Table of contents for The African diaspora : a history through culture / Patrick Manning.

Bibliographic record and links to related information available from the Library of Congress catalog.

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Counter
 Contents
List of Maps
List of Graphs and Tables
List of Illustrations
Preface
Acknowledgments
1. Diaspora: Struggles and Connections
2. Connections to 1600
3. Survival, 1600-1800
4. Emancipation, 1800-1900
5. Citizenship, 1900-1960
6. Equality, 1960-2000
Epilogue: The Future of the African Diaspora
Notes
Index 
Maps
1.1. Regions of the African Diaspora
2.1. Africa, Showing Regions, Rivers, and Ecology
2.2. African Language Groups and Major Subgroups
2.3. The Old World Diaspora to 1600
2.4. The Eastern Atlantic, 1400-1550
2.5. The Americas, 1492-1600
3.1. Africa, 1600-1800
3.2. The Americas, 1600-1800
4.1. Slave Populations of Africa and the Diaspora, c. 1850
4.2. Slave Populations of Africa and the Diaspora, c. 1900
5.1. Religion in Africa and the Diaspora, 1960
6.1. Language of Government in Africa and the Diaspora
6.2. Major Cities of the Black World, 2000
Graphs and Tables
3.1. Volume of Slave Trade, Atlantic and Old World, 1500-1900
4.1. Free and Slave Populations, 1800-1900
Illustrations
1.1. Motherhood
1.2. Performer (c. 200 BCE)
2.1. The Church of St. George at Lalibela, Ethiopia
2.2. Ife Royal Couple
2.3. St. Maurice
2.4. Zanjis and Darab
2.5. Judith and Her Maidservant, by Andrea Mantegna
2.6. Black Christians of Peru, c. 1600
3.1. Kuba Royal Sword, c. eighteenth century
3.2. Caribbean Sugar Plantation, c. 1665
3.3. Drum, late seventeenth century
4.1. Emancipation
4.2. Fon God of War; Hongwe Reliquary Figure
4.3. Eunuch (Egypt)
5.1. Citizens of Atlanta
5.2. Saramanka Capes
5.3 Josephine Baker, c. 1926
5.4 Charlemagne Peralte, by Philomene Obin
5.5. Arowogun of Osi with Carvings
6.1. Urban Nigeria, by Jacob Lawrence
6.2. Survival album cover
6.3. Untitled, by Seydou Keita
6.4. Master Boubker Gania (1927-2000)
7.1. Oprah Winfrey and South African Youth
7.2. Researcher with Family of the Informant, Karnataka, India
7.3. J'aime la couleur, by Cheri Samba, 2003
Preface
The history of Africans and people of African descent, a complex story in itself, lies at the 
center of the history of all humanity. The tale of modernity cannot fairly be told without 
full attention to the African continent and peoples of African descent. This book recounts 
the history of black people in the six centuries since 1400, as their world brought them 
global connections, enslavement, industrialization, and urbanization. Rather than being a 
history of specific regions or nations, this is a history of the interconnections of people 
throughout Africa, the Americas, most of Europe, and much of Asia. The Atlantic Ocean, 
the Mediterranean Sea, and the Indian Ocean, rather than separating people into isolated 
groups, are seen in this volume as fluid pathways to and from the continents and islands 
where Africans have migrated and voyaged, voluntarily and under duress, for many 
centuries and up to the present day.
 Since this is a story of overlapping and connected lives, I have written it for an 
overlapping and connected set of audiences. Most basically, the book is for those who 
seek to inform themselves on the relationships among black communities and who have 
an interest in viewing the modern world with an appreciation for the experience and 
outlook of people throughout Africa and the African diaspora.
 Dividing potential readers according to their relationship to schooling, I will 
assert that, first, the book is written for undergraduate students encountering this material 
perhaps for the first time-students around the world who read in English. For these 
students, I hope the book will open new vistas about the breadth of connections in the 
historical past. If the quantity of detail in the book appears daunting at times, I hope it 
will remind readers of how much has actually occurred in the past and of how the student 
as historian must have the confidence to select those details that help him or her develop 
clear interpretations of the past. Second, the book is written for historical professionals at 
graduate and postgraduate levels, who may wish to focus in more detail on the 
interpretive arguments and nuances. For this audience, more familiar with the concepts I 
present, I also hope the book will show the advantages of exploring history on a scale this 
broad. Third, the book is intended for general readers from black and other communities 
who are interested in the development of the modern world as experienced by black 
people. The conflicts and transformations addressed in this book are those of the real 
world, and I hope readers of various backgrounds and professions will find the interest 
and the patience to explore this history of the African diaspora. And even while the 
history of Africans on the continent and in the diaspora is the principal focus here, the 
narrative has substantial implications for world history more broadly and for modernity.
