Table of contents for Biology / Neil A. Campbell, Jane B. Reece.

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Detailed Table of Contents
Chapter 1
1 Introduction: Themes in the Study of Life	1
Overview: Inquiring About the World of Life		1
Concept 1.1 Themes help connect the concepts of biology	3
Evolution, the Overarching Theme of Biology	3
Theme: New properties emerge at each level in the biological hierarchy	3
Theme: Organisms interact with their environments, exchanging matter and 
energy	6
Theme: Structure and function are correlated at all levels of biological 
organization	7
Theme: Cells are an organism?s basic units of structure and function	7
Theme: The continuity of life is based on heritable information in the form of 
	Theme: Feedback mechanisms regulate biological systems		11
Concept 1.2 The Core Theme: Evolution accounts for the unity and diversity of 
life		12
	Organizing the Diversity of Life	12
	Charles Darwin and the Theory of Natural Selection		14
	The Tree of Life	16
Concept 1.3 Scientists use two main forms of inquiry in their study of nature 
	Discovery Science	18
	Hypothesis-Based Science	19
	A Case Study in Scientific Inquiry: Investigating Mimicry in Snake Populations
	Limitations of Science	22
	Theories in Science	23
	Model Building in Science	23
	The Culture of Science	23
	Science, Technology, and Society	24
Chapter 2
2	The Chemical Context of Life		30
Overview: Chemical Connection to Biology 	30
Concept 2.1 Matter consists of chemical elements in pure form and in combinations 
called compounds		31
_Elements and Compounds	31
_Essential Elements of Life 	32
Concept 2.2 An element?s properties depend on the structure of its atoms	32
_Subatomic Particles_32
_Atomic Number and Atomic Mass_33
_Isotopes	33
_The Energy Levels of Electrons_35
_Electron Distribution and Chemical Properties 	35
_Electron Orbitals__36
Concept 2.3 The formation and function of molecules depend on chemical bonding 
between atoms		38
_Covalent Bonds	38
_Ionic Bonds		39
_Weak Chemical Bonds	40
_Molecular Shape and Function	41
Concept 2.4 Chemical reactions make and break chemical bonds	42
Chapter 3
3 Water and the Fitness of the Environment	46
Overview: The Molecule That Supports All of Life 	46
Concept 3.1 The polarity of water molecules results in hydrogen bonding	 46
Concept 3.2 Four emergent properties of water contribute to Earth?s fitness for life
Cohesion	47
Moderation of Temperature	48
Insulation of Bodies of Water by Floating Ice	49
The Solvent of Life	50
Concept 3.3 Acidic and basic conditions affect living organisms	52
Effects of Changes in pH	52
Threats to Water Quality on the Earth	54
Chapter 4
4	Carbon and the Molecular Diversity of Life 58
Overview: Carbon: The Backbone of Life 58
Concept 4.1 Organic chemistry is the study of carbon compounds 58
Concept 4.2 Carbon atoms can form diverse molecules by bonding to four other 
atoms 60
The Formation of Bonds with Carbon 60
Molecular Diversity Arising from Carbon Skeleton Variation 61
Concept 4.3 Characteristic chemical groups help control how biological molecules 
function 63
The Chemical Groups Most Important in the Process of Life 63
ATP: An Important Source of Energy for Cellular Processes 66
The Chemical Elements of Life: A Review 66
Chapter 5
5	The Structure and Function of Macromolecules 68
Overview: The Molecules of Life 68
Concept 5.1 Most macromolecules are polymers, built from monomers 68
The Synthesis and Breakdown of Polymers 68
The Diversity of Polymers 69
Concept 5.2 Carbohydrates serve as fuel and building material 69
Sugars 69
Polysaccharides 71
Concept 5.3 Lipids are a diverse group of hydrophobic molecules 74
Fats 75
Phospholipids 76
Steroids 77
Concept 5.4 Proteins have many structures, resulting in a wide range of functions 
Polypeptides 78
Protein Structure and Function 80
Concept 5.5 Nucleic acids store and transmit hereditary information 86
The Roles of Nucleic Acids 86
The Structure of Nucleic Acids 87
The DNA Double Helix 88
DNA and Proteins as Tape Measures of ?Evolution 89
The Theme of Emergent Properties in the Chemistry of Life: A Review 89
Chapter 6
	A Tour of the Cell	00
Overview: The Fundamental Units of Life 00
