Table of contents for Construction management fundamentals / Kraig Knutson ... [et al.].

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Note: Contents data are machine generated based on pre-publication provided by the publisher. Contents may have variations from the printed book or be incomplete or contain other coding.


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CONTENTS
Preface xvi
About the Authors xx
CHAPTER 1 Historical Perspective 1 
Construction 1 
Early History 2 
Fortifications 3 
Engineering Education in the United States 4 
Canals 6 Railroads 9 
Industrial Buildings 13 
Highways 14 
Airports 17 
Evolution of the Skyscraper 19 
Concrete Buildings 24 
Energy and Building 25 
Construction Industry 26 
Artisans and Day Laborers 26
Master Builders 27Contractors 28
Contractor Specialization 29
Summary 29
Review Questions 30
References 31 
Website Resources 33
PART 1 Construction Management 
35
 
CHAPTER 2 
Overview of the Construction Industry 36 
Building Your Future 36
The Construction Industry 39
Organization of the Industry 40
Residential Construction 41
Commercial Construction 42Industrial Construction 42 
Heavy/Highway Construction 43
Public and Private Works 43
Horizontal and Vertical Construction 44
Project Participants 44
Owners 44 
General Contractors 45
 Subcontractors or Specialty Contractors 45 
Designers?Architects and Engineers 45 Construction Managers 45 
Trades 46 
Labor Unions 46 
Insurance Companies 46 
Banks 46 Suppliers 47 
Permitting Agencies and Building Authorities 47 
Public Industry Organizations 47 
American Concrete Institute 48 
American Institute of Constructors 48 
American Institute of Architects 48 
American Institute of Steel Construction, Inc. 48 
American Society of Civil Engineers 48 
Associated Builders and Contractors 48 
Associated General Contractors of America 49 
Construction Industry Institute 49 
National Society of Professional Engineers 49 
Construction Labor Force 49
 Project Labor Agreements 49
Construction Crafts 50
Organization of the Construction Business 53 
Job Opportunities 54 
Summary 55 
Review Questions 55 
References 56 
Website Resources 57 
CHAPTER 3 
Construction Management Functions 58 
Project Planning and Design 58
Master Planning (Capital Budgeting) 59
Scope Definition 59 
Planning Phase 61
Project Delivery Methods 62
Design-Bid-Build 63
Design-Build 64 
Design-Build-Operate 65
Construction Management at Risk 65
Designer Selection 67
Design Phase 67
Bid Phase 68Award Phase 70
Construction Phase 71
Construction Company Team Functions 73 
Owner?s Project Team 74 
Managing Critical Activities 75 
Project Cost and Schedule Control 76 
Cash Flow Analysis 78
Schedule Control 84
Materials Management 85
Construction-Related Design 86
Risk Management 88
Value Engineering 89
Summary 90
Review Questions 91References 92
Website Resources 93
CHAPTER 4 
Scheduling Techniques for Construction Projects 94 
Introduction 94
 Historical Perspective 9
5The Planning Process 95
Activities 96 
Activity Duration 98 
Bar Charts 99
Critical Path Method 101
Activity Logic Network 104 
Schedule Calculations 107 
Forward Pass 108 
Backward Pass 109 
Critical Path and Critical Activities 111 
Precedence Logic Diagrams 115 
Finish-to-Start 115
Start-to-Start 116 
Finish-to-Finish 117
 Start-to-Finish 117
Calendar Date Schedule 118
Scheduling Activities 118
Resources 120
Crashing 122
Velocity Diagram 122
Linear Scheduling 124
Estimate Activity Production Rates 125 
Develop Activity Sequence 125 
Draft the Linear Schedule 127 
Computer Support 127
Summary 128
Review Questions 129
References 132
Website Resources 133
CHAPTER 5 Construction Cost Estimates 135 
Introduction 135 
Estimating Methodology 137 
Work Breakdown Structure 139
 Degree of Detail 140 
Parametric Estimates 142 
Accuracy and Completeness 144 
Review 144 
Basics for Preparation of Estimates 144 
Review Contract Documents 144 
