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Contents Part 1 Describing and explaining health in geographical settings Chapter 1 Introducing geographies of health 1.1 Health and geography: some fundamental concepts 1.1.1 Concepts of health 1.1.2 Geographical concepts 1.2 Geographies of health: five case studies 1.2.1 Asthma in New York 1.2.2 Area effects on smoking in disadvantaged communities in Glasgow 1.2.3 The changing political economy of sex in South Africa 1.2.4 The personal significance of home 1.2.5 Embodied spaces of health and medical information on the Internet 1.3 Concluding remarks Further reading Chapter 2 Explaining geographies of health 2.1 Positivist approaches to the geography of health 2.1.1 Positivist explanation 2.1.2 Further examples of positivist approaches 2.2 Social interactionist approaches to the geography of health 2.2.1 Social interactionist explanation 2.2.2 Further examples of social interactionist approaches 2.3 Structuralist approaches to the geography of health 2.3.1 Structuralist explanation 2.3.2 Further examples of structuralist or conflict-based approaches 2.4 Structurationist approaches to the geography of health 2.4.1 Structurationist explanation 2.4.2 Further examples of structurationist approaches 2.5 Post-structuralist approaches to the geography of health 2.5.1 Post-structuralist explanation 2.5.2 Further examples of post-structuralist approaches 2.6 Concluding remarks Further reading Chapter 3 Method and technique in the geography of health 3.1 ¿Mapping¿ the geography of health: quantitative approaches 3.1.1 Visualisation 3.1.2 Exploratory spatial data analysis 3.1.3 Modelling health data in a spatial setting 3.1.4 Geographical Information Systems and health 3.2 Interpreting the geography of health: qualitative approaches 3.2.1 Interviews 3.2.2 Focus groups 3.2.3 Other qualitative methods 3.2.4 Qualitative data analysis 3.2.5 Rigour in qualitative research 3.3 Concluding remarks Further reading Part 2 Health and the social environment Chapter 4 Inequalities in health outcomes 4.1 Patterns of inequality 4.1.1 Health inequalities: international comparisons 4.1.2 One Europe or many? 4.1.3 Health inequalities: regional and class divides 4.2 Explaining inequalities in health outcomes 4.2.1 The programming hypothesis and the ¿life-course¿ 4.2.2 Behavioural (lifestyle) factors 4.2.3 Social and community influences 4.2.4 Working conditions and local environments 4.2.5 Material deprivation and health 4.3 Concluding remarks Further reading Chapter 5 Inequalities in the provision and utilization of health services 5.1 Principles of health service delivery 5.1.1 Levels of health care provision 5.1.2 Geographies of rationing 5.1.3 Efficiency and equity 5.1.4 The need for health care 5.2 Inequalities in the provision of health services 5.2.1 Health care provision in developing countries 5.2.2 Health care provision in the developed world 5.3 Utilization of services 5.3.1 Use of primary health care services 5.3.2 Use of secondary and tertiary health care services 5.4 Do provision and utilization affect outcome? 5.5 Concluding remarks Further reading Chapter 6 People on the move: migration and health 6.1 Impact of migration on health 6.1.1 Migration and stress 6.1.2 The health of refugees 6.1.3 The impact of migration on the spread of disease 6.1.4 Migration and the incidence of disease and ill-health 6.2 Impact of health status on migration 6.2.1 The selectivity of migration 6.2.2 Migration for health care and social support 6.3 The relationship between migration and the delivery of health services 6.4 Concluding remarks Further reading Part 3 Health and human modification of the environment Chapter 7 Air quality and health 7.1 Types of pollutants 7.2 Area sources 7.2.1 Radon 7.2.2 Ozone 7.3 Linear sources 7.4 Point sources 7.4.1 Point sources in the developing world 7.4.2 Point sources in the developed world 7.5 Concluding remarks Further reading Chapter 8 Water quality and health 8.1 Waterborne diseases 8.1.1 Cholera 8.1.2 Schistosomiasis 8.1.3 Gastroenteritis 8.2 Water hardness 8.3 Chemical contamination of drinking water 8.2.1 Aluminium, fluoride and arsenic 8.3 Other forms of contamination 8.3.1 Hazardous waste sites 8.4 Concluding remarks Further reading Chapter 9 Health impacts of global environmental change 9.1 Stratospheric ozone depletion 9.1.1 Ozone depletion and skin cancer 9.1.2 Other health impacts of ozone depletion 9.2 Global climate change 9.2.1 Direct effects: thermal stress 9.2.2 Indirect effects 9.2.3 Other health effects of climate change 9.3 Health effects of other global environmental change 9.4 Concluding remarks Further reading Chapter 10 Conclusions: Emerging themes in geographies of health References Appendix: Web-based resources for the Geographies of Health
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