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Contents PART ONE: The Globalization Process: Background, Causes and Effects Chapter 1 The International Business Challenge Introduction The International Business Challenge The Diverse International Marketplace The Changing International Marketplace Responding to the International Business Challenge: How Executives Cope with Global Diversity and Change From Cultural Ignorance to Cultural Understanding Analytic Tools: The Multi-Disciplinary Nature of International Business Globalization: Historic Background Globalization: Definition and Components The Exploration Era to 1500 1500-1900: The Colonial Era 1900-today: The Era of the Modern International Corporation The Globalization Era Since 1980 The Major Catalysts of Post-1980 Globalization Globalization and the Developing World Reasons for Developmental Differences: The Diffusion Process in International Business Diffusion Effects on Strategy Formulation and Implementation International Business Topics and the Organization of this Text Part 1 International Business: The Globalization Process Part 2: International Business Analysis Part 3: Managing Globalization: International Business Strategies Key Points Casette 1-1: The September 11 Tragedy: An International Business Perspective Casette 1-2: The Internet: Revolutionizing International Business? Or not? Chapter 2 Globalization and Worldwide Infrastructure Development Introduction Global Infrastructure Development: UN Facilitators of International Business United Nations Background International Telecommunications Union (ITU) International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Universal Postal Union (UPU) International Maritime Organization (IMO) UN Commission on International Trade Laws (UNCITRAL) World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) International Labor Organization (ILO) International Court of Justice Financial Infrastructures: International Monetary Fund Floating Currencies: Supply and Demand Basics Currency Convertibility and the IMF World Trade Organization (WTO) The Free Trade-Protectionism Debate National Infrastructure Development: World Bank Group Private Sector Infrastructure Developments Regional Economic and Political Integration Degrees of Integration: Types of Trade Blocs Formation of Economic/Political Blocs: The Evolution of the EU Key Success Factors in Regional Blocs: the European Union Other Trade Blocs: Progress and Problems Global Privatization and Deregulation Programs National Privatization and Deregulation Programs Industry and Company Effects World Infrastructure Development and International Business Growth Key Points Casette 2-1: AIDS in Africa: Two Prescriptions -- Any Cure? Casette 2-2: Free Trade for Steel? The Debate continues. Casette 2-3: The Battle in Seattle and the Anti-Globalization Movement Casette 2-4: Working with Exchange Rates and Exchange Rate Arrangements Chapter 3 Globalization Effects on Country Institutions, People, Industries, Business and Consumers Introduction: The Economic Development Process Resource Bases for Industrialization Economic Development Effects on Country Institutions and People Changes in Country Institutions Changes in People and Values The Diffusion of Modern Behaviors: Explaining Within-Country Variations in Behaviors through the Flexible Stereotype Developmental Effects on Industry, Business Practices and Consumers Developmental Effects on Industry Behaviors Developmental Effects on Business Practices Developmental Effects on Consumer Behavior Country Development, Industrialization, Modernization, and Integration into the Regional and Global Economies Stage 1: Traditional Pre-Industrial Societies Stage 2: Industrialization and Modernization Processes Stage 3: Post-Industrial Economies Stage 4: Regionally and Globally-Involved Societies Some Conclusions Obstacles to Economic Development Industrialization Process Impediments Geographic Impediments Ethnic and Linguistic Composition Institutional Resistance to Change Key Points Casette 3-1: Transitioning to the market economy: The Case of Eastern Europe Casette 3-2: Tradition and Modernization in Developing Pakistan PART TWO: International Business Analysis Chapter 4 Globalization and Regional Markets: Geopolitical Analyses The Importance of Geopolitical Studies Regional Development in the Worldwide Context North America Geographic Characteristics Historical and Cultural Perspectives Commercial History Latin America Geographic