Planning the Work 145 
Quantities 146 Types of Costs 146 
Production 146 
Productivity and Price Resources 147 
Development of Specific Tasks 147 
Labor Unit Cost 147 
Equipment Unit Cost 148 
Material Unit Cost 148 
Unit Cost Reference Data 148 
Costs and Pricing 148 
Identify Activities 125 
Supporting Documentation 149 
Labor 152 
Crews 152 
Wage Rates 153 
Overtime and Shift Differential 155 
Taxes and Insurance 155 
Fringe Benefits 156 
Labor Productivity 157
 Productivity Adjustment 157 
Construction Equipment and Plant 158 
Selection of Equipment 158 
Equipment Production Rates 159 
Mobilization and Demobilization 159 
Equipment Ownership and Operating Cost 159 
Plant Cost 159
Small Tools 160 
Permanent Materials and Supplies 160 
Sources of Pricing Data 160
Forward Pricing 161
Freight 162
Handling and Storage 16
2Taxes 162
Subcontracted Work 162 
Use of Quotations 163 
Overhead Costs 163 
Job Office Overhead 163 
General and Administrative Overhead 164 
Duration of Overhead Items 164 
Distribution of Overhead 165 
Summary 165
Review Questions 165
References 167
 Website Resources 167
CHAPTER 6 Estimating Heavy/Civil Projects 169 
Introduction 169 
Graphical Presentation of Earthwork 170 
Cross Sections 172 
Earthwork Quantities 173 
End-Area Determination 173
Average End Area 174
Stripping 177
Net Volume 178
Earthwork Volume Sheet 178
Mass Diagram 181 
Mass Diagram Properties 182 
Using the Mass Diagram 183 
Balance Lines 183 
Average Grade 18
5Haul Distances 186
Consolidated Average Hauls 187
Pricing Earthwork Operations 190 
Spread Protection 190
Time to Complete a Task 193
Production Efficiency 194
Cost to Employ a Machine 194
Cost to Complete a Task 194
Reviewing the Estimate 195
Concrete Work 196
Concrete Estimates 198
Concrete Volume 19
8Formwork 198 
Ground Contact Area 201
Cure Area 202
Reinforcing Steel 202 
Embedded Items 202
Pricing Concrete 203 
Crew Productivity 203
Labor Cost 203
Concrete Estimate Summary 205Risk 206
Summary 208
Review Questions 208
References 210
Website Resources 211
CHAPTER 7 
Estimating Building Projects 212 
Introduction 212
Computer-Aided Design 212
Understanding the Drawings 213
General Information 213 
Cure Plans 214 
Architectural Plans 214 
Structural Plans 217 
Mechanical, Plumbing, and Electrical 219 
Specifications 222 
Organization of a CSI Technical Specification 222
Measurement 224 
Perimeter 224
Relationship Between Perimeters 226
Concrete Construction (CSI Division 3) 228 
Formwork 229Reinforcing 231Curing 233
Pricing Concrete 233
Masonry Construction (CSI Division 4) 234 
Position of the Brick 235
Bond 235
Joints 236
Factors That Impact Masonry Cost 237
Masonry Quantities 238 
Pricing Masonry 242
Metals (CSI Division 5) 242 
Steel Shapes and Nomenclature Information 244 
Sequence of Take-Off 244 
Pricing Steel 246 
Wood, Plastic, and Composites (CSI Division 6) 247 
Lumber 248
Framing Take-Off 249
Thermal and Moisture Protection (CSI Division 7) 253 
Openings (CSI Division 8) 254 
Door and Window Schedules 255
Pricing Door or Window Work 255
Finishes (CSI Division 9) 256 
Finish Schedules 257
Finish Work Quantity Take-Off 257
Estimating Finishes 257
Plumbing (CSI Division 22) and Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (CSI Division 23) 261 
Electrical (CSI Division 26) 263 
Summary 265 
Review Questions 266 
References 269 
Website Resources 270 
CHAPTER 8 
Construction Contract Administration 272 
Description of a Contract 272 
Definition 272 
Essential Contract Documents 273 
Agreement 273
 General Conditions 274 
Supplementary Conditions 276 
Drawings 277 
Specifications 277 
Addenda 278 
Documents Included by Reference 279 
Contractual Relationships 279 
Owners 279Designers 280
General Contractors 281
Subcontractors 281
Material Suppliers 281
Construction Managers 282
The Bid and Award Process 282 
Bidding 283 
Bid Depository 286
Award 287
Notice to Proceed 287
