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Contents Preface PART I. FOUNDATIONS OF CURRICULUM 1. The Nature of Curriculum The Concept of Curriculum The Types of Curricula The Recommended Curriculum The Written Curriculum The Supported Curriculum The Taught Curriculum The Tested Curriculum The Learned Curriculum Components of the Curriculum Curricular Policies Curricular Goals Fields of Study Programs of Study Courses of Study Units of Study Lessons The Mastery, the Organic, and the Enrichment Curricula The Hidden Curriculum The Constants of the Hidden Curriculum The Variables of the Hidden Curriculum Summary Applications Case Study Webliography 2. Curriculum History: The Perspective of the Past Academic Scientism The Temper of the Times The Predominant Trends The Exemplary Leaders The Major Publications Progressive Functionalism The Temper of the Times The Predominant Trends The Exemplary Leaders The Major Publications Developmental Conformism The Temper of the Times The Predominant Trends The Exemplary Leaders The Major Publications Scholarly Structuralism The Temper of the Times The Predominant Trends The Exemplary Leaders The Major Publications Romantic Radicalism The Temper of the Times The Predominant Trends The Exemplary Leaders The Major Publications Privatistic Conservatism The Temper of the Times The Predominant Trends The Exemplary Leaders The Major Publications Technological Constructionism The Temper of the Times The Predominant Trends The Exemplary Leaders The Major Publications Modern Conservatism The Temper of the Times The Predominant Trends The Exemplary Leaders The Major Publications Conclusion: A Century of Curriculum Trends in Retrospect Summary Applications Case Study Webliography 3. Curriculum Theory The Nature and Function of Curriculum Theory Leadership in Curriculum Theory Classifying Curriculum Theories Structure-Oriented Theories Value-Oriented Theories The Major Value-Oriented Theorists Content-Oriented Theories Child-Centered Curricula Knowledge-Centered Curricula Society-Centered Curricula Process-Oriented Theories A System for Examining Curricular Processes Alternative Curriculum Approaches Curriculum as Transmission of Information Curriculum as End Product Curriculum as Process Curriculum as Praxis/Awareness Curriculum as Change Technology as Catalyst of Curriculum Change The Theoretical School of the Future Summary Applications Case Study Webliography 4. The Politics of Curriculum An Overview of the Curriculum-Influence Process The Role of the Federal Government 1957?1967: Scholarly Structuralism 1968?1974: Romantic Radicalism 1975?1989: Privatistic Conservatism 1990?1999: Technological Constructionism 2000?Present: New Privatistic Conservatism State Role in Curriculum The Role of Professional Organizations National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education The Courts Local Educational Leaders The Classroom Teacher The Internal Pressures The External Pressures Summary Applications Case Study Webliography PART II. CURRICULUM PROCESSES 5. Curriculum Planning A Goal-Based Model of Curriculum Planning Determine the Locus of Planning Decisions Determine the Organizational Structures Needed District Curriculum Advisory Council School Curriculum Advisory Council Curriculum Task Forces Identify and Allocate Leadership Functions Align Educational Goals With Curricular Fields Develop a Curriculum Database Develop a Planning Calendar Conduct Needs Assessment Organize, Evaluate, Change, Provide Resources Provide Staff Development Summary Applications Case Study Webliography 6. Improving the Program of Studies Reconceptualizing Programs of Study Interdisciplinary Courses Restructured Programs of Study Improving the Program of Studies Improving Low-Performing Schools Common Findings at Low-Performing Schools Developing Dynamic Knowledge Developing Learner Interaction and Curriculum Integration Operationalizing Change and Reform Developing the Assessment Agenda Using Standards and Outcome Statements Aligning District Goals and the Curriculum Correlating Curricula Analyzing Resources Allocated to Curricula Importance of Data Analysis in Assessment Assessing Learner Needs Improving the Program of Studies Assessing Constituent Satisfaction Summary Applications Case Study Webliography 7. Improving a Field of Study Reconceptualizing Fields of Study Diagnostic-Prescriptive Models Elective Models Improving the Field of Study A Rationale for a Teacher-Centered Process Establish Project Parameters Orient for Mastery Refine the Map Develop Curriculum Materials Suggest Time Allocations Select and Develop Tests Electronic Testing Select Instructional Materials Provide for Staff Development Setting Staff Development as Priority Creative Staff-Development Strategies Summary Applications Case Study Webliography 8. Processes for Developing New Courses and Units The Technological Process of Curriculum Planning Determine Course Parameters Assess the Needs of the Learners Identify Course Objectives Sequence and Cluster Course Objectives Identify Learning Activities Select Instructional Materials Identify Assessment Methods Develop the Curriculum Guide The Technological Process Summarized The Naturalistic Process of Curriculum Planning Assess the Alternatives Stake Out the Territory Develop a Constituency Build the Knowledge Base Block in the Unit Plan Quality Learning Experiences Develop the Course Examination Develop the Learning Scenarios Adapting the Naturalistic Model for Elementary Grades The Naturalistic Model Summarized The Technological Model Summarized Inverse Design Process Developing Distance Learning Courses as an Alternative Developing Technology as a Classroom Learning Scenario Using Alternatives to Identify Learning Activities Develop Acceptable