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Contents Preface to the first edition Preface to the second edition Acknowledgments for the first edition Acknowledgments for the second edition PART ONE. PRINCIPLES OF TAXONOMY Section 1. The Meaning of Classification 1 Chapter 1. A few definitions Classification, taxonomy and systematics Nomenclature Identification Biosystematics Experimental taxonomy The new systematics Comparative biology Chapter 2. The relevance of systematics The importance of systematics in society The contributions of systematics to biology Chapter 3. The importance and universality classification The process of classification Hierarchical system of classes Chapter 4. Characters General terms Role of characters and states Kinds of characters Criteria for selecting characters and states Section 2. Different approaches to biological classification Chapter 5. The anatomy of classification and the artificial approach Aesthetics and classification The process of classification Artificial classification Chapter 6. Natural and phyletic approaches Natural classification Phyletic (evolutionary) classification Definitions of "naturalness" Chapter 7. Phenetic approach Definitions History of phenetics Methodology of phenetics Impact of phenetics Chapter 8. Cladistic approach Definitions History of cladistics Methodology of cladistics Formal classification Impact of cladistics Chapter 9. Evaluation of the three major approaches and explicit phyletics Historical influences Previous evaluations Evaluation of the process of classification Evaluation of the resultant hierarchy Explicit phyletics Hypothetical taxa Section 3. Concepts of Categories Chapter 10. The taxonomic hierarchy History Logical structure Chapter 11. Species 266 History of species concepts Reality of species Naturalness of species Species as individuals Current species concepts Recommended species concept for general use Chapter l2. Subspecies, variety, and form History of varietal and subspecific categories Difficulties in application of varietal and subspecific concepts Forms Biosystematic infraspecific categories Recommended infraspecific concepts Chapter 13. Genus History of generic concepts Types of data to delimit genera Phenetic delimitation of genera Cladistic delimitation of genera Naturalness of genera Remodeling of genera Paleontological genera Monotypic genera Chapter 14. Family and higher categories History of concepts of higher categories Naturalness of higher categories Higher categories as individuals Size of higher taxa Vertical vs. horizontal classification Practical difficulties Types of data used with higher categories Numerical approaches with morphological data Evolution of higher taxa PART TWO. TAXONOMIC DATA Section 4. Types of data Chapter 15. Morphology 364 History of morphology in plant taxonomy General morphological texts and references Types of morphological data Investments for gathering morphological data Efficacy of morphological data in the taxonomic hierarchy Special concerns with morphological data Chapter 16. Anatomy History of anatomy in plant taxonomy General anatomical texts and references Types of anatomical data Investments for gathering anatomical data Efficacy of anatomical data in the taxonomic hierarchy Special concerns with anatomical data Chapter 17. Embryology History of embryology in plant taxonomy General embryological texts and references Types of embryological data Investments for gathering embryological data Efficacy of embryological data in the taxonomic hierarchy Special concerns with embryological data Chapter 18. Palynology History of palynology in plant taxonomy General palynological texts and references Types of palynological data Investments for gathering palynological data Efficacy of palynological data in the taxonomic hierarchy Special concerns with palynological data Chapter 19. Phytochemistry History of phytochemistry in plant taxonomy General phytochemical and chemotaxonomic texts and references Types of phytochemical data Investments for gathering phytochemical data Efficacy of phytochemical data in the taxonomic hierarchy Special concerns with phytochemical data Chapter 20. Cytology and cytogenetics History of cytology and cytogenetics in plant taxonomy General cytological and cytogenetic texts and references Genomic organization Types of cytological and cytogenetic data Investments for gathering cytological and cytogenetic data Efficacy of cytological and cytogenetic data in the taxonomic hierarchy Special concerns with cytological and cytogenetic data Chapter 21. Molecular biology History of molecular biology in plant taxonomy General molecular biological and molecular systematics texts and references Types of molecular biological data Investments for gathering molecular biological data Efficacy of molecular biological data in the taxonomic hierarchy Special concerns with molecular biological data Chapter 22. Genetics and population genetics History of genetics and population genetics in plant taxonomy General genetic and population genetic texts and references Types of genetic and population genetic data Investments for gathering genetic and population genetic data Efficacy of genetic and population genetic data in the taxonomic hierarchy Special concerns with genetic and population genetic data Chapter 23. Reproductive biology History of reproductive biology in plant taxonomy General reproductive biological texts and references Types of reproductive biological data Investments for gathering reproductive biological data Efficacy of reproductive biological data in the taxonomic hierarchy Special concerns with reproductive biological data Chapter 24. Ecology History of ecology in plant taxonomy General ecological texts and references Types of ecological data Investments for gathering ecological data Efficacy of ecological data in the taxonomic hierarchy Special concerns with ecological data Section 5. Handling of Data Chapter 25. Gathering and storage of data Collection of data Storage of data Evaluation of data Relative efficacy of different kinds of data Chapter 26. Presentation of data History of graphics in plant taxonomy General graphics references Types of graphics Graphic design Epilogue Literature Cited Author Index Subject Index
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:
Plants -- Classification.