Concept 6.1 To study cells, biologists use microscopes and the tools of biochemistry 
Microscopy 00
Cell Fractionation 00
Concept 6.2 Eukaryotic cells have internal membranes that compartmentalize 
functions 00
Comparing Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells 00
A Panoramic View of the Eukaryotic Cell 00
Concept 6.3 The eukaryotic cell?s genetic instructions are housed in the nucleus and 
carried out by the ribosomes 
The Nucleus: Information Central 00
Ribosomes: Protein Factories 00
Concept 6.4 The endomembrane system regulates protein traffic and performs 
metabolic functions in the cell 00
The Endoplasmic Reticulum: Biosynthetic Factory 00
The Golgi Apparatus: Shipping and Receiving Center 00
Lysosomes: Digestive Compartments 00
Vacuoles: Diverse Maintenance Compartments 00
The Endomembrane System: A Review 00
Concept 6.5 Mitochondria and chloroplasts change energy from one form to another 
Mitochondria: Chemical Energy Conversion 00
Chloroplasts: Capture of Light Energy 00
Peroxisomes: Oxidation 00
Concept 6.6 The cytoskeleton is a network of fibers that organizes structures and 
activities in the cell 00
Roles of the Cytoskeleton: Support, Motility, and Regulation 00
Components of the Cytoskeleton 00
Concept 6.7 Extracellular components and connections between cells help 
coordinate cellular activities 00
Cell Walls of Plants 00
The Extracellular Matrix (ECM) of Animal Cells 00
Intercellular Junctions 00
The Cell: A Living Unit Greater Than the Sum of Its Parts 00
Chapter 7
Membrane Structure and Function 000
Overview: Life at the Edge 000
Concept 7.1 Cellular membranes are fluid mosaics of lipids and proteins 000
Membrane Models: Scientific Inquiry 000
The Fluidity of Membranes 000
Membrane Proteins and Their Functions 000
The Role of Membrane Carbohydrates in Cell-Cell Recognition 000
Synthesis and Sidedness of Membranes 000
Concept 7.2 Membrane structure results in selective permeability 000
The Permeability of the Lipid Bilayer 000
Transport Proteins 000
Concept 7.3 Passive transport is diffusion of a substance across a membrane with no 
energy investment 000
Effects of Osmosis on Water Balance 000
Facilitated Diffusion: Passive Transport Aided by Proteins 000
Concept 7.4 Active transport uses energy to move solutes against their gradients 
The Need for Energy in Active Transport 000
Membrane Potential Maintenance by Ion Pumps 000
Cotransport: Coupled Transport by a Membrane Protein 000
Concept 7.5 Bulk transport across the plasma membrane occurs by exocytosis and 
endocytosis 000
Exocytosis 000
Endocytosis 000
Chapter 8
An Introduction to Metabolism
Concept 8.1 An organism?s metabolism transforms matter and energy, subject to the 
laws of thermodynamics
	Organization of the Chemistry of Life into Metabolic Pathways
	Forms of Energy
	The Laws of Energy Transformation
Concept 8.2 The free-energy change of a reaction tells us whether or not the reaction 
occurs spontaneously
	Free-Energy Change, ?G
	Free Energy, Stability, and Equilibrium
	Free Energy and Metabolism 
Concept 8.3 ATP powers cellular work by coupling exergonic reactions to endergonic 
	The Structure and Hydrolysis of ATP
	How ATP Performs Work
	The Regeneration of ATP
Concept 8.4 Enzymes speed up metabolic reactions by lowering energy barriers
 The Activation Energy Barrier
 How Enzymes Lower the EA Barrier
 Substrate Specificity of Enzymes
 Catalysis in the Enzyme?s Active Site
 Effects of Local Conditions on Enzyme Activity
Concept 8.5 Regulation of enzyme activity helps control metabolism
 Allosteric Regulation of Enzymes
 Specific Localization of Enzymes Within the Cell
Campbell/Reece BIOLOGY 8e 
Chapter 9
Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy
Overview: Life Is Work
Concept 9.1	Catabolic pathways yield energy by oxidizing organic fuels
	Catabolic Pathways and Production of ATP
	Redox Reactions: Oxidation and Reduction
		The Principle of Redox
		Oxidation of Organic Fuel Molecules During Cellular Respiration
		Stepwise Energy Harvest via NAD+ and the Electron Transport Chain
	The Stages of Cellular Respiration: A Preview
Concept 9.2	Glycolysis harvests chemical energy by oxidizing glucose to pyruvate
