Table of contents for Girls' education in the 21st century : equality, empowerment, and growth.

Bibliographic record and links to related information available from the Library of Congress catalog.

Note: Contents data are machine generated based on pre-publication provided by the publisher. Contents may have variations from the printed book or be incomplete or contain other coding.


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Contents
Foreword by Joy Phumaphi and Danny Liepziger	xvii
Preface by Ruth Kagia and Mayra Buvinic	xxi
Acknowledgments	xxiii
Contributors	xiii
Acknowledgments	xxvii
Section I	Education Quality, Skills Development	1
and Economic Growth
Chapter 1	Overview	3
Mercy Tembon
Structure of the Book	6
Note	21
References	21
v
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Chapter 2	Schooling, Gender Equity, and Economic	23 Outcomes
Eric Hanushek
Schooling as an Investment in Human Capital	24
Policy Objectives	33
Conclusion	35
Notes	36
References	37
Chapter 3	Student Learning Outcomes in Mathematics	41 from a Gender Perspective: What Does the International PISA Assessment Tell Us?
Andreas Schleicher
Introduction	41
Gender Differences in Mathematics Performance	43
Policy Implications	47
References	52
Chapter 4	Returns to Education: The Gender Perspective	53 Harry Patrinos
Calculating the Rate of Return to Education	54
The Social Benefits of Schooling	58
Gender Differences	58
Conclusions	64
Note	64
References	64
Chapter 5	Is Female Education a Pathway to Gender	67 Equality in the Labor Market? Some Evidence
from Pakistan
Monazza Aslam, Geeta Kingdon, and
Mans S?derbom
Examining the Education-Occupation	69 Relationship in Pakistan
Education, Labor Market Transitions, and	73 Occupational Attainment
Education and Earnings	82
Conclusion	87
Notes	89
References	91
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Contents vii
Section II	Equity in Education: What is Holding	93 Countries Back?
Chapter 6	Inequalities in Education: Effects of Gender,	95 Poverty, Orphanhood, and Disability
Deon Filmer
Data and Methodology	96
Poverty	97 The Pattern of Educational Attainment:
Survivor Profiles	99
Urban or Rural Residence and Gender	102
Orphanhood	105
Disability	108
Conclusion	112
Notes	112
References	113
Chapter 7	The Double Disadvantage of Gender and	115 Social Exclusion in Education
Marlaine Lockheed
Socially Excluded Groups	116
Social Exclusion and Education	117
Creative Ways of Reaching and Teaching	119 Excluded Girls
Practical Actions to Promote Education for	123 Excluded Girls
Note	124
References	124
Chapter 8	Promoting Education Quality through	127 Gender-Friendly Schools
Changu Mannathoko
Introduction	127
Bringing Girls and Women into Schools and	129 Learning Spaces through WID
School and Society as Gendered Power	130 Structures
The Postructuralist Challenge to Gender,	134 Sexuality, Education, and Development
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Transformative Action through Rights to	135 Education and Gender Equality
Concluding Remarks	139
References	140
Chapter 9	Combating Gender-Based Violence in Benin	143
Michele Akpo
Benin and Millennium Development Goal 3	145
GBV in Benin?A Culturally Accepted	146 Practice with Major Health and Human
Rights Implications
Policy Frameworks to Address GBV in Schools	149 Why GBV in Schools Persists and Ways to
Overcome It to Promote Girls? Education	150
Note	151
References	151
Chapter 10 Addressing Gender Disparities in Education in	153 Contexts of Crisis, Postcrisis, and State Fragility
Jackie Kirk
Challenges and Opportunities: Gender Issues in	155 Education in Emergencies and Fragile States
Promising Policy Developments at the Global	161 Level
Implications: Learning for Peace and Equality	168
Conclusions	172
Annex 10A: Classroom Assistants in Guinea	172 and Sierra Leone
Annex 10B: The Gender Equity Support Project	174 of the Sudan Basic Education Program
Annex 10C: An Integrated Approach to	175 Addressing Sanitary Protection Needs:
IRC Ethiopia?s Intervention
Notes	176
References	177
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Section III	Experiences from the Field: How was	181 it Done?