Use Policy Summary Applications Case Study Webliography PART III. CURRICULUM MANAGEMENT 9. Supervising the Curriculum: Teachers and Materials Supervising the Taught Curriculum: Current Approaches Hunter?s ?Essential Elements? Glickman?s Developmental Supervision Costa and Garmston?s Cognitive Coaching Problems and Issues in Supervision The Role of the Curriculum Supervisor Differentiated Professional Development Staff Development Informal Observations Rating Individual Development Motivating Staff The Interrelationship of Processes Maslow?s Theory of Human Needs Supervising the Supported Curriculum Develop a Statement of Board Policy and Administrative Procedures Appoint the Textbook Adoption Committee Textbook Adoption Committee Involving Distance Learning Prepare the Committee Provide the Committee With Selection Resources Determine How Teachers Will Probably Use the New Materials Determine How Teachers Will Allocate Space Develop a Sharply Focused and Weighted Set of Criteria for Selection Basing Selection on Research Identify Five Texts That Best Meet the Requirements and the Criteria Get Teacher Input on the Top Three Texts Select the Best Text Develop a Service Contract With the Publisher Train the Teachers in the Use of the Textbooks and Provide Materials to Correlate the Texts With the Curriculum Monitor the Use of the Texts Summary Applications Case Study Webliography 10. Curriculum Development and Implementation Developing a Program Philosophy and Rationale Statement Procedure Sample Language Arts English Program Philosophy Sample Language Arts English Program Rationale Statement Methods for Choosing Teacher Representation Developing a Scope and Sequence, Program Goals, Objectives, Learning Outcomes, and Authentic Tasks The Committee Structure Samples of Program Scope and Sequence Indicators of Effective Curriculum Development Summary Applications Case Study Webliography 11. Aligning the Curriculum A Rationale for Curriculum Alignment Curriculum Design Goal-Based Design Unit and Lesson Design Interventions Organizing the Alignment Project Organizational Strategies Standards-Based Versus Curriculum Integration Sequence Required Versus Elective Coordination and Integration Identifying the Mastery Objectives Developing Curriculum-Based Tests Correlating the Mastery List and Instructional Materials Developing Instructional Planning Aids Yearly Planning Matrix Management Planning Matrix Unit-Planning Guide Importance of Scientific Research Developing Reporting Materials Providing Staff Development for the Alignment Project Monitoring and Evaluating the Alignment Project Understanding the Importance of Curriculum Summary Applications Case Study Webliography 12. Curriculum Evaluation Curriculum Evaluation Defined Evaluation Models Tyler?s Objectives-Centered Model Stufflebeam?s Context-Input-Process-Product Model Scriven?s Goal-Free Model Stake?s Responsive Model Eisner?s Connoisseurship Model Developing an Eclectic Approach Challenges to Program Evaluation Leadership and Evaluation Technology and Evaluation Evaluating a Field of Study Preparing for the Evaluation Assessing the Context Identifying the Evaluation Issues Developing the Evaluation Design Evaluation Strategies Implementing the Evaluation Design Summary Applications Case Study Webliography PART IV. CURRENT TRENDS IN THE CURRICULUM 13. Current Developments in the Subject Fields Developments in English/Language Arts/Reading Issues Facing K?12 English Language Arts Standards for English Language Arts English/Language Arts Trends in English and Language Arts Differentiating Curriculum Critical Literacy Reading Trends in Reading Brain Research Technology and Reading Improvement Recommendations for Curriculum Leaders Social Studies Trends in Social Studies Mathematics Trends in Mathematics The Standards 2000 Project The Equity Principle Science Trends in Science Foreign Language Trends in Foreign-Language Education Education in the Arts Trends in Art Education Physical Education and Health Trends in Physical Education Global Education Multicultural Education Summary Applications Case Study Webliography 14. Current Developments Across the Curriculum Using Writing to Learn Learning to Write by Writing Thinking Speaking Listening Technology and the Curriculum Changing Contexts School Technology Realities Technology as a Tool in the Curriculum Technology as an Integral Part of the Curriculum Technology as the Curriculum Student Achievement and Technology Classroom Technology Web-Based Applications Developing Local Community Awareness School Technology Goals State and National Levels of Awareness E-Learning Strategies for Success Future Challenges Media Technology Summary Applications Case Study Webliography 15. Individualizing the Curriculum Types of Individualized Programs Previous Attempts to Individualize Providing Elective Courses Curriculum Tracking Offering ?Mini-Courses? Open Classrooms Self-Paced Instruction Current Adaptive Approaches Adaptive Learning Environments Model Cooperative Learning Models Learning-Styles Models Mastery Learning Models Adaptive Programs for the Gifted Parallel Curriculum for the Gifted Compacting Discovery Method Brain-Based Learning Special Pace: Acceleration Special Curricula Special Resources Staffing for Gifted and Talented Students Providing for Academically Challenged Learners Early Intervention Early Intervention Programs Special Curricula Bilingual Education What Is Bilingual Education? How Extensive Is the Need? Is Bilingual Education Effective? Summary Applications Case Study Webliography Glossary References Author Index Subject Index About the Authors
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:
Curriculum planning -- United States.
Educational leadership -- United States.