Concept 9.3	The citric acid cycle completes the energy-yielding oxidation of organic 
Concept 9.4	During oxidative phosphorylation, chemiosmosis couples electron 
transport to ATP synthesis
	The Pathway of Electron Transport
	Chemiosmosis: The Energy-Coupling Mechanism
	An Accounting of ATP Production by Cellular Respiration
Concept 9.5	Fermentation and anaerobic respiration enable cells to produce ATP 
without the use of oxygen
	Types of Fermentation
	Fermentation and Aerobic Respiration Compared
	The Evolutionary Significance of Glycolysis
Concept 9.6	Glycolysis and the citric acid cycle connect to many other metabolic 
	The Versatility of Catabolism
	Biosynthesis (Anabolic Pathways)
	Regulation of Cellular Respiration via Feedback Mechanisms
Campbell/Reece Biology 8e
Detailed Table of Contents
Chapter 11: Cell Communication
Overview: The Cellular Internet
Concept 11.1	External signals are converted into responses within the cell
Evolution of Cell Signaling
Local and Long-Distance Signaling
The Three Stages of Cell Signaling: A Preview
Concept 11.2	Reception: A signal molecule binds to a receptor protein, causing it to change 
Receptors in the Plasma Membrane
Intracellular Receptors
Concept 11.3	Transduction: Cascades of molecular interactions relay signals from receptors to 
target molecules in the cell
Signal Transduction Pathways
Protein Phosphorylation and Dephosphorylation
Small Molecules and Ions as Second Messengers
Concept 11.4	Response: Cell signaling leads to regulation of transcription or cytoplasmic 
Nuclear and Cytoplasmic Responses
Fine-Tuning of the Response
Concept 11.5	Apoptosis (programmed cell death) integrates multiple cell signaling pathways
Apoptosis in the Soil Worm Caenorhabditis elegans
Apoptotic Pathways and the Signals that Trigger Them
Chapter 12
The Cell Cycle
Overview: The Key Roles of Cell Division
Concept 12.1 Cell division results in genetically identical daughter cells
Cellular Organization of the Genetic Material
Distribution of Chromosomes During Eukaryotic Cell Division
Concept 12.2 The mitotic phase alternates with interphase in the cell cycle
Phases of the Cell Cycle
The Mitotic Spindle: A Closer Look
Cytokinesis: A Closer Look
Binary Fission
The Evolution of Mitosis
Concept 12.3 The eukaryotic cell cycle is regulated by a molecular control system
Evidence for Cytoplasmic Signals
The Cell Cycle Control System
Loss of Cell Cycle Controls in Cancer Cells
Chapter 13
Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles
Concept 13.1 Offspring acquire genes from parents by inheriting chromosomes
Inheritance of Genes
Comparison of Asexual and Sexual Reproduction
Concept 13.2 Fertilization and meiosis alternate in sexual life cycles
Sets of Chromosomes in Human Cells
Behavior of Chromosome Sets in the Human Life Cycle
The Variety of Sexual Life Cycles
Concept 13.3 Meiosis reduces the number of chromosome sets from diploid to haploid
The Stages of Meiosis
A Comparison of Mitosis and Meiosis
Concept 13.4 Genetic variation produced in sexual life cycles contributes to evolution
Origins of Genetic Variation Among Offspring
Evolutionary Significance of Genetic Variation Within Populations
Chapter 14
Mendel and the Gene Idea
Concept 14.1 Mendel used the scientific approach to identify two laws of inheritance
Mendel?s Experimental, Quantitative Approach
The Law of Segregation
The Law of Independent Assortment
Concept 14.2 The laws of probability govern Mendelian inheritance
The Multiplication and Addition Rules Applied to Monohybrid Crosses
Solving Complex Genetics Problems with the Rules of Probability
Concept 14.3 Inheritance patterns are often more complex than predicted by simple 
Mendelian genetics
Extending Mendelian Genetics for a Single Gene
Extending Mendelian Genetics for Two or More Genes
Nature and Nurture: The Environmental Impact on Phenotype
Integrating a Mendelian View of Heredity and Variation
Concept 14.4 Many human traits follow Mendelian patterns of inheritance
Pedigree Analysis
Recessively Inherited Disorders
Dominantly Inherited Disorders
Multifactorial Disorders
Genetic Testing and Counseling
Chapter 15
The Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance
