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Contents Foreword by Joy Phumaphi and Danny Liepziger xvii Preface by Ruth Kagia and Mayra Buvinic xxi Acknowledgments xxiii Contributors xiii Acknowledgments xxvii Section I Education Quality, Skills Development 1 and Economic Growth Chapter 1 Overview 3 Mercy Tembon Structure of the Book 6 Note 21 References 21 v GE-FM1a.qxd 6/19/08 7:17 PM Page vi vi Contents Chapter 2 Schooling, Gender Equity, and Economic 23 Outcomes Eric Hanushek Schooling as an Investment in Human Capital 24 Policy Objectives 33 Conclusion 35 Notes 36 References 37 Chapter 3 Student Learning Outcomes in Mathematics 41 from a Gender Perspective: What Does the International PISA Assessment Tell Us? Andreas Schleicher Introduction 41 Gender Differences in Mathematics Performance 43 Policy Implications 47 References 52 Chapter 4 Returns to Education: The Gender Perspective 53 Harry Patrinos Calculating the Rate of Return to Education 54 The Social Benefits of Schooling 58 Gender Differences 58 Conclusions 64 Note 64 References 64 Chapter 5 Is Female Education a Pathway to Gender 67 Equality in the Labor Market? Some Evidence from Pakistan Monazza Aslam, Geeta Kingdon, and Mans S?derbom Examining the Education-Occupation 69 Relationship in Pakistan Education, Labor Market Transitions, and 73 Occupational Attainment Education and Earnings 82 Conclusion 87 Notes 89 References 91 GE-FM1a.qxd 6/19/08 7:17 PM Page vii Contents vii Section II Equity in Education: What is Holding 93 Countries Back? Chapter 6 Inequalities in Education: Effects of Gender, 95 Poverty, Orphanhood, and Disability Deon Filmer Data and Methodology 96 Poverty 97 The Pattern of Educational Attainment: Survivor Profiles 99 Urban or Rural Residence and Gender 102 Orphanhood 105 Disability 108 Conclusion 112 Notes 112 References 113 Chapter 7 The Double Disadvantage of Gender and 115 Social Exclusion in Education Marlaine Lockheed Socially Excluded Groups 116 Social Exclusion and Education 117 Creative Ways of Reaching and Teaching 119 Excluded Girls Practical Actions to Promote Education for 123 Excluded Girls Note 124 References 124 Chapter 8 Promoting Education Quality through 127 Gender-Friendly Schools Changu Mannathoko Introduction 127 Bringing Girls and Women into Schools and 129 Learning Spaces through WID School and Society as Gendered Power 130 Structures The Postructuralist Challenge to Gender, 134 Sexuality, Education, and Development GE-FM1a.qxd 6/19/08 7:17 PM Page viii viii Contents Transformative Action through Rights to 135 Education and Gender Equality Concluding Remarks 139 References 140 Chapter 9 Combating Gender-Based Violence in Benin 143 Michele Akpo Benin and Millennium Development Goal 3 145 GBV in Benin?A Culturally Accepted 146 Practice with Major Health and Human Rights Implications Policy Frameworks to Address GBV in Schools 149 Why GBV in Schools Persists and Ways to Overcome It to Promote Girls? Education 150 Note 151 References 151 Chapter 10 Addressing Gender Disparities in Education in 153 Contexts of Crisis, Postcrisis, and State Fragility Jackie Kirk Challenges and Opportunities: Gender Issues in 155 Education in Emergencies and Fragile States Promising Policy Developments at the Global 161 Level Implications: Learning for Peace and Equality 168 Conclusions 172 Annex 10A: Classroom Assistants in Guinea 172 and Sierra Leone Annex 10B: The Gender Equity Support Project 174 of the Sudan Basic Education Program Annex 10C: An Integrated Approach to 175 Addressing Sanitary Protection Needs: IRC Ethiopia?s Intervention Notes 176 References 177 GE-FM1a.qxd 6/19/08 7:17 PM Page ix Contents ix Section III Experiences from the Field: How was 181 it Done? Chapter 11 Building a Better Future for Afghanistan 183 through Female Education Sakena Yacoobi The Situation of Afghan Women Past and Present 184 The Context in Which Afghan Women Live 187 Improving the Circumstances of Afghan Women 188 A Strategy to Empower and Educate Afghan 190 Women Conclusion 197 References 198 Chapter 12 The Effects of a Reduction in User Fees on 201 School Enrollment: Evidence from Colombia Felipe Barrera-Osorio The Effect of User Fees on Enrollment 202 Some Ideas on Targeting 205 Note 206 References 207 Chapter 13 Holy Alliances: Public