasant" 
Agriculture 45 
>> 12. FRANCESCA BRAY, "Agriculture" 
Complex Food Systems in Mesoamerica 47 
>> 13. JOHN S. HENDERSON, The World of the Ancient Maya 
Complex Food Systems in Africa 49 
>> 14. DAVID L. SCHOENBRUN, "We Are What We Eat: Ancient Agriculture 
between the Great Lakes" 
Conversations with OgotemÉlli 52 
>> 15. MARCEL GRIAULE, Conversations with OgotemmÉli: 
An Introduction to Dogon Religious Ideas 
Cultural Heroes and the Origins of Agriculture 53 
>> 16. Han Shu 24, translated by Nancy Lee Swann 
Chapter 3 
The City: Its Origins and Nature 56 
Early Mesopotamian Cities 58 
>> 17. J. N. POSTGATE, Early Mesopotamia: Society and Economy 
at the Dawn of History 
Uruk, a Mesopotamian City 60 
>> 18. The Epic of Gilgamesh, translated by N. K. Sandars 
Cities in Mesoamerica 62 
>> 19. OCTAVIO PAZ, "Food of the Gods" 
Ancient City of the Maya" 
The Origins of the Polis 66 
>> 21. ANTHONY SNODGRASS, Archaic Greece: The Age of Experiment 
The Polis of Athens 68 
>> 22. THUCYDIDES, History of the Peloponnesian War, translated by 
Rex Warner 
Humans as Polis Dwellers 69 
>> 23. ARISTOTLE, The Politics of Aristotle, translated by Ernest Barker 
Chapter 4 
Consolidation and Fragmentation of Power: The Urban Context 
The Uni-cation of Egypt 
>> 24. BARRY J. KEMP, Ancient Egypt: Anatomy of a Civilization 
The Memphite Theology 75 
>> 25. "Memphite Theology" 
Shang Oracle Bones 77 
>> 26. DAVID N. KEIGHTLEY, "Shang Oracle-Bone Inscriptions" 
The King of the Road 78 
>> 27. "The King of the Road: A Self-Laudatory Shulgi Hymn" 
Lordship in Mesoamerica 80 
>> 28. Popol Vuh: The Mayan Book of the Dawn of Life, translated
by Dennis Tedlock
Citizenship in Ancient Greece 81 
>> 29. ANTHONY SNODGRASS, Archaic Greece: The Age of Experiment 
Constitution of the Athenians 83 
>> 30. ARISTOTLE, Aristotle's Constitution of Athens and Related Texts, 
translated by Kurt von Fritz and Ernst Kapp
A North Indian City 85 
>> 31. The Ra°ma°yan.a of Va°lm°
iki: An Epic of Ancient India, 
translated by Robert P. Goldman
Chapter 5 
Order and Chaos: Threats to Cities and Civilization 87 Rise and Fall of the Ancient World 89 
>> 32. CHESTER G. STARR, Rise and Fall of the Ancient World 
The Laws of Ur-Nammu 91 
>> 33. "The Laws of Ur-Nammu" 
Justice in the city 92 
>> 34. PLATO, Protagoras and Meno, translated by W. K. C. Guthrie 
The Judgment of the Dead 94 
>> 35. "The Judgment of the Dead" 
Warfare and Human Sacri-ce 96 
>> 36. Popol Vuh: The Mayan Book of the Dawn of Life, translated
by Dennis Tedlock
The Curse of Agade 
>> 37. "The Curse of Agade" 
Nomads from the Steppes 
>> 38. Shi Jing 178 
vi Contents 
The Nomadic Point of View-The Case of Dinah 101 
>> 39. Genesis 34, The New Oxford Annotated Bible 
Part 1 Conclusion 104 
Part 2 
Transition and Transformation: From Islands 
of Culture to Regional "World Systems" 
(600 B.C.E.-300 C.E.) 107 
Chapter 6 
Ancient Religions-Cosmology, Cosmogony, and Right Ritual 112 
The Nature of Polytheism 114 
>> 40. YEHEZKEL KAUFMANN, The Religion of Israel: From Its Beginnings 
to the Babylonian Exile, translated by Moshe Greenberg 
A Greek Account of the Birth of the Gods 117 
>> 41. HESIOD, Theogony, translated by Richmond Lattimore 
A Mayan Account of the Birth of the Universe 120 
>> 42. Popol Vuh: The Mayan Book of the Dawn of Life, translated 
by Dennis Tedlock 
Vedic Understandings of the Cosmic System 122 
>> 43. The Laws of Manu, translated by Wendy Doniger 
>> 44. The Ramayana, translated by R. K. Narayan 
Humans and the Cosmos 125 
>> 45. The Laws of Manu, translated by Wendy Doniger 