Standard Contract Documents 288 
Government 288 
American Institute of Architects 288 
Construction Owners Association of 
America 289 
Types of Construction Contracts 289 
Lump Sum 28
9Unit Price 289
Cost Plus 29
0Incentive Contracts 290
Negotiated Contracts 292
Job Order Contracts 292
Bonds (Guarantees) 293 
Bid Bonds 294
Performance Bonds 294
Payment Bonds 296
Bonding Limits 296 
Contractor Insurance 296 
Worker?s Compensation Insurance 297 
Commercial General Liability Insurance 297 
Builder?s Risk 298
 Equipment Insurance 299 
Umbrella Insurance 299 
Wrap-Up Insurance (Owner-Controlled Insurance 
Programs?OCIP) 29
9Certificates of Insurance 299
Subrogation 299
Administering a Construction Contract 301 
Preconstruction Conference 301
Subcontracts 30
1Submittals 301
Request for Information 304 
Pay Estimates 305
Change Orders 30
6Claims 307 
Dispute Resolution 307
Alternative Dispute Resolution 30
8Liquidated Damages and Substantial 
Completion 310
Final Inspection 310
Summary 311
Review Questions 312
References 313
Website Resources 314
CHAPTER 9 
Construction Accounting 316 
Introduction 316
Income Statement 317
Notes 317
Retained Earnings 319
Balance Sheet 320 
Assets 320
Current Assets 322
Long-Term Assets 323
Owner?s Equity 324
Liquidity and Working Capital 324
Current Ratio 326
Construction Contract Revenue Recognition 329
Cash Method of Revenue Recognition 329 
Straight Accrual Method of Revenue Recognition 329 
Completed-Contract Method of Revenue Recognition 330 
Percentage-of-Completion Method of Revenue Recognition 330 
Overbilling/Underbilling 331 
Contract Status Report 332
Financial Statement Analysis 333
Dollar and Percentage Change 333 
Component Percentages 334 
Ratios 335 
Summary 336
Review Questions 337
References 340
Website Resources 340
PA RT 
2 
L Construction Practice 341 
CHAPTER 10 Machine Power 342 
Knowledge for Estimating 342 
Payload 343 Machine Performance 344 
Required Power 344 
Rolling Resistance 344 Grade Resistance 346 Total Resistance 349 
Available Power 353
 Horsepower Rating 353 Rimpull 354 Drawbar Pull 355 
Usable Power 356 
Coefficient of Traction 356 Altitude Effect on Usable Power 358 
Performance Charts 358 
Drawbar Pull Performance Charts 359 Rimpull Performance Charts 360 Retarder Performance Charts 362 
Summary 365Review Questions 365References 368Website Resources 368
CHAPTER 11 
Equipment Selection and Utilization 369 
Hydraulic Excavators 369
Excavator Accidents 369
Backhoe-Loaders 372
Production 372 
HOES 373 
General Information 373 
Basic Parts and Operation of a Hoe 373 
Bucket Rating for Hydraulic Hoes 376 
Selecting a Hoe 376 
Rated Hoist Load 377 
Hoe Production 377 
LOADERS 380 
General Information 380 
Types and Sizes 380 
Operating Specifications 381
Loader Buckets/Attachments 381 
Buckets 38
1Fill Factors for Loaders 383
Operating Loads 383
Production Rates for Wheel Loaders 384 
Trench Safety 387 
Means of Egress 388
Other Requirements 389
CRANES 389 
Major Crane Types 389 
Crawler Cranes 391 
Telescoping-Boom Truck-Mounted Cranes 392 
Lattice-Boom Truck-Mounted Cranes 393 
Lifting Capacities of Cranes 394 
Rated Loads for Lattice- and Telescopic-Boom Cranes 395 
Rated Loads for Hydraulically Operated Cranes 398 
Tower Cranes 398
Tower Crane Selection 400
Rated Loads for Tower Cranes 401
Crane Safety 403
L OTHER CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT 404 
Dozers 404 
Scrapers 404 
Finishing Equipment 405 
Trucks and Hauling Equipment 406 Compaction Equipment 406 
Asphalt Pavers 408 
Concrete Equipment 408 Summary 410 
Review Questions 410 
References 412 
Excavator Website Resources 413 
Crane and Lifting Website Resources 413 
CHAPTER 12 Equipment Costs 415 
Introduction 415
Equipment Documentation 416
OWNERSHIP COST 417 
Elements of Ownership Cost 417
 Purchase Expense 418
Salvage Value 418
Tax Saving from Depreciation 419 
Major Repairs and Overhauls 424 
Taxes 424 
Insurance 424 
