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Contents Preface Acknowledgments About the Author Chapter 1. Using this Standard System Qualities Automatically Generated Code Compliance Chapter 2. Preprocessor (PRE) PRE00-A. Prefer inline or static functions to function-like macros PRE01-A. Use parentheses within macros around parameter names PRE02-A. Macro replacement lists should be parenthesized PRE03-A. Prefer type definitions to defines for encoding types PRE04-A. Do not reuse a standard header file name PRE05-A. Understand macro replacement when concatenating tokens or performing stringification PRE06-A. Enclose header files in an inclusion guard PRE07-A. Avoid using repeated question marks PRE08-A. Guarantee that header file names are unique PRE09-A. Do not replace secure functions with less secure functions PRE10-A. Wrap multi-statement macros in a do-while loop PRE30-C. Do not create a universal character name through concatenation PRE31-C. Never invoke an unsafe macro with arguments containing assignment, increment, decrement, volatile access, or function call Chapter 3. Declarations and Initialization (DCL) DCL00-A. Const-qualify immutable objects DCL01-A. Do not reuse variable names in subscopes DCL02-A. Use visually distinct identifiers DCL03-A. Use a static assertion to test the value of a constant expression DCL04-A. Do not declare more than one variable per declaration DCL05-A. Use type definitions to improve code readability DCL06-A. Use meaningful symbolic constants to represent literal values in program logic DCL07-A. Include the appropriate type information in function declarators DCL08-A. Properly encode relationships in constant definitions DCL09-A. Declare functions that return an errno error code with a return type of errno_t DCL10-A. Maintain the contract between the writer and caller of variadic functions DCL11-A. Understand the type issues associated with variadic functions DCL12-A. Implement abstract data types using opaque types DCL13-A. Function arguments that are pointers to values not changed by the function should be declared const DCL14-A. Do not make assumptions about the order of global variable initialization across translation units DCL30-C. Declare objects with appropriate storage durations DCL31-C. Declare identifiers before using them DCL32-C. Guarantee that mutually visible identifiers are unique DCL33-C. Ensure that restrict-qualified source and destination pointers in function arguments do not reference overlapping objects DCL34-C. Use volatile for data that cannot be cached DCL35-C. Do not convert a function pointer to an incompatible type DCL36-C. Do not declare an identifier with conflicting linkage classifications Chapter 4. Expressions (EXP) EXP00-A. Use parentheses for precedence of operation EXP01-A. Do not take the size of a pointer to determine the size of the pointed-to type EXP02-A. Be aware of the short-circuit behavior of the logical AND and OR operators EXP03-A. Do not assume the size of a structure is the sum of the sizes of its members EXP04-A. Do not perform byte-by-byte comparisons between structures EXP05-A. Do not cast away a const qualification EXP06-A. Operands to the sizeof operator should not contain side effects EXP07-A. Do not diminish the benefits of constants by assuming their values in expressions EXP08-A. Ensure pointer arithmetic is used correctly EXP09-A. Use sizeof to determine the size of a type or variable EXP10-A. Do not depend on the order of evaluation of subexpressions or the order in which side effects take place EXP11-A. Do not apply operators expecting one type to data of an incompatible type EXP30-C. Do not depend on order of evaluation between sequence points EXP31-C. Avoid side effects in assertions EXP32-C. Do not cast away a volatile qualification EXP33-C. Do not reference uninitialized memory EXP34-C. Ensure a null pointer is not dereferenced EXP35-C. Do not access or modify the result of a function call after a subsequent sequence point EXP36-C. Do not convert pointers into more strictly aligned pointer types EXP37-C. Call functions with the arguments intended by the API EXP38-C. Do not call offsetof() on bit-field members or invalid types Chapter 5. Integers (INT) INT00-A. Understand the data model used by your implementation(s) INT01-A. Use rsize_t or size_t for all integer values representing the size of an object INT02-A. Understand integer conversion rules INT03-A. Use a secure integer library INT04-A. Enforce limits on integer values originating from untrusted sources INT05-A. Do not use input functions to convert character data if they cannot handle all possible inputs INT06-A. Use strtol() or a related function to convert a string token to an integer INT07-A. Use only explicitly signed or unsigned char type for numeric values INT08-A. Verify that all integer values are in range INT09-A. Ensure enumeration constants map to unique values INT10-A. Do not assume a positive remainder when using the % operator INT11-A. Take care when converting from pointer to integer or integer to pointer INT12-A. Do not make assumptions about the type of a plain int bit-field when used in an expression INT13-A. Use bitwise operators only on unsigned operands INT14-A. Avoid