>> 46. Popol Vuh: The Mayan Book of the Dawn of Life, translated 
by Dennis Tedlock 
Contrasting Monotheism and Henotheism 129 
>> 47. "The Great Hymn to the Aten" 
>> 48. Psalm 104, The New Oxford Annotated Bible 
Chapter 7 
The Axial Age: New Re-ections on Society, Religion, 
and Knowledge 134 
The Axial Age De-ned 136 
>> 49. KARL JASPERS, The Origin and Goal of History, translated 
by Michael Bullock 
The Axial Age Re-ned 138 
>> 50. ARNALDO MOMIGLIANO, Alien Wisdom: The Limits of Hellenization 
The Birth of History in Greece 139 
>> 51. THUCYDIDES, History of the Peloponnesian War, translated 
by Rex Warner 
The Birth of Philosophy in China 
Contents vii 141 
>> 52. CONFUCIUS, The Analects of Confucius, translated by Simon Leys 
A New Vision of Righteous Living from South Asia >> 53. "Buddha's First Sermon," version produced by Maitreya Sangha 144 
The New Jerusalem >> 54. Nehemiah 3:1-7; 8:1-8; 13:1-27 and Isaiah 43; 44:28-45:22; and 66, The New Oxford Annotated Bible 146 
A Mesoamerican Axial Age >> 55. DAVID DREW, The Lost Chronicles of the Maya Kings 153 
Chapter 8 The New Politics and Culture-The Consequences of the New Vision 157 
The Uni-cation of China >> 56. SIMA QIAN, Historical Records, translated by Raymond Dawson 159 
>> 57. CHO-YUN, HSU, "The Changing Relationship between Local Society and the Central Political Power in the Former Han: 206 B.C.-8 A.D." 
The Invention of Greek Democracy >> 58. THUCYDIDES, History of the Peloponnesian War, translated by Rex Warner 164 
>> 59. ARISTOTLE, The Politics of Aristotle, translated by Ernest Barker 
The Limits of Hellenism >> 60. ALAN E. SAMUEL, The Shifting Sands of History: Interpretations of Ptolemaic Egypt 167 
The Universal Cities of the Roman Empire >> 61. GREG WOOLF, Becoming Roman: The Origins of Provincial Civilization in Gaul 168 
>> 62. AELIUS ARISTIDES, "To Rome" 
A Buddhist Empire in South Asia >> 63. A½SOKA, "Rock Edicts," rendered by Ven. S. Dhammika 172 
Chapter 9 Carriers of Exchange 177 
Cultural Exchange in Mesoamerica >> 64. OCTAVIO PAZ, "The Power of Ancient Mexican Art" 178 
The Orientalizing Revolution in Greece >> 65. WALTER BURKERT, The Orientalizing Revolution: Near Eastern In-uence on Greek Culture in the Early Archaic Age, translated by Margaret E. Pinder and Walter Burkert 180 
Cultural Diffusion in China and Africa >> 66. ELIZABETH ISICHEI, A History of African Societies to 1870 182 
viii Contents 
>> 67. WILLIAM WATSON, "The Chinese Contribution to Eastern 
Nomad Culture in the Pre-Han and Early Han Periods" 
Changing North-East African Trade Patterns 185 
>> 68. "The Autobiography of Harkhuf" 
>> 69. The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, translated by Lionel Casson 
Palmyra Caravan Tariffs 188 
>> 70. "Palmyra Caravan Tariffs" 
Immigrants as a Cultural Force in China 190 
>> 71. SIMA QIAN, Historical Records, translated by Raymond Dawson 
The Lion Capital 192 
>> 72. The A½soka Capital, Sarnath, India [Third century B.C.E.] 
The Diffusion of Greek Art in the Ancient World 193 
>> 73. JOHN BOARDMAN, The Diffusion of Classical Art in Antiquity 
>> 74. Images of Buddha with the Greek Demigod Herakles, an 
Ichthyo-Centaur, Indra and Brahma in the Greek Style, and 
a Buddha of Gandhara [First to second century C.E.]. 
Part 2 Conclusion 199 
Part 3 
The Transformation and Rebirth of World Systems 
(c. 2001 C.E.-1000 C.E.) 203 
Chapter 10 
The Fall of Empires 207 
Eurasian Collapse-A Continental Crisis 208 
>> 75. BARRY K. GILLS, AND ANDRE GUNDER FRANK, "World System Cycles, 
Crises, and Hegemonic Shifts, 1700 B.C. to 1700 A.D." 