Storage and Miscellaneous 424 
OPERATING COST 424 
Elements of Operating Cost 424 
Fuel 424 Lubricants, Filters, and Grease 426 
Repairs 427 
Tires 428 
Replacement of High-Wear Items 428 
COST FOR BIDDING 429 
General Information 429 
Ownership Cost 429Operating Cost 434
BUY, RENT, OR LEASE 437 
General Information 437
Rental 438
Lease 438
439Summary 441Review Questions 442References 444Website Resources 444
CHAPTER 13 Building Materials 446 
Concrete 446
Reinforced Concrete 455
Structural Steel 458
Wood and Wood Products 464
Masonry 467Summary 472
Review Questions 473
References 473
Website Resources 473
CHAPTER 14 Building Construction Methods 475 
Mobilization 475
Building Systems 476
Site Preparation 477
Foundation 477
Framing 478
Building Envelope 480Interior Walls 483
Utilities 484
Environmental Control Systems 487
Interior Finish 487
Common Commercial Buildings 487
Multistory Buildings 494
Braced-Frame Buildings 497
Rigid-Frame Structures 497
Shear Wall Buildings 498
Framed-Tube Structures 498
Suspended Structures 500
Building Frame Selection 500
Summary 501
Review Questions 502
References 503
Website Resources 503
CHAPTER 15 Quality and Productivity 505 
Quality 505 
Quality Assurance and Quality Control 507 
Total Quality Management 508 
Quality and Contractor Selection 509 
Productivity 510 
Owner Effect on Productivity 510
Jobsite Management?s Effect on Productivity 511 
Productivity Studies 512
Summary 517 
Review Questions 517
References 518
Website Resources 519
CHAPTER 16 Safety 520 
Introduction 520 
Technical Information 521 
Federal OSHA Reporting Requirements 522 
OSHA Jobsite Visits 524 
The Inspection 52
Walk-around Inspection 525
Closing Conference 526
Citation Types 526 
Most-Violated Construction Standards 526 
Working with OSHA 528 
Consultation Program 528 
Safety Program Development 530 
Job Hazard Analysis 534 
Self-Inspections 535 Accident/Incident Investigations 536 
Written Emergency Response Plan 536 
Safety and Health Training 538 
Quantify Training Needs 539 
Key Components to a Successful Program? Beyond Regulatory Requirements 541 
Establishing the Safety Foundation 541 
Improving the Overall Attitude 542 
Promotion of the Safety Culture 543 
Other Safety Resources 543 
Summary 543 
Review Questions 544
References 544 
Website Resources 545
CHAPTER 17 Trends 546 
 Cost-Effective and Timely Construction 546 
Innovative Contracting Methods 546
 Technologies for Guiding and Monitoring 549 
Smart Structures 550
 Simulation Technologies 550 
Total Electronic Integration 550 
Innovative Contracting Methods 550 
Design-Build Contracting 551 
Public/Private Partnerships 551 
Use of Electronic Contracting 552 
Performance-Related Specifications 552 
Guiding and Monitoring Machines 552
 Physical Scales 552 
Global Positioning System 553 
Active Beacon Systems 556 
Ground-Based Radio Frequency Systems 556 
Radio Frequency Identification 557 
Smart Structures and Intelligent 
Buildings 558 
Self-Healing Structures 559 
Simulation Technologies 559 
Total Electronic Integration 560 
Wireless Networks on Construction Sites 561 
Emerging Technologies 561
 Proactive Computing 56
2Nonmonolith Documents 562 
Artificial Life Schedule Optimization 563 
Holographic Storage 563 
Nanotechnology 564 
Tacit Knowledge Extraction 565 
Distance Learning 565
Summary 565
Review Questions 566
References 567
Website Resources 569
Appendix A Glossary 000 
Appendix B Selected Unit 
Equivalents
 
000 
Appendix C AIA 
Document A101-2007
 
000 
Appendix D AIA 
Document A141-2004
 
000 
Appendix E AIA 
Document B201-2007
 
000 
Appendix F AIA 
Document A310-1970
 
000 
Appendix G AIA 
Document A312-1984
 
000 
Appendix H AIA Document 
A401-2007
Appendix I AIA Document 
G701-2001
Appendix J AIA Document 
G702-1992
Appendix K AIA Document 
G810-2001
Index
 000 

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Construction industry -- Management.