Characteristics Historical and Cultural Perspectives Commercial History Western Europe Geographic Characteristics Historical and Cultural Perspectives Commercial History Eastern Europe Geographic Characteristics Historical and Cultural Perspectives Commercial History Middle East And Africa Geographic Characteristics Historical and Cultural Perspectives Commercial History Asia Geographic Characteristics Historical and Cultural Perspectives Commercial History Geopolitics and Strategy Key Points Casette 4-1: The Effects of Geography and History on Regional Development Casette 4-2: Oil and the Middle East Chapter 5 National Market Analysis Introduction Essential Background Historic Influences on National Culture Development Geographic Influences on National Culture Development Current Position Analysis The Current Political Situation The Current Economic Position International Position: Analyzing Country Balance of Payments How Managers use Balance of Payments Data Commercial Analyses Industry Analysis Demand Analysis: Customer and Marketing Considerations Supply Chain Analyses Business Environment Analyses Financial Aspects: Capital Markets, Taxation Policies and Currency Issues Cultural Analyses Key Points Casette 5-1: The Japanese Economy?Historic Perspectives and Current Situation Casette 5-2: Looking at Brazil in its Latin American Context Casette 5-3: Comparing market profiles for the US, Brazil and China Chapter 6 Analyzing Global Industries and Competitors Introduction Worldwide Industry Analysis Evaluations of Worldwide Market Demand Assessing Industry Supply Chains Industry Structure Drivers of Industry Change Financial Benchmarks Key Success Factors Global Competitor Analyses Internal Assessments External Assessments: Analyzing Competitor Operations Using Market Opportunity and Competitive Analyses to Craft Global Strategies Market Selection Strategies Competitive Effects on Strategic Decision-Making Key Points Casette 6-1: Global Change and the Wine Industry Casette 6-2: The Airbus ? Boeing Global Rivalry Part Three: Managing Globalization: International Business Strategies Chapter 7 International Strategic Planning and Market Screening Global Planning in the Chemical Industry The International Planning Process Introduction The Changing Environment of International Planning: Historic Perspectives The Evolution of the International Corporate Planning Processes Assessing the Corporate Position Internal Assessments External Assessments: The Marketplace Situation External Assessments: Corporate and Industry Resource Deployments Formulation of Strategic Plans Subsidiary-Level Planning Integrating National Plans into Regional and Global Strategies The Benefits of Well-Executed Planning Processes Market Screening and Risk Assessments Political Risk Economic Risks Financial and Foreign Currency Risks Operations Risk Legal Risks Taxation Risks Security Risks Business Risk Evaluation Methodologies Special Case: Evaluating Emerging Markets Long Term Planning: Scenario Analyses Key Points Casette 7-1: Strategic Planning at Benetton Casette 7-2: Wal-Mart and Market Screening Casette 7-3: Managing Risk in Emerging Markets Chapter 8 INTERNATIONALIZATION AND GLOBALIZATION PROCESSES Internationalization and Globalization?Similar but Different Internationalization and Globalization Definitions Measuring Internationalization and Globalization Advantages of Internationalization and Globalization Disadvantages of Internationalization and Globalization Internationalization, Globalization and Industry Strategies Drivers of Corporate Internationalization and Globalization: Why Firms go Abroad Market Drivers Cost Drivers Competitive Drivers Government Drivers A Major Globalization Facilitator: The Role of Information Technologies Preparing the Company for Internationalization and Globalization Focusing the Organization: Corporate Competencies Focusing the Organization: Supply Chain Restructuring Developing Leadership and Management Capabilities Globalizing the Corporate Culture Effects of Globalization Industry Structure Effects Organizational Structure Effects Corporate Culture Effects Relationships Between Strategies, Structures and Corporate Cultures Financing International and Global Operations Equity Options using Outside Financing Equity Options using Internal Financing Debt Options using External Financing Debt Options and Internal Financing Key Points Casette 8-1: Four Companies go global Casette 8-2: Setting up a Multi-Lingual Website Chapter 9 Market