Chapter 11 Building a Better Future for Afghanistan	183 through Female Education
Sakena Yacoobi
The Situation of Afghan Women Past and Present 184
The Context in Which Afghan Women Live	187
Improving the Circumstances of Afghan Women	188
A Strategy to Empower and Educate Afghan	190 Women
Conclusion	197
References	198
Chapter 12 The Effects of a Reduction in User Fees on	201 School Enrollment: Evidence from Colombia
Felipe Barrera-Osorio
The Effect of User Fees on Enrollment	202
Some Ideas on Targeting	205
Note	206
References	207
Chapter 13 Holy Alliances: Public Subsidies, Islamic High	209 Schools, and Female Schooling in Bangladesh Mohammad Niaz Asadullah and
Nazmul Chaudhury
Madrassa Reform in South Asia	210
The Madrassa Reform Scheme in Bangladesh	213
Conclusion and Policy Implications	225
Annex 13A: Variable Description, Summary	229 Statistics, and Regression Results
Notes	235
References	237
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Chapter 14 Cultivating Knowledge and Skills to Grow	239 African Agriculture
Richard Johanson, William Saint, Catherine Ragasa, and Eia Pehu
The Context for Agricultural Education and	239 Training in Africa
Agricultural Education Is Vital for African	241 Development
African AET in Perspective	241
Constraints on Building AET Capacity	242 Priorities for Modernizing Agricultural Education 245
Different Approaches for Different Levels	246
of Training
The Time to Act Is Now	247
References	251
Notes	251
Chapter 15 Quality and Gender Equality in Education:	253 What Have We Learned from FAWE?s 15 Years of Experience?
Codou Diaw
Introduction	253
Background and Evolution of FAWE	254
Overview of Girls? Education in Sub-Saharan	256 Africa
FAWE?s Major Achievements	257
Components of FAWE?s Gender-Responsive	259
 School or Center of Excellence (COE) Model Challenges Related to the Achievement of	260
FAWE?s Strategic Objectives 2002?06
Lessons Learned	263
Conclusion and Way Forward	265
Notes	267
References	268
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Chapter 16 Strategies for Gender Equality in Basic and	269
Secondary Education: A Comprehensive and
Integrated Approach in the Republic of Yemen
Tawfiq A. Al-Mekhlafy
Where Are We Now?	270
Current Interventions	271
Obstacles to Universal Education	274
A Concluding Word	276
References	277
Chapter 17 Conclusion and Recommendations for the	279
Way Forward
Mercy Tembon
Strategic Directions for the Future	280
Implications for the World Bank	298
References	302
Figures
2.1	Added-Variable Plots of Growth and Educational	31
Quality in Developing Countries
2.2	Improved GDP with Moderately Strong Knowledge	33
Improvement
2.3	Inequality of Educational Quality and Earnings	34
3.1	Growth in Baseline Qualifications	43
3.2	Gender Differences in University Attainment, in
Percentage Points	44
3.3	Performance of males and females on the mathematics	45
scale in PISA 2006
3.4	Performance of males and females on the reading	46
scale in PISA 2006
3.5	Gender differences in mathematics and other	48
learning characteristics as measured by effect sizes.
4.1	Typical Age-Earnings Profiles	54
4.2	Rate of Return to Additional Years of Schooling	55
in Selected Countries
4.3	Returns to Education in Developing Countries, by	56
Level of Education
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	4.5	Declining Returns to Schooling, 1970?2000	57
	4.4	Returns to Schooling, by Region	57
	4.6	Returns to Schooling in Selected Countries, by Gender	60
	4.7	Gender Differences in Years of Schooling in	60 Developing and Industrial Countries
	4.8	Returns to Schooling, by Level and Gender	61
	4.9	Average Scores on Subject Examinations of the 2003	62 Programme for International Student Assessment
(PISA) in OECD Countries, by Gender
	5.1	Kernel Densities of Log Earnings, by Employment	72 Status and Gender, 1999
	5.2	Estimated Probability of Occupation and Education	74 for Young Men and Women in Pakistan
	5.3	Estimated Probability of Occupation and Age for	75 Young Men and Women in Pakistan
	5.4	Estimated Probability of Occupation and Education	77 for Men and Women in Ghana
	5.5	Estimated Probability of Occupation and Education	78 for Young Men, 1999 and 2007
	5.6	Estimated Probability of Occupation and Education	79 for Young Women, 1999 and 2007
	5.7	Predicted Earnings and Level of Education for	87 Wage Employment
	6.1	School Completion through Grade 6, by Richest	98 and Poorest Quintiles in Selected Countries
	6.2	Grade Survival Profiles: Proportion of Cohort from	100 Each Income Quintile That Has Completed
Grades 1?9 in Selected Countries