Subsidies, Islamic High 209 Schools, and Female Schooling in Bangladesh Mohammad Niaz Asadullah and Nazmul Chaudhury Madrassa Reform in South Asia 210 The Madrassa Reform Scheme in Bangladesh 213 Conclusion and Policy Implications 225 Annex 13A: Variable Description, Summary 229 Statistics, and Regression Results Notes 235 References 237 GE-FM1a.qxd 6/19/08 7:17 PM Page x x Contents Chapter 14 Cultivating Knowledge and Skills to Grow 239 African Agriculture Richard Johanson, William Saint, Catherine Ragasa, and Eia Pehu The Context for Agricultural Education and 239 Training in Africa Agricultural Education Is Vital for African 241 Development African AET in Perspective 241 Constraints on Building AET Capacity 242 Priorities for Modernizing Agricultural Education 245 Different Approaches for Different Levels 246 of Training The Time to Act Is Now 247 References 251 Notes 251 Chapter 15 Quality and Gender Equality in Education: 253 What Have We Learned from FAWE?s 15 Years of Experience? Codou Diaw Introduction 253 Background and Evolution of FAWE 254 Overview of Girls? Education in Sub-Saharan 256 Africa FAWE?s Major Achievements 257 Components of FAWE?s Gender-Responsive 259 School or Center of Excellence (COE) Model Challenges Related to the Achievement of 260 FAWE?s Strategic Objectives 2002?06 Lessons Learned 263 Conclusion and Way Forward 265 Notes 267 References 268 GE-FM1a.qxd 6/19/08 7:17 PM Page xi Contents xi Chapter 16 Strategies for Gender Equality in Basic and 269 Secondary Education: A Comprehensive and Integrated Approach in the Republic of Yemen Tawfiq A. Al-Mekhlafy Where Are We Now? 270 Current Interventions 271 Obstacles to Universal Education 274 A Concluding Word 276 References 277 Chapter 17 Conclusion and Recommendations for the 279 Way Forward Mercy Tembon Strategic Directions for the Future 280 Implications for the World Bank 298 References 302 Figures 2.1 Added-Variable Plots of Growth and Educational 31 Quality in Developing Countries 2.2 Improved GDP with Moderately Strong Knowledge 33 Improvement 2.3 Inequality of Educational Quality and Earnings 34 3.1 Growth in Baseline Qualifications 43 3.2 Gender Differences in University Attainment, in Percentage Points 44 3.3 Performance of males and females on the mathematics 45 scale in PISA 2006 3.4 Performance of males and females on the reading 46 scale in PISA 2006 3.5 Gender differences in mathematics and other 48 learning characteristics as measured by effect sizes. 4.1 Typical Age-Earnings Profiles 54 4.2 Rate of Return to Additional Years of Schooling 55 in Selected Countries 4.3 Returns to Education in Developing Countries, by 56 Level of Education GE-FM1a.qxd 6/19/08 7:17 PM Page xii xii Contents 4.5 Declining Returns to Schooling, 1970?2000 57 4.4 Returns to Schooling, by Region 57 4.6 Returns to Schooling in Selected Countries, by Gender 60 4.7 Gender Differences in Years of Schooling in 60 Developing and Industrial Countries 4.8 Returns to Schooling, by Level and Gender 61 4.9 Average Scores on Subject Examinations of the 2003 62 Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) in OECD Countries, by Gender 5.1 Kernel Densities of Log Earnings, by Employment 72 Status and Gender, 1999 5.2 Estimated Probability of Occupation and Education 74 for Young Men and Women in Pakistan 5.3 Estimated Probability of Occupation and Age for 75 Young Men and Women in Pakistan 5.4 Estimated Probability of Occupation and Education 77 for Men and Women in Ghana 5.5 Estimated Probability of Occupation and Education 78 for Young Men, 1999 and 2007 5.6 Estimated Probability of Occupation and Education 79 for Young Women, 1999 and 2007 5.7 Predicted Earnings and Level of Education for 87 Wage Employment 6.1 School Completion through Grade 6, by Richest 98 and Poorest Quintiles in Selected Countries 6.2 Grade Survival Profiles: Proportion of Cohort from 100 Each Income Quintile That Has Completed Grades 1?9 in Selected Countries 6.3 Inequalities in School Completion through Grade 6, 103 by Household Economic Status, Urban or Rural Residence, and Gender 6.4 Inequalities in School Completion through Grade 6 in 104 the Richest and Poorest Quintiles, by Gender 6.5 Differences in Enrollment of Children Ages 7?14, 106 by Orphan Status 6.6 Differences in Enrollment