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Contents Foreword Preface Acknowledgments Introduction to the Book: The Philosophical and Ideological Underpinnings of Corrections What Is Corrections? A Short History of Punishment The Emergence of the Classical School The Emergence of Positivism: Should Punishment Fit the Offender or the Offense? The Objectives of Punishment Retribution Deterrence Incapacitation Rehabilitation Reintegration Is the United States Soft on Crime? Summary References Key Terms Discussion Questions Internet Sites Section I. History of American Corrections Introduction: Not Much is New Under the Corrections Sun Themes: Truths that Underlie Correctional Practice Money, Money, Money, Labor and Technology The Intersection of Class, Race and Gender Religious Influence Architecture As It Is Associated with Supervision Overcrowding Good Intentions Do Not Always Translate Into Effective Practice Summary: Knowing Where We Have Been Helps Us Determine Where We Should Go References Key Terms Discussion Questions Internet Sites Readings 1. On the Penitentiary System in the United States and Its Application in France: Historical Outline of the Penitentiary System: Chapter 1 Gustave de Beaumont and Alexis de Tocqueville Examines the state of the American prison system in the 1800s and compares it with the French system. 2. The World?s Most Influential Prison: Success or Failure? Norman Johnston Discusses the history and development of Auburn prison. 3. ?Much and Unfortunately Neglected?: Women in Early and Mid-Nineteenth Century Prisons Nicole Hahn Rafter Examines the treatment of women in early American prisons. Section II. The Corrections Experience for Inmates Introduction Jails and Prisons The Promise of Reform Total Institutions, Importation/Prisonization and the Pains of Imprisonment The Correctional Subculture Mature Coping How Corrections Is Experienced Depends Offender Demographics Powerlessness and Inmate Status Summary References Key Terms Discussion Questions Internet Sites How to Read a Research Article Readings 4. Ultramasculine Prison Environments and Inmates? Adjustment: It?s Time to Move Beyond the ?Boys Will Be Boys? Paradigm Faith E. Lutze and David W. Murphy Examines how inmates adjust to prison life. 5. Friend or Foe? Race, Age, and Inmate Perceptions of Inmate-Staff Relations Craig Hemmens and James W. Marquart Examines how race and age affect inmates? views of their relationship with correctional staff. 6. A Convict Perspective on the Classification of Prisoners Stephen C. Richards and Jeffrey Ian Ross Provides a uniquely personal view of inmate life form a former inmate turned academic. 7. Supermax Prisons: Their Rise, Current Practices, and Effect on Inmates Jesenia Pizarro and Vanja M. K. Stenius Examines the development of high-security prisons and how these institutions affect the inmates living in them. Section III. The Corrections Experience for Staff Introduction: What Do You Want to Be When You Grow Up? How Corrections Could Become More Professional Some Truths About Corrections and Correctional Work The Truth Is: Some Correctional Facilities Have Not Been, and Are Not, Operating Well The Misleading Depiction of Corrections Why the Continued Fascination With Maximum Security and How That Preoccupation Hinders A True Understanding of Corrections Management of Correctional Institutions and Programs Organizational and Individual Level Factors That Affect the Correctional Workplace Summary References Key Terms Discussion Questions Internet Sites Readings 8. Staff Management in Correctional Institutions: Comparing DiIulio?s ?Control Model? and ?Employee Investment Model? Outcomes in Five Jails Mary K. Stohr, Nicholas P. Lovrich, Ben Menke, and Linda L. Zupan Applies two models of management theory to a study of jail staff. 9. Affirmative Action and the ?Level Playing Field?: Comparing Perceptions of Own and Minority Job Advancement Opportunities Scott D. Camp, Thomas L. Steiger, Kevin N. Wright, William G. Saylor, and Evan Gilman Examines staff perceptions of prison affirmative action policies. 10. Fatal Attraction: An Analysis of Employee Boundary Violations in a Southern Prison System, 1995?1998 James W. Marquart, Madeline B. Barnhill, and Kathy Balshaw-Biddle Examines how and why some staff become intimately/romantically involved with inmates. 