performing bitwise and arithmetic operations on the same data INT15-A. Use intmax_t or uintmax_t for formatted IO on programmer-defined integer types INT30-C. Ensure that unsigned integer operations do not wrap INT31-C. Ensure that integer conversions do not result in lost or misinterpreted data INT32-C. Ensure that operations on signed integers do not result in overflow INT33-C. Ensure that division and modulo operations do not result in divide-by-zero errors INT34-C. Do not shift a negative number of bits or more bits than exist in the operand INT35-C. Evaluate integer expressions in a larger size before comparing or assigning to that size Chapter 6. Floating Point (FLP) FLP00-A. Understand the limitations of floating point numbers FLP01-A. Take care in rearranging floating point expressions FLP02-A. Consider avoiding floating point numbers when precise computation is needed FLP03-A. Detect and handle floating point errors FLP30-C. Do not use floating point variables as loop counters FLP31-C. Do not call functions expecting real values with complex values FLP32-C. Prevent or detect domain and range errors in math functions FLP33-C. Convert integers to floating point for floating point operations FLP34-C. Ensure that floating point conversions are within range of the new type Chapter 7. Arrays (ARR) ARR00-A. Understand how arrays work ARR01-A. Do not apply the sizeof operator to a pointer when taking the size of an array ARR02-A. Explicitly specify array bounds, even if implicitly defined by an initializer ARR30-C. Guarantee that array indices are within the valid range ARR31-C. Use consistent array notation across all source files ARR32-C. Ensure size arguments for variable length arrays are in a valid range ARR33-C. Guarantee that copies are made into storage of sufficient size ARR34-C. Ensure that array types in expressions are compatible ARR35-C. Do not allow loops to iterate beyond the end of an array ARR36-C. Do not subtract or compare two pointers that do not refer to the same array ARR37-C. Do not add or subtract an integer to a pointer to a non-array object ARR38-C. Do not add or subtract an integer to a pointer if the resulting value does not refer to a valid array element Chapter 8. Characters and Strings (STR) STR00-A. Represent characters using an appropriate type STR01-A. Adopt and implement a consistent plan for managing strings STR02-A. Sanitize data passed to complex subsystems STR03-A. Do not inadvertently truncate a null-terminated byte string STR04-A. Use plain char for characters in the basic character set STR05-A. Use pointers to const when referring to string literals STR06-A. Do not assume that strtok() leaves the parse string unchanged STR07-A. Use TR 24731 for remediation of existing string manipulation code STR08-A. Use managed strings for development of new string manipulation code STR30-C. Do not attempt to modify string literals STR31-C. Guarantee that storage for strings has sufficient space for character data and the null terminator STR32-C. Null-terminate byte strings as required STR33-C. Size wide character strings correctly STR34-C. Cast characters to unsigned types before converting to larger integer sizes STR35-C. Do not copy data from an unbounded source to a fixed-length array STR36-C. Do not specify the bound of a character array initialized with a string literal STR37-C. Arguments to character handling functions must be representable as an unsigned char Chapter 9. Memory Management (MEM) MEM00-A. Allocate and free memory in the same module, at the same level of abstraction MEM01-A. Store a new value in pointers immediately after free() MEM02-A. Immediately cast the result of a memory allocation function call into a pointer to the allocated type MEM03-A. Clear sensitive information stored in reusable resources returned for reuse MEM04-A. Do not perform zero length allocations MEM05-A. Avoid large stack allocations MEM06-A. Ensure that sensitive data is not written out to disk MEM07-A. Ensure that the arguments to calloc() when multiplied can be represented as a size_t MEM08-A. Use realloc() only to resize dynamically allocated arrays MEM09-A. Do not assume memory allocation routines initialize memory MEM10-A. Use a pointer validation function MEM30-C. Do not access freed memory MEM31-C. Free dynamically allocated memory exactly once MEM32-C. Detect and handle memory allocation errors MEM33-C. Use the correct syntax for flexible array members MEM34-C. Only free memory allocated dynamically MEM35-C. Allocate sufficient memory for an object Chapter 10. Input Output (FIO) FIO00-A. Take care when creating format strings FIO01-A. Be careful using functions that use file names for identification FIO02-A. Canonicalize path names originating from untrusted sources FIO03-A. Do not make assumptions about fopen() and file creation FIO04-A. Detect and handle input and output errors FIO05-A. Identify files using multiple file attributes FIO06-A. Create files with appropriate access permissions FIO07-A. Prefer fseek() to rewind() FIO08-A. Take care when calling remove() on an open file FIO09-A. Be careful with binary data when transferring data across systems FIO10-A. Take care when using the rename() function FIO11-A. Take