Table of contents for Principles and practice of variable pressure/environmental scanning electron microscopy (VP-ESEM) / Debbie Stokes.

Bibliographic record and links to related information available from the Library of Congress catalog.

Note: Contents data are machine generated based on pre-publication provided by the publisher. Contents may have variations from the printed book or be incomplete or contain other coding.


Counter
Contents 
Chapter 1 
A brief historical overview
1.1 SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY 
1.1.1 The beginnings
1.1.2 The need for added capabilities
1.2 THE DEVELOPMENT OF IMAGING IN A GAS ENVIRONMENT
1.2.1 Overcoming the limits of conventional SEM
1.2.2 Leaps and bounds
Chapter 2 
Principles of SEM
2.1 INTRODUCTION
2.1.1 Why use an electron beam?
2.1.2 The SEM column
2.1.3 Why do we need a vacuum system?
2.2 ELECTRON SOURCES
2.2.1 Thermionic emission sources
2.2.2 Field emission sources
2.3 ELECTRON OPTICS 
2.3.1 Lenses
2.3.2 Lens aberrations
2.3.2.1 Spherical aberration
2.3.3.2 Chromatic aberration
2.3.3.3 Aperture diffraction 
2.3.3.4 Astigmatism
2.4 SIGNALS AND DETECTION
2.4.1 Primary electrons and the interaction volume 
2.4.1.1 Elastic Interactions
2.4.1.2 Inelastic Interactions
2.4.1.3 Dependence of interaction volume on primary electron energy 
2.4.1.4 Dependence of interaction volume on atomic number 
2.4.1.5 Beam penetration
2.4.2 Backscattered electrons
2.4.3 Secondary Electrons
2.4.4 X-ray radiation
2.4.4.1 Continuum x-rays
2.4.4.2 Characteristic x-rays
2.4.5 Cathodoluminescence
2.5 PRACTICAL ASPECTS OF ELECTRON BEAM IRRADIATION
2.5.1 Radiation damage
2.5.2 Minimising specimen charging - low voltage SEM
2.5.3 Increasing surface and bulk conductivities
2.5.3.1 Electrically conductive surface coatings
2.5.3.2 Electrically conductive bulk stains
2.6 THE SEM IN OPERATION
2.6.1 Building up an image
2.6.2 Magnification
2.6.3 Signal-to-noise
2.6.4 Contrast
2.6.5 Adjusting the contrast
2.6.6 Resolution
2.6.7 Depth of field
2.6.8 Image capture
2.6.8.1 Integration
2.6.8.2 Averaging
Chapter 3
General principles of VP-ESEM: utilising a gas
3.1 INTRODUCTION
3.2 VP-ESEM INSTRUMENTATION
3.2.1 Typical features
3.2.2 Primary electron scattering in VP-ESEM ? the general case
3.2.3 Units of pressure 
3.3 SIGNAL GENERATION IN A GAS
3.3.1 Introduction
3.3.2 Direct collection of electrons and ions
3.3.2.1 Ionised gas cascade signal amplification
3.3.2.2 The specimen-anode gap
3.3.2.3 The general shape of the amplification curve
3.3.3 Collection of photons - the gas luminescence signal
3.3.3.1 Photon production
3.3.3.2 Enhanced photon signals
3.3.4 Detecting indirect electron and ion currents
3.3.4.1 Charged signal carriers and induced currents
3.4 IMAGING WITH WATER VAPOUR 
3.4.1 Introduction
3.4.2 Thermodynamic equilibria
3.4.2.1 Pure water
3.4.2.2 Aqueous phases
3.4.3 Non equilibrium conditions
3.4.4 Practicalities of stabilising hydrated specimens
Chapter 4
Imaging and analysis in the VP-ESEM: the influence of a gas
4.1 INTRODUCTION
4.2 BACKGROUND TO THEORETICAL CALCULATIONS 
4.2.1 Calculating the mean free paths of primary electrons
4.2.2 Calculating pressure-dependent variables
4.2.3 Estimating the ?useful? primary electron current
4.3 WHICH GAS?
4.3.1 Introduction
4.3.2 Usefulness of the gas ? experimental conditions
4.3.3 Ionisation and excitation for different gases