Concept 15.1 Mendelian inheritance has its physical basis in the behavior of 
Morgan?s Experimental Evidence: Scientific Inquiry
Concept 15.2 Sex-linked genes exhibit unique patterns of inheritance
The Chromosomal Basis of Sex
Inheritance of Sex-Linked Genes
X Inactivation in Female Mammals
Concept 15.3 Linked genes tend to be inherited together because they are located near 
each other on the same chromosome
How Linkage Affects Inheritance
Genetic Recombination and Linkage
Mapping the Distance Between Genes Using Recombination Data: Scientific Inquiry
Concept 15.4 Alterations of chromosome number or structure cause some genetic 
Abnormal Chromosome Number
Alterations of Chromosome Structure
Human Disorders Due to Chromosomal Alterations
Concept 15.5 Some inheritance patterns are exceptions to the standard chromosome 
Genomic Imprinting
Inheritance of Organelle Genes
Chapter 16
The Molecular Basis of Inheritance
Overview: Life?s Operating Instructions
Concept 16.1 DNA is the genetic material
The Search for the Genetic Material: Scientific Inquiry
Building a Structural Model of DNA: Scientific Inquiry
Concept 16.2 Many proteins work together in DNA replication and repair
The Basic Principle: Base Pairing to a Template Strand
Proofreading and Repairing DNA
Replicating the Ends of DNA Molecules
Concept 16.3 A chromosome consists of a DNA molecule packed together with proteins
Chapter 17
From Gene to Protein
Overview: The Flow of Genetic Information
Concept 17.1 Genes specify proteins via transcription and translation
Evidence from the Study of Metabolic Defects
Basic Principles of Transcription and Translation
The Genetic Code
Concept 17.2 Transcription is the DNA-directed synthesis of RNA: a closer look
Molecular Components of Transcription
Synthesis of an RNA Transcript
Concept 17.3 Eukaryotic cells modify RNA after transcription
Alteration of mRNA Ends
Split Genes and RNA Splicing
Concept 17.4 Translation is the RNA-directed synthesis of a polypeptide: a closer look
Molecular Components of Translation
Building a Polypeptide
Completing and Targeting the Functional Protein
Concept 17.5 Point mutations can affect protein structure and function
Types of Point Mutations
Concept 17.6 While gene expression differs among the domains of life, the concept of a 
gene is universal
Comparing Gene Expression in Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya
What is a gene? Revisiting the Question
Chapter 18
Regulation of Gene Expression
Overview: Conducting the Genetic Orchestra
Concept 18.1 Bacteria often respond to environmental change by regulating transcription
Operons: The Basic Concept
Repressible and Inducible Operons: Two Types of Negative Gene Regulation
Positive Gene Regulation
Concept 18.2 Eukaryotic gene expression can be regulated at any stage
Differential Gene Expression
Regulation of Chromatin Structure
Regulation of Transcription Initiation
Mechanisms of Post-Transcriptional Regulation
Concept 18.3 Noncoding RNAs play multiple roles in controlling gene expression
Effects on mRNAs by MicroRNAs and Small Interfering RNAs
Chromatin Remodeling and Silencing of Transcription by Small RNAs
Concept 18.4 A program of differential gene expression leads to the different cell types in 
a multicellular organism
A Genetic Program for Embryonic Development
Cytoplasmic Determinants and Cell-Cell Signals
Sequential Regulation of Gene Expression During Cellular Differentiation
Pattern Formation: Setting Up the Body Plan
Concept 18.5 Cancer results from genetic changes that affect cell cycle control
Types of Genes Associated with Cancer
Interference with Normal Cell-Signaling Pathways
The Multistep Model of Cancer Development
Inherited Predisposition and Other Factors Contributing to Cancer
Chapter 19
Overview: A Borrowed Life
Concept 19.1 A virus consists of a nucleic acid surrounded by a protein coat
The Discovery of Viruses: Scientific Inquiry
Structure of Viruses
Concept 19.2 Viruses reproduce only in host cells
General Features of Viral Reproductive Cycles
Reproductive Cycles of Phages
Reproductive Cycles of Animal Viruses
Evolution of Viruses
Concept 19.3 Viruses, viroids, and prions are formidable pathogens in animals and plants