Entry and Servicing Strategies Exporting Strategies Indirect Exporting and Use of Trading Companies Direct Exporting Contractual Forms of Market Entry Licensing Franchising Management Contracts Contract Manufacturing Co-Production Agreements Investment Options for Servicing Foreign Markets: Joint Ventures, Acquisitions and Greenfield Operations International Joint Ventures (IJVs) Mergers and Acquisitions (M & A) Greenfield Operations Siting Research and Development Capabilities Matching Market Servicing Strategies to Environmental and Corporate Needs External factors Internal Factors Key points Casette 9-1: Managing the International Joint Venture (IJV) Casette 9-2: The Daimler-Chrysler Mega Merger Chapter 10 Global and Multi-Market Strategies Introduction: Booze and Money Go Global Identifying and Developing Core Businesses Internalizing the Core Strategy Globalizing the International Strategy Dealing with Competitors: Global and Multi-Market Competitive and Cooperative Strategies Competitive Strategies Cooperating with Competitors: Global Alliances Global and Multi-Market Financial Strategies Transfer Pricing Issues Managing Foreign Currency Risks Global Cash Management: Settling Corporate Subsidiary Accounts Global and Multi-Market Financial Synergies Administering Global Finances Key Points Casette 10-1: Global Branding, Rivalries and Organizational Practices Casette 10-2: Making All the Right Moves: India?s Tata Group Chapter 11 Global and Multi-Market Supply Chain Management Global and Multi-Market Supply Chains: Integration Options Environmental and Corporate Catalysts to Global and Multi-Market Supply Chain Development Supplier-Manufacturer Integration: ?Upstream Relationships? International Manufacturing Systems and Supply Chain Management Manufacturer-Distribution Linkages Distributor-Customer Linkages: Electronic Data Interchange and Internet Systems Integration Mechanisms for Global Supply Chains: IT, Managerial and New Product Development Issues Supply Chain Integration and Information Technologies Creating Multi-Cultural Managers Integrating Supply Chain and Human Resource Policies. Global and Multi-Market New Product Development Strategies De-Integrating the Global Supply Chain: Outsourcing Strategies Strategic Advantages of Outsourcing Strategic Disadvantages of Outsourcing Outsourcing Individual Supply Chain Components: Pros and Cons. Key Points Casette 11-1: Constructing and Evaluating Global and Multi-Market Supply Chains Casette 11-2: Evaluating outsourcing decisions Chapter 12 Managing Cultural Differences Negotiating face-to-face: When culture really matters High-Medium-Low Context Cultures: A Framework for Understanding Business and Interpersonal Behaviors Low Context Behaviors High context behaviors Medium Context Behaviors Cultural Underpinnings of High-Medium-Low Context Behaviors ? The ?Whys? Religion Economic and Political System Effects Social Forces Intercultural Negotiations Negotiating with US Businesspeople Negotiating with the Japanese Negotiating with Western Europeans Negotiating with Asians Negotiating with Middle Easterners Negotiating with Eastern Europeans: The Russian Case Organizing International Negotiations Planning and Preparation Conducting the negotiation Reaching an Agreement Some Conclusions: What is a good negotiator? Key Points Casette 12-1: West meets East over the negotiation table : Contrasts and Causes Chapter 13 Localization Strategies: Managing Stakeholders and Supply Chains Getting to Grips with the real Chinese market The Importance of Localization Strategies The Need for Localization/Insider Strategies Market Servicing Strategy and Localization Potential Managing Local Stakeholder Relations Building Government Relations Building Business Community Relations Environmental Groups Consumerism Public Relations and the Press Supply Chain Management The Benefits of Supply Chain Localization Supplier Management Managing Local Manufacturing Operations Localizing Marketing Operations: Multinational Strategies Managing Local Supply Chains: Management and Human Resource Issues Management-Worker Relations Key Points Casette 13-1: Localization Strategies in Rural India Casette 13-2: Child Labor?Is it a Matter of Perspective? Casette 13-3: The Case of the Efficiency-Oriented Gringo
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:
Globalization -- Economic aspects.
International business enterprises -- Management.
International economic integration.
International business enterprises.