 The same group of potential readers can be divided according to areas of primary 
interest. The first general topic is the history of black peoples. This volume presents a 
broad overview of that history wherever blacks have been and are now-in Africa, the 
Americas, Asia, Europe, and the islands-and the connections of those communities to 
one another and to other communities. The second general topic is world history. The 
story of the African diaspora addresses one-sixth of humanity over the past six centuries. 
The analysis here of the dynamics of interaction across the large part of the world in 
which black people have lived identifies a set of patterns that may have been 
representative in many ways of the world as a whole.
 The third general topic is modernity. While some debates about the miraculous 
birth and the special nature of the modern world are couched in obscure academic 
language, this topic is important to all who wish to understand the African diaspora. 
Modernity is the condition of life today and in the recent past-a condition filled with 
triumphs, complexities, and disasters in industry, science, government, and 
communication, bringing progress, oppression, and inequality. Modernity is a condition 
that is deeply felt and almost universally experienced. Too often, however, it is defined 
narrowly and then explained in such a fashion as to exclude black people from it. 
Modernity is the overall ethos of the modern world, in economic, social, cultural, and 
other realms; it is an exhilarating but difficult situation. The experience of modernity is 
unmistakable, and it is conveyed in songs and literature in every language. The 
explanation of modernity, however, is open to question. Some explanations treat 
modernity as a break from the past, achieved by a few: this approach emphasizes the 
unique insights and accomplishments of genius and privilege and divides the world into 
the traditional and the modern. Other explanations emphasize the continuity of recent 
times with the more distant past and argue that the modern world was constructed 
through the efforts and interactions of many; such explanations divide the world into the 
masses and the elite and treat the elite as the beneficiaries but not necessarily the creators 
of modernity.
 I propose an interactive view of modernity, to reveal the important place of black 
people in construction of the modern world. My view contrasts with the leading 
sociological interpretations of modernity and the leading historical interpretations of the 
modern world, which consign Africa and the African diaspora to the footnotes.1 These 
interpretations virtually leave Africans, the African diaspora, slavery, race, and 
emancipation out of their interpretations-not simply because of respect for traditional 
interpretation or disregard for black history but as a result of flaws in their historical 
logic. They give too much attention to societies, nations, kingdoms, empires, and urban 
centers, and not enough attention to diasporas, networks, mixes, hinterlands, and 
exchanges on the roads between centers. Despite the dynamics of the world of today, the 
static worship of central places still reigns supreme in the academic conceptualization of 
society. Only when connective approaches to the past are given analytical parity with 
central places and ruling classes will we have a history of the past and an understanding 
of our present that acknowledges the acts of all our ancestors in creating our world. In 
short, to appreciate the history of the modern world, we need to treat diasporas with the 
same importance as nations.
 Many skilled writers on the black world decline to celebrate modernity, focusing 
critically on the negative aspects of global transformation as reflected in enslavement, 
racial discrimination, and cultural deprivation.2 Their concerns are appropriate, as these 
are the stories that are usually marginalized in the leading interpretations of modernity. 
Yet the same stories, seen from another angle, reveal black achievements in education, 
cultural production, and political leadership. The experience of black people is central to 
understanding the achievements and missteps that continue to shape modernity. But 
understanding modernity means addressing the choice of whether the modern world is 
considered to be uniquely complex-cut off from the traditional past and from those who 
live today in a world of the past-or whether it is seen as another stage in our evolving 
history. In these pages, life under the condition of modernity is seen as widely shared and 
sharply different from the times before, yet it is tied to those earlier times by a million 
strands of continuity, evolutionary change, strife, and destruction. The advent of 
modernity-which involved triumphs and arguably unbearable costs-cannot be 
accurately understood or imaginatively and comprehensively engaged without a 
responsible narration of the role played in its making by African peoples and the African 
continent as a whole.
 The key element of the book's organization involves treating Africa and the 
African diaspora as a whole. Rather than break the world of black people into localized 
regions and study each one individually, this volume encompasses large areas of the 
black world and emphasizes connections and interactions among them. The chapters are 
organized chronologically rather than regionally, and each chapter contrives to address 
most areas of the black world. More precisely, the analysis treats the African continent-
its many regions and the details of its life-as equal in importance to the diaspora of 
Africans overseas. As will be argued in the chapters to come, the dynamics, conflicts, and 
discoveries of the African continent have been on a par with those of the Americas and 
the Old World diaspora.
 The interpretation sustains five themes throughout the book. The first theme, 
encompassing the others, is the connections that held together the African diaspora as a 
global community of mutual identification. The remaining, more specific themes are the 
discourse on race, the changes in economic life, the patterns of family life, and the 
evolution of popular culture. These five themes, explored through sequential chapters, are 
braided together to show the changing character of the social struggles that dominated 
each successive period of history throughout the African diaspora from 1400 to 2000.