11. Predicting Work-Related Stress in Correctional Officers: A Meta-Analysis Craig Dowden and Claude Tellier Provides an overview of the research on how stress affects correctional officers. Section IV. Legal Issues in Corrections Introduction Historical Background: Prisoners as Slaves of the State The Beginning of Prisoner?s Rights First Amendment Fourth Amendment Eighth Amendment Fourteenth Amendment The Civil Commitment of Sex Offenders A Return to a Modified Hands-Off Doctrine Legal Issues in Probation and Parole The Death Penalty: Legal Challenges to the Ultimate Sanction Summary References Key Terms Discussion Questions Internet Sites Readings 12. Civil Liability Against Prison Officials for Inmate-on-Inmate Assault: Where Are We and Where Have We Been? Michael S. Vaughn and Rolando V. del Carmen Provides an overview of the case law on correctional staff liability for failure to protect inmates from other inmates 13. Constitutional Issues in Cross-Gender Searches and Visual Observation of Nude Inmates by Opposite-Sex Officers: A Battle Between and Within the Sexes Katherine Bennett Examines the legal issues surrounding correctional officers supervising inmates of another gender 14. Who Has the Body? The Paths to Habeas Corpus Reform Cary Federman Examines the history and development of habeas corpus law and recent efforts to restrit the use of habeas corpus by inmates 15. Sex Offender Laws: Can Treatment, Punishment, Incapacitation, and Public Safety Be Reconciled? Mary Ann Farkas and Amy Stichman Discusses the competing interests at play in the development and implementation of sexual offender laws Section V. Treatment Programming and Rehabilitation Research Introduction The Rise and Fall (and Rise Again) of Rehabilitation Rehabilitation Under the Justice Model: The Cognitive-Behavioral Approach Substance Abuse Therapeutic Communities Pharmacological Treatment Sex Offenders and Their Treatment The Responsivity Principle and Treatment Mentally Ill Offenders Summary References Key Terms Discussion Questions Internet Sites Readings 16. Comparing Inmate Perceptions of Two Residential Substance Abuse Treatment Programs Mary K. Stohr, Craig Hemmens, Brian Shapiro, Brian Chamber, and Laura Kelly Examines inmate reactions to drug and alcohol treatment programs in prison. 17. The Effects of Behavioral/Cognitive-Behavioral Programs on Recidivism Frank S. Pearson, Douglas S. Lipton, Charles M. Cleland, and Dorline S. Yee Examines how effective behavior modification programs are at reducing recidivism 18. Five-Year Outcomes of Therapeutic Community Treatment of Drug-Involved Offenders After Release From Prison James A. Inciardi, Steven S Martin, and Clifford A. Butzin Examines the effectiveness of prison drug treatment programs on reducing recidivism 19. The Recent Past and Near Future of Risk and/or Needs Assessment D. A. Andrews, James Bonta, and J. Stephen Wormith Reviews the efficacy of inmate needs and risk assessment procedures Section VI. Probation/Community Corrections Introduction The Origins of Probation Why Do We Need Community Corrections? The Decreasing Probation/Inmate Ratio The Probation/Prison Decision Community Corrections Assessment Tools Probation Officer Stress Engaging the Community to Prevent Recidivism Intermediate Sanctions Intensive Supervision Probation Work Release Shock Probation/Parole and Boot Camps Victim-Offender Reconciliation Programs (VORPs) Summary References Key Terms Discussion Questions Internet Sites Readings 20. Community Supervision, Prosocial Activities, and Recidivism Doris Layton MacKenzie and Robert Brame Examines the relationship between community supervision procedures and recidivism. 21. Opening the Manager?s Door: State Probation Officer Stress and Perceptions of Participation in Workplace Decision Making Risdon N. Slate, Terry L. Wells, and W. Wesley Johnson Examines probation officer attitudes about their work and the amount of stress involved in the job. 22. The ?Effectiveness? of Differential Supervision Patricia M. Harris, Raymond Gingerich, and Tiffany A. Whittaker Examines several different forms of community supervision. 23. Examining the Effectiveness of Boot Camps: A Randomized Experiment With a Long-Term Follow Up Jean Bottcher and Michael E. Ezell Reviews the impact of boot camp on recidivism Section VII. Parole and Prisoner Reentry Introduction What Is Parole? Brief History of Parole The Modern Parole System What Goes in Must Come Out: Prisoner Reentry The Impact of Imprisonment and Reentry on Communities What Is Reentry, and What Makes for a Successful One? Determining Parole ?Success? Halfway Houses House Arrest, Electronic Monitoring, and Global Positioning Systems Concluding Remarks on Reentry and Recidivism Summary References Key Terms Discussion Questions Internet Sites Readings 24. Prisoner Reentry: What Works, What Does Not, and What Is Promising Richard P. Seiter and Karen R. Kadela Provides an overview and analysis of the various reentry programs. 25. Effectiveness of Community-Based Correctional Programs: A Case Study Nancy Marion Examines in detail how one community supervision program operates. 26. The Electronic Monitoring of Offenders Released From Jail or Prison: Safety, Control, and Comparisons to the Incarceration Experience Brian K. Payne and Randy R. Gainey Compares electronic monitoring and incarceration as potential sanctions. 