The Sack of Rome 211 
>> 76. AUGUSTINE OF HIPPO, "Letter 138, to Marcellinus," translated 
by Wilfrid Parsons 
Luxuries and Decline 213 
>> 77. IBN KHALDóN, The Muqaddimah: An Introduction to History, 
translated by F. Rosenthal 
Ecological Collapse 215 
>> 78. JARED DIAMOND, "Ecological Collapses of Past Civilizations" 
The Fall of the Roman Empire 217 
>> 79. A. H. M. JONES, The Decline of the Ancient World 
The Conquest of the S¿s¿nian Empire 221 
>> 80. MARSHALL HODGSON, The Venture of Islam: Conscience 
and History in a World Civilization 
The Fall of Teotihuacan 224 
>> 81. REN¿ MILLON, "The Last Years of Teotihuacan Dominance" 
Contents ix 
Environmental Problems: Aksum and the Maya 226 
>> 82. STUART MUNRO HAY, Aksum: An African Civilization in Late Antiquity 
>> 83. T. PATRICK CULBERT, "The Collapse of Classic Maya Civilization" 
Chapter 11 
Migrations of the First Millennium 230 
The Huns 232 
>> 84. AMMIANUS MARCELLINUS, The Later Roman Empire (A.D. 354-378), 
translated by Walter Hamilton 
The Huna in India 235 
>> 85. ROMILA THAPAR, "The Image of the Barbarian in Early India" 
The Angles and Saxons Come to Britain 236 
>> 86. BEDE, Ecclesiastical History of the English People 
Barbarians in Mesoamerica 237 
>> 87. MICHAEL D. COE, Mexico 
The Expansion of the Bantu 239 
>> 88. CHRISTOPHER EHRET, An African Classical Age: Eastern and Southern 
Africa in World History, 1000 B.C. to A.D. 400 
Challenging the Master Narrative 240 
>> 89. LESTER LITTLE, "Cypress Beams, Ku-c Script, and Cut Stone: 
Rebuilding the Master Narrative of European History" 
Chapter 12 
The Heirs of Empires: Rebuilding the State System 244 
Europe after Rome 246 
>> 90. PATRICK J. GEARY, Before France and Germany: The Creation and 
Transformation of the Merovingian World 
The Propaganda of Lineage 248 
>> 91. LIBER HISTORIAE FRANCORUM, translated by Bernard S. Bachrach 
The Uni-cation of China 249 
>> 92. ARTHUR F. WRIGHT, The Sui Dynasty 
Advice to a Future Emperor 252 
>> 93. "Emperor Taizong on Effective Government" 
Japan and the Creation of a State 255 
>> 94. KENNETH G. HENSHALL, A History of Japan: From Stone Age 
to Superpower 
>> 95. "The Seventeen Article Constitution, 604 A.D." 
Chapter 13 
The Diffusion of Culture 261 
Buddhism in China 262 
>> 96. ERIC Z¿RCHER, Buddhism: Its Origin and Spread in Words, 
Maps and Pictures 
x Contents 
>> 97. J. K. FAIRBANK AND MERLE GOLDMAN, China: A New History 
>> 98. MOU TZU, "The Disposition of Error" 
Two faces of Christianity 267 
>> 99. BEDE, Ecclesiastical History of the English People 
>> 100. CHARLEMAGNE, "Capitulary Concerning the Regions of Saxony," 
translated by P. D. King 
New Crops in Spain 270 
>> 101. THOMAS F. GLICK, Islamic and Christian Spain in the Early 
Middle Ages 
The Spread of Arabic 272 
>> 102. ANWAR G. CHEJNE, The Arabic Language: Its Role in History 
To Make or Not to Make Ceramics 274 
>> 103. JAN VANSINA, How Societies Are Born: Governance in 
West Central Africa before 1600 
Part 3 Conclusion 276 
Part 4 
The Medieval World System, 1000-1500 279 
Chapter 14 
Global Trade Networks 285 
The Islamic World as the Hub of Eurasian Trade 287 
>> 104. AL-QALQASHANDI°, Subh al-a 'sha°, in "An Invitation to 
Merchants (c. 1280-1290)," translated by Bernard Lewis 
Rebuilding Europe: The Origins of Its Hegemony 288 
>> 105. JANET L. ABU-LUGHOD, Before European Hegemony: The World 
System A.D. 1250-1350 
Eastern Africa, the Indian Ocean, and beyond 290 