 The cover illustration, Romare Bearden's She-ba (1970), anticipates several of the 
themes of this book. Bearden's collage, a decidedly modern work in its form, resonates 
with the heritage of the ages. The queen's dignity-her link to the welfare of her 
community-offers a vision of leadership viewed favorably on the African continent and 
in the New World diaspora. The image also evokes notions of family, culture, continuity, 
and visions of the future. Further, since the biblical Sheba is often linked not only to the 
Nile Valley but to Saba in South Arabia, this New World image makes a link to the Old 
World diaspora as well as the African continent. In this and other illustrations in the book, 
I have sought to present works and images created by black people. In certain cases, 
especially in chapter 2, I have selected views of diaspora blacks created by people outside 
their community. Otherwise, I have given priority to images conveying interpretive 
statements from black people about their world.
 I believe that some remarkable patterns of the past emerge from studying history 
at this scale. It may seem surprising-to readers used to studying history at the local 
level-to hear an argument that the histories of North America, South America, southern 
Africa, West Africa, the Ottoman Empire, and India could be substantially similar. Yet, in 
the mid-nineteenth century, slavery was under attack in all of these areas and, along with 
this renunciation of slavery, former slaves were rising to positions of responsibility in 
government. In addition, at the opening of the twentieth century, while slavery was 
abolished or nearly so, new forms of discrimination-again, in all of these regions of the 
world-had removed almost all black people from those positions of responsibility in 
government. This is just one of the many striking historical parallels throughout the black 
world that await discovery.
 In assembling this story of the global interactions and changes in the experience 
of black people, I have been guided by some big questions about the past and the future. 
First, the past:
Why did world slavery grow to such an extent in the modern era?
What have been the social contributions of black communities?
How did black communities create their cultural advances?
There are answers to these queries, but they cannot be compressed into a multiple-choice 
test. The chapters ahead take up the search for answers in many ways.
 At the same time, looking ahead is equally important in motivating our study of 
history. So here are some big questions about the future that have influenced the 
organization of this book:
Will social equality ever be possible?
Should reparations be granted for past injustice?
Will racism end?
What is the future of black identity?
These questions, like those about the past, lie just beneath the surface of the narrative and 
analysis in the chapters to come. In the epilogue, I return to them and offer my responses.
 This book focuses on the drama, the transformation, the agony, and the renewal in 
the lives of Africans at home and abroad. Further, the book demonstrates that the African 
diaspora-a vast dispersal of black people across the African continent, the Americas, the 
European and Asian continents, and the islands of the great seas-adds up to a large and 
representative part of the human population, and its activities add up to a large part of 
human history. This story of African experiences confirms the interconnections that have 
linked human populations across the world. Tracing those experiences across time reveals 
that the issues of today-modernity, democracy, equality, progress-have been fought 
over in different ways over time. These past struggles were not simply archaic battles, 
however. On the contrary, they established patterns that continue to influence many 
aspects of life in the present world.
Notes
Preface
1. The version of sociologist Stuart Hall, while attentive to people of color, assumes that 
modernity began in Europe and slowly expanded, nation by nation. Historian 
C. A. Bayly, in his interpretation of the modern world, offers his only substantial 
discussion of the African diaspora late in his story: entitled "Slavery's Indian 
Summer," it rapidly recapitulates the history of slavery worldwide and wonders 
about the persistence of slavery at the end of the nineteenth century. (The cover 
illustration of Bayly's volume is a 1797 portrait of Jean-Baptiste Belley, a Haitian 
political leader, but the text offers concise examples rather than sustained 
argument on the place of blacks in the birth of the modern world.) Immanuel 
Wallerstein's three-volume analysis of "the modern world-system" from 1500 to 
the 1840s notes some details and debates on slave trade, slave labor, and the 
Haitian revolution but does not elevate these into a major theme. Michel Beaud's 
history of capitalism, in multiple editions, leaves out Africans and people of 
African descent except for cursory references to slave labor. Stuart Hall et al., 
eds., Modernity: An Introduction to Modern Societies (Cambridge, Mass.: 
Blackwell, 1996); C. A. Bayly, The Birth of the Modern World, 1780-1914: 
Global Connections and Comparisons (Oxford: Blackwell, 2004), 402-410; 
Immanuel Wallerstein, The Modern World-System, 3 vols. (New York: Academic 
Press, 1974, 1980, 1989); and Michel Beaud, A History of Capitalism, 1500-
2000, trans. Tom Dickman and Anny Lefebvre (New York: Monthly Review 
Press, 2001). For other interpretations of the modern world, confirming the 
pattern of scant attention paid to the place of black people, see David Harvey, The 
Condition of Postmodernity: An Enquiry into the Origins of Cultural Change 
(Oxford: Blackwell, 1989); Anthony Giddens, The Consequences of Modernity 
(Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1990); Anthony Giddens, Modernity 
and Self-Identity: Self and Society in the Late Modern Age (Stanford, Calif.: 
Stanford University Press, 1991); and Robert B. Marks, The Origins of the 
Modern World: A Global and Ecological Narrative from the Fifteenth to the 
Twenty-first Century, 2nd ed. (Lanham, Md.: Rowman and Littlefield, 2007).