of Children Ages 7?14, 107 by Orphan Status and Economic Status, Conditional on Individual and Household Characteristics GE-FM1a.qxd 6/19/08 7:17 PM Page xiii Contents xiii 6.7 Differences in Enrollment of Children Ages 7?14, 109 by Orphan Status and Gender, Conditional on Individual and Household Characteristics 6.8 Deficit in Current Enrollment Associated with 111 Disability, Gender, Rural Residence, and Economic Status in Selected Countries 13.1 Growth of Secular Schools and Modern Madrassas, 216 1947?2003 13.2 Gender Orientation of Aliyah Madrassas Established 218 before and after 1980 Reforms, 2003 13A.1 Distribution of Converted Madrassas by Period 229 of Establishment 14.1 Sub-Saharan Africa: Enrollments in the Agricultural 243 Sciences in Ethiopia, by Gender, 1991 and 2000 15.1 Features of a FAWE COE or Gender-Responsive 261 School Tables 4.1 Nonmarket and External Benefits of Education 59 4.2 Returns to Schooling and Cognitive Ability, by Gender, 63 in Chile 5.1 Employment and Education Characteristics of 70 Persons Ages 16?70 Who Are Not Enrolled in School in Pakistan, by Gender, 1999 5.2 Employment and Education Characteristics of Persons 71 Ages 16?70 Who Are Not Enrolled in School in Pakistan, by Gender and Occupational Status, 1999 5.3 Employment and Education Characteristics of Persons 78 Ages 16?60 Who Are Not Enrolled in School in Punjab and North West Frontier Province, by Gender, 1999 and 2007 5.4 Effects of Literacy and Numeracy on Occupational 81 Outcome, by Gender and Age Group 5.5 Effect of Age and Education on Earnings, by 84 Employment Status and Gender 5.6 Effect of Literacy and Numeracy on Earnings, 85 by Employment Status and Gender GE-FM1a.qxd 6/19/08 7:17 PM Page xiv xiv Content 7.1 Elasticities of Primary Completion Rates and Learning 117 and Ethnolinguistic Fractionalization 8.1 Gender, Education, and Development: Contrasting 128 Frameworks 10.1 Conflict-Affected Fragile States and Education 156 13.1 Profile of Recognized Postprimary Madrassas in 213 Bangladesh, 2003 13.2 Profile of Recognized Secondary Schools and 214 Postprimary Madrassas in Bangladesh, by location, 2003 13.3 Distribution of Aliyah Madrassas by Year of 217 Establishment and Recognition 13.4 Ratio of Girls to Boys in Secondary Schools and Madrassas, 2003 218 13.5 Gender Composition of Students and Teachers 219 in Postprimary Schools and Madrassas in Bangladesh, 1970?2003 13.6 Determinants of Regional Enrollment Growth, 222 1999?2003 13A.1 Descriptive Statistics 230 13A.2 Determinants of Regional Enrollment Growth? 231 Alternative Specification, Ordinary Least Squares Estimates, 1999?2003 13A.3 Determinants of Regional Enrollment Growth, 232 1999?2003: Sample of Older Schools 13A.4 Determinants of Gender Parity in Secondary School 234 Enrollment, 2003: Linear Probability Model Estimates 15.1 Primary Gross Enrollment Rates 257 15.2 FAWE?s Key Interventions and Initiatives 259 15.3 Impact in FAWE?s four pilot COEs 262 16.2 Construction Projects in 2006/07 272 GE-FM1a.qxd 6/19/08 7:17 PM Page xv Contents xv Boxes 1.1 Interventions That Have Worked to Improve Girls? 6 Education 9.1 A Developing Democracy 144 9.2 Defining Violence 146 9.3 Recommendations from Girls to Schools and 148 Teachers to Prevent Problems the Girls Face 14.1 A Promising Example of Gender Integration in 244 Training from Benin 14.2 Examples of Gender Mainstreaming in the Agricultural 250 Professions 17.1 Externalities of Girls? Education 281 17.2 The Safe Schools Program: Preventing Gender-Based 284 Violence and the Spread of HIV/AIDS 17.3 Loreto Day School, Calcutta, India: A Safe Haven 289 for Street Children 17.4 Dar Tailba de Qualit? Project, Morocco: Boarding 292 Facilities for Rural Girls 17.5 10,000 Women: A Goldman Sachs Initiative 294 17.6 What Is UNGEI and What Does It Do? 297 17.7 Alam Simsim: Promoting Gender Equity in Education from an Early Age in Egypt 299 17.8 Giving Mothers a Voice in Their Children?s Education 300 GE-FM1a.qxd 6/19/08 7:17 PM Page xvi xvi Girls? Education in the 21 st Century: Equality, Empowerment, and Growth
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:
Women -- Education -- Developing countries.
Women -- Education -- Economic aspects -- Developing countries.
Educational equalization -- Developing countries.