	6.3	Inequalities in School Completion through Grade 6,	103 by Household Economic Status, Urban or Rural
Residence, and Gender
	6.4	Inequalities in School Completion through Grade 6 in	104 the Richest and Poorest Quintiles, by Gender
	6.5	Differences in Enrollment of Children Ages 7?14,	106 by Orphan Status
	6.6	Differences in Enrollment of Children Ages 7?14,	107 by Orphan Status and Economic Status, Conditional
on Individual and Household Characteristics
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6.7	Differences in Enrollment of Children Ages 7?14,	109
by Orphan Status and Gender, Conditional on
Individual and Household Characteristics
6.8	Deficit in Current Enrollment Associated with	111
Disability, Gender, Rural Residence, and Economic
Status in Selected Countries
13.1	Growth of Secular Schools and Modern Madrassas,	216
1947?2003
13.2	Gender Orientation of Aliyah Madrassas Established	218
before and after 1980 Reforms, 2003
13A.1 Distribution of Converted Madrassas by Period	229
of Establishment
14.1	Sub-Saharan Africa: Enrollments in the Agricultural	243
Sciences in Ethiopia, by Gender, 1991 and 2000
15.1 Features of a FAWE COE or Gender-Responsive	261
School
Tables
4.1	Nonmarket and External Benefits of Education	59
4.2	Returns to Schooling and Cognitive Ability, by Gender,	63
in Chile
5.1	Employment and Education Characteristics of	70
Persons Ages 16?70 Who Are Not Enrolled in School in Pakistan, by Gender, 1999
5.2	Employment and Education Characteristics of Persons	71
Ages 16?70 Who Are Not Enrolled in School in
Pakistan, by Gender and Occupational Status, 1999
5.3	Employment and Education Characteristics of Persons	78
Ages 16?60 Who Are Not Enrolled in School in
Punjab and North West Frontier Province, by Gender, 1999 and 2007
5.4	Effects of Literacy and Numeracy on Occupational	81
Outcome, by Gender and Age Group
5.5	Effect of Age and Education on Earnings, by	84
Employment Status and Gender
5.6	Effect of Literacy and Numeracy on Earnings,	85
by Employment Status and Gender
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7.1	Elasticities of Primary Completion Rates and Learning	117 and Ethnolinguistic Fractionalization
8.1	Gender, Education, and Development: Contrasting	128 Frameworks
10.1	Conflict-Affected Fragile States and Education	156
13.1	Profile of Recognized Postprimary Madrassas in	213 Bangladesh, 2003
13.2	Profile of Recognized Secondary Schools and	214
Postprimary Madrassas in Bangladesh, by location, 2003
13.3	Distribution of Aliyah Madrassas by Year of	217
Establishment and Recognition
13.4	Ratio of Girls to Boys in Secondary Schools and
Madrassas, 2003	218
13.5 Gender Composition of Students and Teachers	219 in Postprimary Schools and Madrassas in Bangladesh, 1970?2003
13.6 Determinants of Regional Enrollment Growth,	222 1999?2003
13A.1 Descriptive Statistics	230
13A.2 Determinants of Regional Enrollment Growth?	231 Alternative Specification, Ordinary Least Squares
Estimates, 1999?2003
13A.3 Determinants of Regional Enrollment Growth,	232 1999?2003: Sample of Older Schools
13A.4 Determinants of Gender Parity in Secondary School	234
Enrollment, 2003: Linear Probability Model Estimates
15.1	Primary Gross Enrollment Rates	257
15.2	FAWE?s Key Interventions and Initiatives	259
15.3 Impact in FAWE?s four pilot COEs	262
16.2	Construction Projects in 2006/07	272
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Boxes
1.1	Interventions That Have Worked to Improve Girls?	6
Education
9.1	A Developing Democracy	144
9.2	Defining Violence	146
9.3	Recommendations from Girls to Schools and	148
Teachers to Prevent Problems the Girls Face
14.1	A Promising Example of Gender Integration in	244
Training from Benin
14.2 Examples of Gender Mainstreaming in the Agricultural	250
Professions
17.1	Externalities of Girls? Education	281
17.2 The Safe Schools Program: Preventing Gender-Based	284
Violence and the Spread of HIV/AIDS
17.3	Loreto Day School, Calcutta, India: A Safe Haven	289
for Street Children
17.4	Dar Tailba de Qualit? Project, Morocco: Boarding	292
Facilities for Rural Girls
17.5	10,000 Women: A Goldman Sachs Initiative	294
17.6 What Is UNGEI and What Does It Do?	297
17.7 Alam Simsim: Promoting Gender Equity in Education
from an Early Age in Egypt	299
17.8 Giving Mothers a Voice in Their Children?s Education	300
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xvi Girls? Education in the 21 st Century: Equality, Empowerment, and Growth

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Women -- Education -- Developing countries.
Women -- Education -- Economic aspects -- Developing countries.
Educational equalization -- Developing countries.