2. James Baldwin, The Fire Next Time (New York: Dial Press, 1963); Cheikh-Anta Diop, 
Black Africa: The Economic and Cultural Basis for a Federated State, trans. 
Harold Salemson (Westport, Conn.: L. Hill, 1978); Aime Cesaire, Discourse on 
Colonialism, trans. Joan Pinkham (New York: Monthly Review Press, 1972); 
C. L. R. James, A History of Negro Revolt (New York: Haskell House, 1969); 
Walter Rodney, How Europe Underdeveloped Africa, rev. ed. (Washington, D.C.: 
Howard University Press, 1981); Ali A. Mazrui, The Africans: A Triple Heritage 
(London: BBC Publications, 1986); V. Y. Mudimbe, The Invention of Africa: 
Gnosis, Philosophy, and the Order of Knowledge (Bloomington: Indiana 
University Press, 1988); Anthony Appiah, In My Father's House: Africa in the 
Philosophy of Culture (New York: Oxford University Press, 1992). See also 
Chancellor Williams, The Destruction of Black Civilization: Great Issues of a 
Race from 4500 BC to 2000 AD, rev. ed. (Chicago: Third World Press, 1976). For a 
recent historical overview focusing on the United States, see Nell Irvin Painter, 
Creating Black Americans: African-American History and Its Meanings, 1619 to 
the Present (New York: Oxford University Press, 2007).
Acknowledgments
My first acknowledgment is to the people of Africa and the African diaspora, alive and 
among the ancestors, who created the experience of which I offer this chronicle. Taking 
up the task of recounting their past, with attention to honor and to truth, brought me 
excitement and anxiety. Writing it has brought me to look into the lives of black people 
throughout the world, and it has pulled together many aspects of my own academic life. I 
was encouraged ahead, despite the complexity of this task, by the thought that a broad 
overview of the African diaspora and its successive transformations will reaffirm some 
previously recognized patterns and will convey some new and global dimensions of 
issues that are commonly discussed mainly in national terms. I have sought to express my 
interpretation in explicit terms. I am comforted by the knowledge that others are now 
writing at this breadth, to ensure that there will be debates on the interpretation of the 
African diaspora, rather than an authorized story.
 I offer my thanks to Bruce Borland for leading me through the exercise of 
proposing the book. Several readers of the manuscript helped me to close off some of its 
paths and open others. The list begins with special appreciation to Robin Kilson for the 
repeated and sometimes hilarious sessions of debate, critical reading, and bibliographical 
hints, with which she helped me to revise substantial sections of the manuscript, 
especially the epilogue. Of my other colleagues in African-American Studies at 
Northeastern University, I have benefited from the insights of Jordan Gebre-Medhin, 
Robert L. Hall, Ronald Bailey, Kwamina Panford, and William F. S. Miles. Kim D. 
Butler and Mamadou Diouf read the manuscript with great insight and gave me the 
encouragement to make substantial modifications in organization and in argument. 
Colleagues in four other departments provided spirited responses to drafts of individual 
chapters: the department of history at the University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, 
Trinidad (with special thanks to department chair Brinsley Samaroo and to Bridget 
Brereton and Claudius Fergus); the department of history and archaeology of the 
University of the West Indies, Mona, Jamaica (with special thanks to department chair 
Swithin Wilmot and to Glen Richards); the department of African and African-American 
Studies at Harvard University (with special thanks to Emmanuel Akyeampong, Evelyn 
Brooks Higginbotham, and Henry Louis Gates); and the department of history at the 
University of Pittsburgh (with thanks to Alejandro de la Fuente, George Reid Andrews, 
Seymour Drescher, and Marcus Rediker). Kim Alan Pederson edited and commented on 
the manuscript with a level of skill and insight I have come to depend on.
 In addition, I offer my deep appreciation to Susan Manning, my companion in 
life, whose warmth and generosity have provided the appropriate mix of calmness and 
excitement, critique and reassurance.

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

African diaspora -- History.
Africa -- Civilization.
Blacks -- History.