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Contents Preface xiii Introduction 1 What Is World History?: An Introduction for Students of the Premodern World 1 Questions and Connections: The World before c. 1500 C.E. 2 Geography and Periodization 2 Sources 5 Themes in Premodern World History 7 Civilization: A Student's Introduction 10 The Evolution of the Term civilization 11 >> 1. FERDNAND BRAUDEL, A History of Civilizations The "Clash of Civilizations" 12 >> 2. SAMUEL P. HUNTINGTON, "The Clash of Civilizations?" An Afrocentric Critique of Civilization 13 >> 3. CHEIKH ANTA DIOP, The African Origin of Civilization: Myth or Reality A Transnational Critique of Civilization Theory 16 >> 4. ANDRE GUNDER FRANK, "Toward Humano- and Eco-centrism: Unity in Diversity, Not Clash in Civilizations Part 1 Interrogating the Origins and Development of Civilization and City-State Societies (c. 8000-600 B.C.E.) 19 Chapter 1 The Natural Environment and Human Beings: Constraints and Advantages 24 The Importance of Geography in History 26 >> 5. FERNAND BRAUDEL, A History of Civilizations The Physical Environment of Early Mesopotamia 27 >> 6. J. N. POSTGATE, Early Mesopotamia: Society and Economy at the Dawn of History Gilgamesh and the Great Flood 29 >> 7. The Epic of Gilgamesh, translated by N. K. Sandars Hymn to Hapy 31 >> 8. "Hymn to Hapy" iii iv Contents The Physical Environment of Mesoamerica 34 >> 9. Popol Vuh: The Mayan Book of the Dawn of Life, translated by Dennis Tedlock Chapter 2 The Origins of Agriculture and Civilization 38 The First Farmers 40 >> 10. JARED DIAMOND, "Location, Location, Location: The First Farmers" The Eloquent Peasant 43 >> 11. "The Eloquent Peasant" Agriculture 45 >> 12. FRANCESCA BRAY, "Agriculture" Complex Food Systems in Mesoamerica 47 >> 13. JOHN S. HENDERSON, The World of the Ancient Maya Complex Food Systems in Africa 49 >> 14. DAVID L. SCHOENBRUN, "We Are What We Eat: Ancient Agriculture between the Great Lakes" Conversations with OgotemÉlli 52 >> 15. MARCEL GRIAULE, Conversations with OgotemmÉli: An Introduction to Dogon Religious Ideas Cultural Heroes and the Origins of Agriculture 53 >> 16. Han Shu 24, translated by Nancy Lee Swann Chapter 3 The City: Its Origins and Nature 56 Early Mesopotamian Cities 58 >> 17. J. N. POSTGATE, Early Mesopotamia: Society and Economy at the Dawn of History Uruk, a Mesopotamian City 60 >> 18. The Epic of Gilgamesh, translated by N. K. Sandars Cities in Mesoamerica 62 >> 19. OCTAVIO PAZ, "Food of the Gods" >> 20. RICHARD M. LEVENTHAL AND CHARLES H. HOWARTH, JR., "Copan: Ancient City of the Maya" The Origins of the Polis 66 >> 21. ANTHONY SNODGRASS, Archaic Greece: The Age of Experiment The Polis of Athens 68 >> 22. THUCYDIDES, History of the Peloponnesian War, translated by Rex Warner Humans as Polis Dwellers 69 >> 23. ARISTOTLE, The Politics of Aristotle, translated by Ernest Barker Contents v Chapter 4 Consolidation and Fragmentation of Power: The Urban Context 72 The Uni-cation of Egypt 74 >> 24. BARRY J. KEMP, Ancient Egypt: Anatomy of a Civilization The Memphite Theology 75 >> 25. "Memphite Theology" Shang Oracle Bones 77 >> 26. DAVID N. KEIGHTLEY, "Shang Oracle-Bone Inscriptions" The King of the Road 78 >> 27. "The King of the Road: A Self-Laudatory Shulgi Hymn" Lordship in Mesoamerica 80 >> 28. Popol Vuh: The Mayan Book of the Dawn of Life, translated by Dennis Tedlock Citizenship in Ancient Greece 81 >> 29. ANTHONY SNODGRASS, Archaic Greece: The Age of Experiment Constitution of the Athenians 83 >> 30. ARISTOTLE, Aristotle's Constitution of Athens and Related Texts, translated by Kurt von Fritz and Ernst Kapp A North Indian City 85 >> 31. The Ra°ma°yan.a of Va°lm° iki: An Epic of Ancient India, translated by Robert P. Goldman Chapter 5 Order and Chaos: Threats to Cities and Civilization 87 Rise and Fall of the Ancient World 89 >> 32. CHESTER G. STARR, Rise and