Viral Diseases in Animals
Emerging Viruses
Viral Diseases in Plants
Viroids and Prions: The Simplest Infectious Agents
Chapter 20
Overview: The DNA Toolbox
Concept 20.1 DNA cloning yields multiple copies of a gene or other DNA segment
DNA Cloning and Its Applications: A Preview
Using Restriction Enzymes to Make Recombinant DNA
Cloning a Eukaryotic Gene in a Bacterial Plasmid
Expressing Cloned Eukaryotic Genes
Amplifying DNA in Vitro: The Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
Concept 20.2 DNA technology allows us to study the sequence, expression, and function 
of a gene
Gel Electrophoresis and Southern Blotting
DNA Sequencing
Analyzing Expression of Genes
Determining Gene Function
Concept 20.3 Cloning organisms may lead to production of stem cells for research and 
other applications
Cloning of Plants: Single Cell Cultures
Cloning of Animals: Nuclear Transplantation
Stem Cells of Animals
Concept 20.4 The practical applications of DNA technology affect our lives in many 
Medical Applications
Forensic Evidence and Genetic Profiles
Environmental Cleanup
Agricultural Applications
Safety and Ethical Questions Raised by DNA Technology
Chapter 21
Genomes and Their Evolution
Overview: Reading the Leaves from the Tree of Life
Concept 21.1 New approaches have accelerated the pace of genome sequencing
Three-Stage Approach to Genome Sequencing
Whole-Genome Shotgun Approach to Genome Sequencing
Concept 21.2 Scientists use bioinformatics to analyze genomes and their functions
Centralized Resources for Analyzing Genome Sequences
Identifying Protein-Coding Genes within DNA Sequences
Understanding Genes and Their Products at the Systems Level
Concept 21.3 Genomes vary in size, number of genes, and gene density
Genome Size
Number of Genes
Gene Density and Noncoding DNA
Concept 21.4 Multicellular eukaryotes have much noncoding DNA and many multigene 
Transposable Elements and Related Sequences
Other Repetitive DNA, Including Simple Sequence DNA
Genes and Multigene Families
Concept 21.5 Duplication, rearrangement, and mutation of DNA contribute to genome 
Duplication of Chromosome Sets
Alterations of Chromosome Structure
Duplication and Divergence of Gene-Sized Regions of DNA
Rearrangements of Parts of Genes: Exon Duplication and Exon Shuffling
How Transposable Elements Contribute to Genome Evolution
Concept 21.6 Comparing genome sequences provides clues to evolution and development
Comparing Genomes
Comparing Developmental Processes
Campbell/Reece BIOLOGY 
8th edition
Chapter 22
22 Descent with Modification: A Darwinian View of Life 
Overview: Endless Forms Most Beautiful 
Concept 22.1 The Darwinian revolution challenged traditional views of a young Earth 
inhabited by unchanging species 
Scala Naturae <ital intentional> and Classification of Species
Ideas About Change Over Time
Lamarck?s Hypothesis of Evolution 
Concept 22.2: Descent with modification by natural selection explains the adaptations of 
organisms and the unity and diversity of life 
Darwin?s Research 
The Origin of Species <ital intentional>
Concept 22.3 Evolution is supported by an overwhelming amount of scientific evidence 
Direct Observations of Evolutionary Change
The Fossil Record 
Homology and Convergent Evolution
What Is Theoretical about Darwin?s View of Life? 
23	The Evolution of Populations 
OVERVIEW: The Smallest Unit of Evolution 
CONCEPT 23.1 Mutation and sexual reproduction produce the genetic variation that makes evolution 
Genetic Variation 
Sexual Reproduction 
CONCEPT 23.2 The Hardy-Weinberg equation can be used to test whether a population is 
Gene Pools and Allele Frequencies 
The Hardy-Weinberg Principle 
CONCEPT 23.3 Natural selection, genetic drift, and gene flow can alter allele 
frequencies in a population 
Natural Selection 
Genetic Drift 
Gene Flow 
CONCEPT 23.4 Natural selection is the only mechanism that consistently 
causes adaptive evolution 
A Closer Look at Natural Selection 
The Key Role of Natural Selection in Adaptive Evolution
Sexual Selection 
The Preservation of Genetic Variation 
Why Natural Selection Cannot Fashion Perfect Organisms 
Chapter 24
24	The Origin of Species 
OVERVIEW: That ?Mystery of Mysteries? 