care when specifying the mode parameter of fopen() FIO12-A. Prefer setvbuf() to setbuf() FIO13-A. Never push back anything other than one read character FIO14-A. Understand the difference between text mode and binary mode with file streams FIO15-A. Do not create temporary files in shared directories FIO16-A. Limit access to files by creating a jail FIO30-C. Exclude user input from format strings FIO31-C. Do not simultaneously open the same file multiple times FIO32-C. Do not perform operations on devices that are only appropriate for files FIO33-C. Detect and handle input output errors resulting in undefined behavior FIO34-C. Use int to capture the return value of character I/O functions FIO35-C. Use feof() and ferror() to detect end-of-file and file errors when sizeof(int) == sizeof(char) FIO36-C. Do not assume a newline character is read when using fgets() FIO37-C. Don't assume character data has been read FIO38-C. Do not use a copy of a FILE object for input and output FIO39-C. Do not alternately input and output from a stream without an intervening flush or positioning call FIO40-C. Reset strings on fgets() failure FIO41-C. Do not call getc() or putc() with stream arguments that have side effects FIO42-C. Ensure files are properly closed when they are no longer needed FIO43-C. Handle temporary files securely FIO44-C. Only use values for fsetpos() that are returned from fgetpos() Chapter 11. Environment (ENV) ENV00-A. Do not store the pointer to the string returned by getenv() ENV01-A. Do not make assumptions about the size of an environment variable ENV02-A. Beware of multiple environment variables with the same effective name ENV03-A. Sanitize the environment when invoking external programs ENV04-A. Do not call system() if you do not need a command processor ENV30-C. Do not modify the string returned by getenv() ENV31-C. Do not rely on an environment pointer following an operation that may invalidate it ENV32-C. No atexit handler should terminate in any way other than by returning ENV33-C. Do not call the longjmp function to terminate a call to a function registered by atexit() Chapte r12. Signals (SIG) 387 SIG00-A. Mask signals handled by non-interruptible signal handlers SIG01-A. Understand implementation-specific details regarding signal handler persistence SIG02-A. Avoid using signals to implement normal functionality SIG30-C. Call only asynchronous-safe functions within signal handlers SIG31-C. Do not access or modify shared objects in signal handlers SIG32-C. Do not call longjmp() from inside a signal handler SIG33-C. Do not recursively invoke the raise() function SIG34-C. Do not call signal() from within interruptible signal handlers Chapter 13. Error Handling (ERR) ERR00-A. Adopt and implement a consistent and comprehensive error handling policy ERR01-A. Use ferror() rather than errno to check for FILE stream errors ERR02-A. Avoid in-band error indicators ERR03-A. Use runtime-constraint handlers when calling functions defined by TR24731-1 ERR04-A. Choose an appropriate termination strategy ERR05-A. Application-independent code should provide error detection without dictating error handling ERR06-A. Understand the termination behavior of assert() and abort() ERR30-C. Set errno to zero before calling a function, and use it only after the function returns a value indicating failure ERR31-C. Don't redefine errno ERR32-C. Do not rely on indeterminate values of errno Chapter 14. Miscellaneous (MSC) MSC00-A. Compile cleanly at high warning levels MSC01-A. Strive for logical completeness MSC02-A. Avoid errors of omission MSC03-A. Avoid errors of addition MSC04-A. Use comments consistently and in a readable fashion MSC05-A. Do not manipulate time_t typed values directly MSC06-A. Be aware of compiler optimization when dealing with sensitive data MSC07-A. Detect and remove dead code MSC08-A. Library functions should validate their parameters MSC09-A. Character encoding - use subset of ASCII for safety MSC10-A. Character encoding / UTF-8-related issues MSC11-A. Incorporate diagnostic tests using assertions MSC12-A. Detect and remove code that has no effect MSC13-A. Detect and remove unused values MSC14-A. Do not introduce unnecessary platform dependencies MSC15-A. Do not depend on undefined behavior MSC30-C. Do not use the rand() function for generating pseudorandom numbers MSC31-C. Ensure that return values are compared against the proper type Appendix: POSIX (POS) POS00-A. Avoid race conditions with multiple threads POS01-A. Check for the existence of links POS02-A. Follow the principle of least privilege POS30-C. Use the readlink() function properly POS31-C. Do not unlock or destroy another thread's mutex POS32-C. Include a mutex when using bit-fields in a multi-threaded environment POS33-C. Do not use vfork() POS34-C. Do not call putenv() with a pointer to an automatic variable as the argument Compliant Solution (setenv()) POS35-C. Avoid race conditions while checking for the existence of a symbolic link POS36-C. Observe correct revocation order while relinquishing privileges POS37-C. Ensure that privilege relinquishment is successful Glossary References Index
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:
C (Computer program language).