Fall of the Ancient World The Laws of Ur-Nammu 91 >> 33. "The Laws of Ur-Nammu" Justice in the city 92 >> 34. PLATO, Protagoras and Meno, translated by W. K. C. Guthrie The Judgment of the Dead 94 >> 35. "The Judgment of the Dead" Warfare and Human Sacri-ce 96 >> 36. Popol Vuh: The Mayan Book of the Dawn of Life, translated by Dennis Tedlock The Curse of Agade 98 >> 37. "The Curse of Agade" Nomads from the Steppes 100 >> 38. Shi Jing 178 vi Contents The Nomadic Point of View-The Case of Dinah 101 >> 39. Genesis 34, The New Oxford Annotated Bible Part 1 Conclusion 104 Part 2 Transition and Transformation: From Islands of Culture to Regional "World Systems" (600 B.C.E.-300 C.E.) 107 Chapter 6 Ancient Religions-Cosmology, Cosmogony, and Right Ritual 112 The Nature of Polytheism 114 >> 40. YEHEZKEL KAUFMANN, The Religion of Israel: From Its Beginnings to the Babylonian Exile, translated by Moshe Greenberg A Greek Account of the Birth of the Gods 117 >> 41. HESIOD, Theogony, translated by Richmond Lattimore A Mayan Account of the Birth of the Universe 120 >> 42. Popol Vuh: The Mayan Book of the Dawn of Life, translated by Dennis Tedlock Vedic Understandings of the Cosmic System 122 >> 43. The Laws of Manu, translated by Wendy Doniger >> 44. The Ramayana, translated by R. K. Narayan Humans and the Cosmos 125 >> 45. The Laws of Manu, translated by Wendy Doniger >> 46. Popol Vuh: The Mayan Book of the Dawn of Life, translated by Dennis Tedlock Contrasting Monotheism and Henotheism 129 >> 47. "The Great Hymn to the Aten" >> 48. Psalm 104, The New Oxford Annotated Bible Chapter 7 The Axial Age: New Re-ections on Society, Religion, and Knowledge 134 The Axial Age De-ned 136 >> 49. KARL JASPERS, The Origin and Goal of History, translated by Michael Bullock The Axial Age Re-ned 138 >> 50. ARNALDO MOMIGLIANO, Alien Wisdom: The Limits of Hellenization The Birth of History in Greece 139 >> 51. THUCYDIDES, History of the Peloponnesian War, translated by Rex Warner The Birth of Philosophy in China Contents vii 141 >> 52. CONFUCIUS, The Analects of Confucius, translated by Simon Leys A New Vision of Righteous Living from South Asia >> 53. "Buddha's First Sermon," version produced by Maitreya Sangha 144 The New Jerusalem >> 54. Nehemiah 3:1-7; 8:1-8; 13:1-27 and Isaiah 43; 44:28-45:22; and 66, The New Oxford Annotated Bible 146 A Mesoamerican Axial Age >> 55. DAVID DREW, The Lost Chronicles of the Maya Kings 153 Chapter 8 The New Politics and Culture-The Consequences of the New Vision 157 The Uni-cation of China >> 56. SIMA QIAN, Historical Records, translated by Raymond Dawson 159 >> 57. CHO-YUN, HSU, "The Changing Relationship between Local Society and the Central Political Power in the Former Han: 206 B.C.-8 A.D." The Invention of Greek Democracy >> 58. THUCYDIDES, History of the Peloponnesian War, translated by Rex Warner 164 >> 59. ARISTOTLE, The Politics of Aristotle, translated by Ernest Barker The Limits of Hellenism >> 60. ALAN E. SAMUEL, The Shifting Sands of History: Interpretations of Ptolemaic Egypt 167 The Universal Cities of the Roman Empire >> 61. GREG WOOLF, Becoming Roman: The Origins of Provincial Civilization in Gaul 168 >> 62. AELIUS ARISTIDES, "To Rome" A Buddhist Empire in South Asia >> 63. A½SOKA, "Rock Edicts," rendered by Ven. S. Dhammika 172 Chapter 9 Carriers of Exchange 177 Cultural Exchange in Mesoamerica >> 64. OCTAVIO PAZ, "The Power of Ancient Mexican Art" 178 The Orientalizing Revolution in Greece >> 65. WALTER BURKERT, The Orientalizing Revolution: Near Eastern In-uence on Greek Culture in the Early Archaic Age, translated by Margaret E. Pinder and Walter Burkert 180 Cultural Diffusion in China and Africa >> 66. ELIZABETH ISICHEI, A History of African Societies to 1870 182 viii Contents >> 67. WILLIAM WATSON, "The Chinese Contribution to Eastern Nomad Culture in the Pre-Han and Early Han Periods" Changing North-East