CONCEPT 24.1 The biological species concept emphasizes reproductive 
The Biological Species Concept 
Other Definitions of Species 
CONCEPT 24.2 Speciation can take place with or without geographic 
Allopatric (?Other Country?) Speciation 
Sympatric (?Same Country?) Speciation 
Allopatric and Sympatric Speciation: A 
CONCEPT 24.3 Hybrid zones provide opportunities to study factors that cause 
reproductive isolation 
Structure of Hybrid Zones
Hybrid Zones Over Time
CONCEPT 24.4 Speciation can occur rapidly or slowly, and it can result from 
changes in few or many genes
The Time Course of Speciation
Studying the Genetics of Speciation
From Speciation to Macroevolution
Chapter 25
25	The History of Life on Earth
OVERVIEW: Lost Worlds
CONCEPT 25.1 Conditions on early Earth made the origin of life possible 
Synthesis of Organic Compounds on Early 
Abiotic Synthesis of Macromolecules
Self-Replicating RNA and the Dawn of Natural Selection 
CONCEPT 25.2 The fossil record documents the history of life
The Fossil Record
How Rocks and Fossils Are Dated 
The Origin of New Groups of Organisms
CONCEPT 25.3 Key events in life?s history include the origins of single-
celled and multicelled organisms, and the colonization of land
The First Single-Celled Organisms
The Origin of Multicellularity
The Colonization of Land
CONCEPT 25.4 The rise and fall of dominant groups reflect continental drift, 
mass extinctions, and adaptive radiations
Continental Drift
Mass Extinctions
Adaptive Radiations
CONCEPT 25.5 Major changes in body form can result form changes in the 
sequence and regulation of developmental genes
Evolutionary Effects of Developmental Genes
The Evolution of Development
CONCEPT 25.6 Evolution is not goal oriented
Evolutionary Novelties 
Evolutionary Trends
25	Phylogeny and the Tree of Life
OVERVIEW: Investigating the Tree of Life 
CONCEPT 26.1 Phylogenies show evolutionary relationships
Binomial Nomenclature
 Hierarchical Classification 
 Linking Classification and Phylogeny 
 What We Can and Cannot Learn from Phylogenetic Trees
 Applying Phylogenies
CONCEPT 26.2 Phylogenies are inferred from morphological and molecular data
Morphological and Molecular Homologies
Sorting Homology from Analogy
Evaluating Molecular Homologies
CONCEPT 26.3 Shared characters are used to construct phylogenetic trees 
Phylogenetic Trees with Proportional Branch Lengths
Maximum Parsimony and Maximum 
Phylogenetic Trees as Hypotheses 
CONCEPT 26.4 An organism?s evolutionary history is documented in its genome 
Gene Duplications and Gene Families 
Genome Evolution 
CONCEPT 26.5 Molecular clocks track evolutionary time 
Molecular Clocks 
Applying a Molecular Clock: The Origin of HIV
CONCEPT 26.6 New information continues to revise our understanding of the 
tree of life 
From Two Kingdoms to Three Domains
A Simple Tree of All Life
Is the Tree of Life Really a Ring?