27. Incarceration and the Community: The Problem of Removing and Returning Offenders Todd R. Clear, Dina R. Rose, and Judith A. Ryder Provides an overview and analysis of the issues involved in prisoner reentry. Section VIII. Jails Introduction Overcrowding Jail Inmates: Gender, Juveniles, Race and Ethnicity Jail Inmates: The Poor and the Mentally Ill Jail Inmates: Medical Problems Jail Inmates: Substance Abuse and Treatment in Jails Suicides and Sexual Violence in Jails Suicides Sexual Violence Innovations in Jails: New Generation/Podular Direct Supervision Jails, Community Jails, Co-Equal Staffing, Reentry Programs for Jails New Generation/Podular Direct Supervision Jails Community Jails Co-Equal Staffing Reentry Programs for Jails Jail Research Summary References Key Terms Discussion Questions Internet Sites Readings 28. Gang Intervention in Jails: A National Analysis Rick Ruddell, Scott Decker, and Arien Egley, Jr. Provides an overview of gang activity in jails. 29. Recent Incarceration History Among a Sheltered Homeless Population Stephen Metraux and Dennis P. Culhane Examines the relationship between incarceration and homelessness. 30. Inmate Assaults in Texas County Jails Mark Keller and Hsiao-Ming Wang Examines the type and frequency of inmate on inmate assaults in Texas jails. 31. Examining Implementation Issues With New Generation Jails Christine Tartaro Examines the problems associated with implementing the ?new generation jail.? Section IX. Gender Introduction Feminism Females in Corrections: Growth, History, Needs, Programming, and Abuse Growth and History Needs and Programming Abuse Female Correctional Officers Overcoming Employment Obstacles Current Status: Equal Employment Versus Privacy Interests of Inmates, Qualifications for the Job, and Sexual and Gender Harassment The Research Summary References Key Terms Discussion Questions Internet Sites Readings 32. Predicting the Prison Misconducts of Women Offenders Emily M. Wright, Emily J. Salisbury, and Patricia Van Voorhis Examines the factors that affect misconduct by female inmates. 33. Parenting Programs for Incarcerated Parents: Current Research and Future Directions Ann Booker Loper and Elena Hontoria Tuerk Provides an overview and analysis of prison parenting programs. 34. Gender Differences in Treatment Engagement Among a Sample of Incarcerated Substance Abusers Michele Staton-Tindall, Bryan R. Garner, Janis T. Moey, Carl Leukefeld, Jennifer Krietmeyer, Christime A. Saum, and Carrie B. Oser Provides an overview and analysis of prison parenting programs. 35. Gender, Ethnicity, and Offending Over the Life Course: Women?s Pathways to Prison in the Aloha State Marilyn Brown Examines the factors that contribute to women committing crimes and being incarcerated. Section X. The Juvenile Justice/Corrections System Introduction Juvenile Delinquency The Extent of Delinquency History and Philosophy of Juvenile Justice Childhood in the United States The Beginning of the Juvenile Courts Juvenile Waiver to Criminal Court Extending Due Process to Juveniles Juvenile Community Corrections Intensive Probation Institutional Corrections Summary References Key Terms Discussion Questions Internet Sites Readings 36. Juvenile Justice: The Legacy of Punitive Policy Peter Benekos and Alida Merlo Discusses the consequence (both intended and unintended) of increasingly harsh punishment for juvenile offenders. 37. Juvenile Waiver, Boot Camp, and Recidivism in a Northwest State Ben Steiner and Andrew Giacomazzi A case study of how one state uses differential sanctions for serious juvenile offenders. 38. A Quasi-experimental Evaluation of a Shock Incarceration and Aftercare Program for Juvenile Offenders James B. Wells, Kevin I. Minor, Earl Angel, and Kelli D. Stearmen Examines the impact of shock incarceration on juvenile offenders. 39. Management of Juvenile Correctional Facilities Tory J. Caeti, Craig Hemmens, Francis T. Cullen, and Velmer S. Burton Examines the attitudes of juvenile facility directors and compares these attitudes with those of prison staff. Section XI. Corrections in the 21st Century Introduction: Learning From the Past So That We Have Hope for the Future Punitive Policies Yield Overuse of Corrections Professionalization Corrections Is a Relationship Business Current Directions: Privatization, Correctional Programming, Religion, Health Care, Older Inmates Summary References Key Terms Discussion Questions Internet Sites Readings 40. Prison Privatization: An Environmental Catch-22 Robbin S. Ogle Examines the problems associated with the increased use of private prisons. 41. The Challenge of Change: Correctional Programs and Evidence-Based Practices Edward J. Latessa Discusses the need for more research on ?what works? in corrections and the importance of basing correctional practices on evidence rather than anecdote. 42. Revisiting the Literature on Prisoners Who Are Older: Are We Wiser? Catherine M Lemieux, Timothy B. Dyeson, and Brandi Castiglione Reviews the literature on the impact of prison on elderly inmates and the impact of aging inmates on prisons. 43. Thinking About the Relationship Between Health Dynamics in the Free Community and the Prison James W. Marquart, Dorothy E. Merianos, Steven J. Cuvelier, and Leo Carroll Discusses the impact of health care in prison and outside prison on inmates and correctional practices. Glossary Index About the Authors
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:
Corrections -- United States.
Criminal justice, Administration of -- United States.
Punishment -- United States.