African Trade Patterns 185 >> 68. "The Autobiography of Harkhuf" >> 69. The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, translated by Lionel Casson Palmyra Caravan Tariffs 188 >> 70. "Palmyra Caravan Tariffs" Immigrants as a Cultural Force in China 190 >> 71. SIMA QIAN, Historical Records, translated by Raymond Dawson The Lion Capital 192 >> 72. The A½soka Capital, Sarnath, India [Third century B.C.E.] The Diffusion of Greek Art in the Ancient World 193 >> 73. JOHN BOARDMAN, The Diffusion of Classical Art in Antiquity >> 74. Images of Buddha with the Greek Demigod Herakles, an Ichthyo-Centaur, Indra and Brahma in the Greek Style, and a Buddha of Gandhara [First to second century C.E.]. Part 2 Conclusion 199 Part 3 The Transformation and Rebirth of World Systems (c. 2001 C.E.-1000 C.E.) 203 Chapter 10 The Fall of Empires 207 Eurasian Collapse-A Continental Crisis 208 >> 75. BARRY K. GILLS, AND ANDRE GUNDER FRANK, "World System Cycles, Crises, and Hegemonic Shifts, 1700 B.C. to 1700 A.D." The Sack of Rome 211 >> 76. AUGUSTINE OF HIPPO, "Letter 138, to Marcellinus," translated by Wilfrid Parsons Luxuries and Decline 213 >> 77. IBN KHALDóN, The Muqaddimah: An Introduction to History, translated by F. Rosenthal Ecological Collapse 215 >> 78. JARED DIAMOND, "Ecological Collapses of Past Civilizations" The Fall of the Roman Empire 217 >> 79. A. H. M. JONES, The Decline of the Ancient World The Conquest of the S¿s¿nian Empire 221 >> 80. MARSHALL HODGSON, The Venture of Islam: Conscience and History in a World Civilization The Fall of Teotihuacan 224 >> 81. REN¿ MILLON, "The Last Years of Teotihuacan Dominance" Contents ix Environmental Problems: Aksum and the Maya 226 >> 82. STUART MUNRO HAY, Aksum: An African Civilization in Late Antiquity >> 83. T. PATRICK CULBERT, "The Collapse of Classic Maya Civilization" Chapter 11 Migrations of the First Millennium 230 The Huns 232 >> 84. AMMIANUS MARCELLINUS, The Later Roman Empire (A.D. 354-378), translated by Walter Hamilton The Huna in India 235 >> 85. ROMILA THAPAR, "The Image of the Barbarian in Early India" The Angles and Saxons Come to Britain 236 >> 86. BEDE, Ecclesiastical History of the English People Barbarians in Mesoamerica 237 >> 87. MICHAEL D. COE, Mexico The Expansion of the Bantu 239 >> 88. CHRISTOPHER EHRET, An African Classical Age: Eastern and Southern Africa in World History, 1000 B.C. to A.D. 400 Challenging the Master Narrative 240 >> 89. LESTER LITTLE, "Cypress Beams, Ku-c Script, and Cut Stone: Rebuilding the Master Narrative of European History" Chapter 12 The Heirs of Empires: Rebuilding the State System 244 Europe after Rome 246 >> 90. PATRICK J. GEARY, Before France and Germany: The Creation and Transformation of the Merovingian World The Propaganda of Lineage 248 >> 91. LIBER HISTORIAE FRANCORUM, translated by Bernard S. Bachrach The Uni-cation of China 249 >> 92. ARTHUR F. WRIGHT, The Sui Dynasty Advice to a Future Emperor 252 >> 93. "Emperor Taizong on Effective Government" Japan and the Creation of a State 255 >> 94. KENNETH G. HENSHALL, A History of Japan: From Stone Age to Superpower >> 95. "The Seventeen Article Constitution, 604 A.D." Chapter 13 The Diffusion of Culture 261 Buddhism in China 262 >> 96. ERIC Z¿RCHER, Buddhism: Its Origin and Spread in Words, Maps and Pictures x Contents >> 97. J. K. FAIRBANK AND MERLE GOLDMAN, China: A New History >> 98. MOU TZU, "The Disposition of Error" Two faces of Christianity 267 >> 99. BEDE, Ecclesiastical History of the English People >> 100. CHARLEMAGNE, "Capitulary Concerning the Regions of Saxony," translated by P. D. King New Crops in Spain 270 >> 101. THOMAS F. GLICK, Islamic and Christian Spain in the Early Middle Ages The Spread of Arabic 272 >> 102. ANWAR G. CHEJNE, The Arabic Language: Its Role in History To Make or Not to Make Ceramics 274 >> 103. JAN VANSINA, How Societies Are Born: Governance in