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Contents Acknowledgments xiii Acronyms xiv Getting Started: A General Introduction 1 Nature of the Intersections Human Rights Criticism of Trade Rules Origin of this Volume Chapter 1 Global Concepts: International Law Primer 17 1.1 Overview 1.2 International Law and International Law-Making: General Concepts 1.3 International Law-Making: Specific Provisions 1.4 International Law as U.S. Law Chapter 2 Pillars and Escape Hatches: Basic Concepts of International Trade Law in the Americas 34 2.1 Overview of the GATT and WTO 2.2 Economic Underpinnings: Comparative Advantage 2.3 Four Pillars of GATT 2.4 Exceptions to the Pillars 2.5 WTO Dispute Settlement 2.6 Trade in the Americas Chapter 3 Local Laws, Global Lives: Basic Concepts and Legal Regimes of Human Rights Law in the Americas 64 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Theoretical Underpinnings of Human Rights Law 3.3 Origins of International Human Rights Law: General Concepts 3.4 Modern Human Rights Developments 3.5 Classification of Specific Human Rights 3.6 Human Rights and Trade Chapter 4 Splendid Isolation?s Progeny: The Intersections of Trade and Human Rights 82 4.1 Central Dilemma: Lack of Purposeful Correlation 4.2 Philosophical and Structural Divides 4.3 Legal Hierarchy of Trade and Human Rights Norms 4.4 Indispensable Role of Government Chapter 5 Who Belongs, Who Rules: Citizenship--Voice and Participation in the Global Marketplace 100 5.1 Overview 5.2 Human Rights Framework 5.3 Citizenship in a Globalized World 5.4 Transnationalization of the Individual 5.5 The Transnational Corporation and the Rise of Economic Citizenship 5.6 Final Thoughts Chapter 6 Ecosystem Degradation and Economic Growth: Trade?s Unexploited Power to Improve Our Environment 115 6.1 Overview 6.2 Human Rights Framework 6.3 International Trade Framework 6.4 Processes or Production Methods (PPMs) 6.5 GATT?s Public Health and Welfare Clause 6.6 Harmonization of Product Standards: TBT Agreement 6.7 From Rio to Johannesburg: Sustainable Development Sues for Peace with Trade Rules 6.8 Natural Capitalism and the Equator Principles 6.9 Final Thoughts Chapter 7 Not Just a Question of Capital: Health and Human Well-Being 154 7.1 Overview 7.2 Human Rights Framework 7.3 International Trade Framework 7.4 SPS Agreement 7.5 Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety 7.6 Using the WTO and Biosafety Protocol?s Health Provisions for Human Rights Ends 7.7 Health in the Americas and WTO?s TRIPS Agreement 7.8 Colorism and Health in the Americas 7.9 GATT?s General Exceptions and the Right to Health 7.10 Final Thoughts Chapter 8 Exploitation or Progress?: Terms and Conditions of Labor 183 8.1 Overview 8.2 Human Rights Framework 8.3 International Trade Framework 8.4 How May GATT?s General Exceptions Heighten Labor Rights Compliance? 8.5 Relevance of the TBT Agreement 8.6 Trade and Labor in the Americas 8.7 Trade and Immigration 8.8 Colorism and Labor Rights 8.9 Role of Corporate Governance 8.10 Soft Landings: Retraining Assistance 8.11 They Started It! Chapter 9 Human Bondage: Trafficking 230 9.1 Overview 9.2 Human Rights Framework 9.3 International Trade Framework 9.4 The Reality of Trafficking 9.5 The Ubiquity of Trafficking 9.6 The Faces of Trafficking 9.7 Final Thoughts Chapter 10 Bebel Redux: The Woman Question 261 10.1 Overview 10.2 Human Rights Framework 10.3 International Trade Framework 10.4 The Woman Question 10.5 Women and Culture in the Americas 10.6 Women and Work 10.7 Final Thoughts Chapter 11 First Peoples First: Indigenous Populations 281 11.1 Overview 11.2 Human Rights Framework 11.3 International Trade Framework 11.4 Enter WTO?s TRIPS Agreement: From Bad to Worse? 11.5 Role of TRIPS in the Abuse of Traditional Knowledge 11.6 Convention on Biological Diversity to the Rescue 11.7 Trade Causes Overuse of Resources on Which Indigenous Peoples Rely 11.8 Modernization: Not Always the Best Approach 11.9 Efforts to Bridge the Divide 11.10 Final Thoughts Chapter 12 From Excess to Despair: The Persistance of Poverty 316 12.1 Overview 12.2 Human Rights Framework 12.3 International Trade Framework 12.4 The Reality of Poverty 12.5 Agricultural Reform Integral to Reducing Poverty 12.6 Poverty and Immigration 12.7 Changing Paradigms Chapter 13 Freedom from Famine and Fear: Democracy 344 13.1 Overview 13.2 Human Rights Framework 13.3 International Trade Framework 13.4 Democracy, Trade, and Human Rights 13.5 Final Thoughts Chapter 14 Imperial Rules: Economic Sanctions 359 14.1 Overview 14.2 Human Rights Framework 14.3 International Trade Framework 14.4 Judging Economic Sanctions 14.5 Human Rights Impact of Economic Sanctions 14.6 Conundrum of Cuba 14.7 Value of Economic Sanctions Chapter 15 Recognizing Indivisibility, Bridging Divides: Visions and Solutions for the Future of the Trade and Human Rights Relationship 378 15.1 Overview 15.2 Human Rights Approach to Trade, Trade Approach to Human Rights 15.3 Small Steps: Ending Trade?s Splendid Isolation from Human Rights 15.4 Reparations for Human Rights Violations 15.5 Mr. Ricardo, Meet the 21st Century 15.6 Linking Trade and Human Rights in the Americas 15.7 Afterword Notes 408 Index 000 About the Authors 520
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:
Human rights -- Economic aspects.
Foreign trade regulation -- Political aspects.
International trade -- Social aspects.