4.3.4 Scattering of the primary electron beam in different gases
4.3.4.1 The influence of atomic number on the elastic mean free path
4.3.4.2 Effect of atomic number on the radius of the primary beam skirt
4.3.4.3 Influence of atomic number on the useful primary electron beam current
4.4 EXPLORING THE GAS PATH LENGTH
4.4.1 Introduction
4.4.2 Influence of GPL on the skirt radius
4.4.3 Gas path length and useful primary electron beam current
4.4.4 Constraints on reducing the gas path length
4.4.5 Separating gas path length from working distance
4.5 HOW MUCH GAS? 
4.5.1 Introduction
4.5.2 Scattering of primary electrons as a function of pressure
4.5.2.1 Effect of chamber pressure on the elastic mean free path 
4.5.2.2 Influence of pressure on the radius of the primary beam skirt
4.5.2.3 Influence of pressure on the useful primary electron signal
4.6 X-RAY MICROANALYSIS IN THE VP-ESEM
4.6.1 Introduction
4.6.2 Effects of chamber gas on x-ray signals
4.6.3 ????
4.6.4 Considerations for minimising the effects of the gas
4.6.5 Post-acquisition methods to correct for scattering
Chapter 5
Imaging uncoated specimens in the VP-ESEM 
5.1 INTRODUCTION
5.2 Electronic structure
5.2.1 The energy level diagram
5.2.2 Conductors, semi-conductors and insulators
5.3 FACTORS AFFECTING SECONDARY ELECTRON EMISSION
5.3.1 Transport of excited electrons 
5.3.2 Escape of excited electrons
5.4 THE INFLUENCE OF THE SPECIMEN ON THE SYSTEM
5.4.1 The effect of charging - the general case
5.4.2 Measuring surface potential
5.4.3 Conductive, electrically grounded bulk materials 
5.4.4 Conductive, electrically isolated materials
5.4.5 Non-conductive, uncoated materials
5.5 TIME- AND TEMPERATURE-DEPENDENT EFFECTS
5.5.1 Introduction
5.5.2 Conductivity and some time-dependent effects
5.5.3 Charge traps and thermal effects
5.6 IMAGING SOFT MATERIALS
5.6.1 Introduction
5.6.2 Choosing an appropriate primary beam energy
5.6.2.1 Advantages of low primary beam energy
5.6.2.2 Advantages of high primary beam energy
5.6.3 Radiation damage
5.7 EFFECTS OF IONS ON IMAGING
5.7.1 Introduction
5.7.2 Consideration of the concentration of positive ions
5.7.3 Ion mobility effects
5.7.4 An additional surface potential
5.7.4.1 Conductive, electrically isolated materials
5.7.4.2 Non-conductive, uncoated materials
5.7.5 Electron-ion recombination and signal scavenging
5.7.6 Combating excess ions
5.8 IMAGING WITH A GAS: SUMMARY
Chapter 6 
A lab in a chamber ? in situ methods in VP-ESEM and other applications
6.1 INTRODUCTION
6.2 NANOCHARACTERISATION OF INSULATING MATERIALS
6.2.1 High-resolution imaging
6.2.2 Anti-contamination in the VP-ESEM
6.2.3 Nanometrology
6.2.4 Utilising novel contrast mechanisms
6.2.5 Transmitted electron signals ? STEM and wetSTEM
6.3 IN SITU EXPERIMENTS
6.3.1 Deformation & failure
6.3.2 Low temperature experiments
6.3.3 High temperature experiments
6.3.4 Condensation and evaporation of water
6.3.4.1 Wetting experiments
6.3.4.2 Controlled evaporation
6.3.4.3 Wet-dry cycling
6.3.5 Processes using electron beam gas chemistry in the VP-ESEM
6.3.5.1 Electron beam lithography 
6.3.5.2 In situ nanofabrication
6.3.6 High pressure experiments
6.4 OTHER APPLICATIONS
6.4.1 Introduction
6.4.2 Biological specimens
6.4.3 ?????
6.4.4 Liquids and Soft materials
6.4.5 Hard/soft composites and hard materials

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Scanning electron microscopy.