West Central Africa before 1600 Part 3 Conclusion 276 Part 4 The Medieval World System, 1000-1500 279 Chapter 14 Global Trade Networks 285 The Islamic World as the Hub of Eurasian Trade 287 >> 104. AL-QALQASHANDI°, Subh al-a 'sha°, in "An Invitation to Merchants (c. 1280-1290)," translated by Bernard Lewis Rebuilding Europe: The Origins of Its Hegemony 288 >> 105. JANET L. ABU-LUGHOD, Before European Hegemony: The World System A.D. 1250-1350 Eastern Africa, the Indian Ocean, and beyond 290 >> 106. CHAPURUKHA M. KUSIMBA, The Rise and Fall of Swahili States Marco Polo and the Post System in the Mongol Empire 291 >> 107. MARCO POLO AND RUSTICELLO DE PISA, The Travels of Marco Polo, translated by Ronald Latham Markets in China and India 293 >> 108. CH'OE PU'S, Diary: A Record of Drifting Across the Sea, translated by John Meskill >> 109. ABD-ER-RAZZçK, "Narrative of the Voyage" Tribute and Gift Exchange in the Americas 294 >> 110. DAVID DREW, The Lost Chronicles of the Maya Kings >> 111. "Records of Tribute Received by the Aztec Capital, 1502-1520" Contents xi Chapter 15 Exploration and Conquest 299 Vikings in North America 301 >> 112. Gr¾lendinga Saga, translated by Magnus Magnusson and Hermann P¿lsson The Crusades 303 >> 113. The Chronicle of Fulcher of Chartres, translated by Martha E. McGinty The Portuguese in the Atlantic 304 >> 114. GOMES EANNES DE AZURARA, The Chronicle of the Discovery and Conquest of Guinea, translated by Charles Raymond Beazley and Edgar Prestage The Kingdom of Songhay 306 >> 115. ROLAND OLIVER AND ANTHONY ATMORE, Medieval Africa, 1250-1800 The Mongols 309 >> 116. IBN KATHIR, "The Fall of Baghdad (1258)," translated by Bernard Lewis >> 117. "A Mongol Governor," translated by Patricia Ebrey Ambassadors, Post Systems, and Lame Conquerors 312 >> 118. Clavijo: Embassy to Tamerlane, 1403-1406, translated by Guy le Strange Conquest in the New World 314 >> 119. INGA CLENDINNEN, Aztecs: An Interpretation >> 120. JUAN DE BETANZOS, Narrative of the Incas, translated by Roland Hamilton and Dana Buchanan Chapter 16 Exchanges of Inventions, Ideas, and Disease 319 China: Hotbed of Inventions 320 >> 121. JOSEPH NEEDHAM, Science and Civilisation in China >> 122. DAVID LANDES, The Wealth and Poverty of Nations: Why Some Are So Rich and Some So Poor The Perpetual Motion Machines of India 324 >> 123. LYNN WHITE, JR., "Tibet, India, and Malaya as Sources of Western Medieval Technology" The Chess Queen 325 >> 124. MARILYN YALOM, Birth of the Chess Queen Networks of Disease 327 >> 125. WILLIAM H. MCNEILL, Plagues and Peoples xii Contents >> 126. IBN AL-WARD°I, Risa°lah al-naba' 'an al-waba'," A Translation of a Major Source for the History of the Black Death in the Middle East," translated by Michael Dols >> 127. GABRIELE DE' MUSSIS, "Historia de Morbo," translated by Rosemary Horrox Chapter 17 Exchanges and Perceptions of the Other 333 Russia Searches for a Monotheistic Religion 334 >> 128. The Russian Primary Chronicle: Laurentian Text, translated by S.H. Cross and O.P. Sherbowitz-Wetzor Muslims and Crusaders 336 >> 129. USA° MAH IBN-MUNQIDH, Kita° b al-I'tiba° r, translated by Philip K. Hitti Mali in the Fourteenth Century 338 >> 130. IBN BATTU°TA, Rihla, translated by J. F. P. Hopkins and N. Levtzion The Mongols through the Eyes of Their Neighbors 340 >> 131. WILLIAM OF RUBRUCK, "The Journal of Friar William of Rubruck" >> 132. LI CHIH-CH'ANG, The Travels of an Alchemist, translated by Arthur Waley The Old and the New World Confront Each Other 343 >> 133. DIEGO DE LANDA, Yucatan Before and After the Conquest, translated by William Gates >> 134. GORDON BROTHERSTON, Image of the New World: The American Continent Portrayed in Native Texts Part 4 Conclusion 348 Chapter 18 Transition: Bridging the Divide in World History 350
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:
World history -- Textbooks.
World history -- Sources.