>> 106. CHAPURUKHA M. KUSIMBA, The Rise and Fall of Swahili States 
Marco Polo and the Post System in the Mongol Empire 291 
>> 107. MARCO POLO AND RUSTICELLO DE PISA, The Travels of Marco Polo, 
translated by Ronald Latham 
Markets in China and India 293 
>> 108. CH'OE PU'S, Diary: A Record of Drifting Across the Sea, 
translated by John Meskill 
>> 109. ABD-ER-RAZZçK, "Narrative of the Voyage" 
Tribute and Gift Exchange in the Americas 294 
>> 110. DAVID DREW, The Lost Chronicles of the Maya Kings 
>> 111. "Records of Tribute Received by the Aztec Capital, 1502-1520" 
Contents xi 
Chapter 15 
Exploration and Conquest 299 
Vikings in North America 301 
>> 112. Gr¾lendinga Saga, translated by Magnus Magnusson 
and Hermann P¿lsson 
The Crusades 303 
>> 113. The Chronicle of Fulcher of Chartres, translated by 
Martha E. McGinty 
The Portuguese in the Atlantic 304 
>> 114. GOMES EANNES DE AZURARA, The Chronicle of the Discovery and 
Conquest of Guinea, translated by Charles Raymond Beazley 
and Edgar Prestage 
The Kingdom of Songhay 306 
>> 115. ROLAND OLIVER AND ANTHONY ATMORE, Medieval Africa, 1250-1800 
The Mongols 309 
>> 116. IBN KATHIR, "The Fall of Baghdad (1258)," translated by 
Bernard Lewis 
>> 117. "A Mongol Governor," translated by Patricia Ebrey 
Ambassadors, Post Systems, and Lame Conquerors 312 
>> 118. Clavijo: Embassy to Tamerlane, 1403-1406, translated by 
Guy le Strange 
Conquest in the New World 314 
>> 119. INGA CLENDINNEN, Aztecs: An Interpretation 
>> 120. JUAN DE BETANZOS, Narrative of the Incas, translated by Roland 
Hamilton and Dana Buchanan 
Chapter 16 
Exchanges of Inventions, Ideas, and Disease 319 
China: Hotbed of Inventions 320 
>> 121. JOSEPH NEEDHAM, Science and Civilisation in China 
>> 122. DAVID LANDES, The Wealth and Poverty of Nations: Why 
Some Are So Rich and Some So Poor 
The Perpetual Motion Machines of India 324 
>> 123. LYNN WHITE, JR., "Tibet, India, and Malaya as Sources of 
Western Medieval Technology" 
The Chess Queen 325 
>> 124. MARILYN YALOM, Birth of the Chess Queen 
Networks of Disease 327 
>> 125. WILLIAM H. MCNEILL, Plagues and Peoples 
xii Contents 
>> 126. IBN AL-WARD°I, Risa°lah al-naba' 'an al-waba'," A Translation of a Major Source for the History of the Black Death in the Middle East," translated by Michael Dols 
>> 127. GABRIELE DE' MUSSIS, "Historia de Morbo," translated by Rosemary Horrox 
Chapter 17 
Exchanges and Perceptions of the Other 333 Russia Searches for a Monotheistic Religion 334 
>> 128. The Russian Primary Chronicle: Laurentian Text, translated by S.H. Cross and O.P. Sherbowitz-Wetzor 
Muslims and Crusaders 336 
>> 129. USA° MAH IBN-MUNQIDH, Kita° b al-I'tiba° r, translated by Philip K. Hitti 
Mali in the Fourteenth Century 338 
>> 130. IBN BATTU°TA, Rihla, translated by J. F. P. Hopkins and N. Levtzion 
The Mongols through the Eyes of Their Neighbors 340 
>> 131. WILLIAM OF RUBRUCK, "The Journal of Friar William of Rubruck" 
>> 132. LI CHIH-CH'ANG, The Travels of an Alchemist, translated by Arthur Waley 
The Old and the New World Confront Each Other 343 
>> 133. DIEGO DE LANDA, Yucatan Before and After the Conquest, translated by William Gates 
>> 134. GORDON BROTHERSTON, Image of the New World: The American Continent Portrayed in Native Texts 
Part 4 Conclusion 348 
Chapter 18 
Transition: Bridging the Divide in World History 350 

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

World history -- Textbooks.
World history -- Sources.