27	Bacteria and Archaea 
OVERVIEW: Masters of Adaptation
CONCEPT 27.1 Structural and functional adaptations contribute to prokaryotic 
Cell-Surface Structures 
Internal and Genomic Organization 
Reproduction and Adaptation 
CONCEPT 27.2 Rapid reproduction, mutation, and genetic recombination 
promote genetic diversity in prokaryotes 
Rapid Reproduction and Mutation 
Genetic Recombination
CONCEPT 27.3 A great diversity of nutritional and metabolic adaptations have evolved in 
Metabolic Relationships to Oxygen 
Nitrogen Metabolism 
Metabolic Cooperation 
CONCEPT 27.4 Molecular systematics is illuminating prokaryote phylogeny 
Lessons from Molecular Systematics 
CONCEPT 27.5 Prokaryotes play crucial roles in the biosphere 
Chemical Recycling 
Ecological Interactions
CONCEPT 27.6 Prokaryotes have both harmful and beneficial impacts on humans 
Pathogenic Prokaryotes 
Prokaryotes in Research and Technology 
28	Protists 
OVERVIEW: Living Small 
CONCEPT 28.1 Most eukaryotes are single-celled organisms 
Structural and Functional Diversity in Protists
Endosymbiosis in Eukaryotic Evolution 
Five ?Supergroups? of Eukaryotes
CONCEPT 28.2 Excavates include protists with modified mitochondria and 
protists with unique flagella 
Diplomonads and Parabasalids
CONCEPT 28.3 Chromalveolates may have originated by secondary endosymbiosis
CONCEPT 28.4 Rhizaria are a diverse group of protists defined by DNA 
CONCEPT 28.5 Red algae and green algae are the closest relatives of land 
Red Algae
Green Algae
CONCEPT 28.6 Unikonts include protists that are closely related to fungi and 
CONCEPT 28.7 Protists play key roles in ecological relationships
Symbiotic Protists
Photosynthetic Protists
29	Plant Diversity I: How Plants Colonized Land 
OVERVIEW: The Greening of Earth 
CONCEPT 29.1 Land plants evolved from green 
Morphological and Molecular Evidence 
Adaptations Enabling the Move to Land 
Derived Traits of Plants 
The Origin and Diversification of Plants 
CONCEPT 29.3 Mosses and other bryophytes have life cycles dominated by 
Bryophyte Gametophytes 
Bryophyte Sporophytes 
Ecological and Economic Importance of 
CONCEPT 29.4 Ferns and other seedless vascular plants were the first plants 
to grow tall 
Origins and Traits of Vascular Plants 
Classification of Seedless Vascular Plants 
The Significance of Seedless Vascular Plants 
30	Plant Diversity II: The Evolution of Seed Plants 000
OVERVIEW: Transforming the World 000
CONCEPT 30.1 Seeds and pollen grains are key adaptations for life on land 
Advantages of Reduced Gametophytes 000
Heterospory: The Rule Among Seed Plants 000
Ovules and Production of Eggs 000
Pollen and Production of Sperm 000
The Evolutionary Advantage of Seeds 000
CONCEPT 30.2 Gymnosperms bear ?naked? seeds, typically on cones 000
Gymnosperm Evolution 000
The Life Cycle of a Pine: A Closer Look 000
CONCEPT 30.3 The reproductive adaptations of angiosperms include flowers and 
fruits 000
Characteristics of Angiosperms 000
Angiosperm Evolution 000
Angiosperm Diversity 000
Evolutionary Links Between Angiosperms and Animals 000
CONCEPT 30.4 Human welfare depends greatly on seed plants 000
Products from Seed Plants 000
Threats to Plant Diversity 000
31	Fungi 
OVERVIEW: Mighty Mushrooms 
CONCEPT 31.1 Fungi are heterotrophs that feed by absorption 
Nutrition and Ecology 
Body Structure 
CONCEPT 31.2 Fungi produce spores through sexual or asexual life cycles 
Sexual Reproduction 
Asexual Reproduction 
CONCEPT 31.3 Fungi descended from an aquatic, single-celled, flagellated 
The Origin of Fungi 
Are Microsporidia Closely Related to Fungi? 
The Move to Land 
CONCEPT 31.4 Fungi have radiated into a diverse set of lineages 
CONCEPT 31.5 Fungi play key roles in nutrient cycling, ecological 
interactions, and human welfare 
Fungi as Decomposers 
Fungi as Mutualists 
Fungi as Pathogens 
Practical Uses of Fungi 
32	An Introduction to Animal Diversity 
OVERVIEW: Welcome to Your Kingdom 
CONCEPT 32.1 Animals are multicellular, heterotrophic eukaryotes with tissues 
that develop from embryonic layers 
Nutritional Mode 
Cell Structure and Specialization 
Reproduction and Development 
CONCEPT 32.2 The history of animals spans more than half a billion years 
Neoproterozoic Era (1 Billion?542 Million Years Ago) 
Paleozoic Era (542?251 Million Years Ago) 
Mesozoic Era (251?65.5 Million Years Ago) 
Cenozoic Era (65.5 Million Years Ago to the Present) 
CONCEPT 32.3 Animals can be characterized by ?body plans? 
Body Cavities 
Protostome and Deuterostome Development 
CONCEPT 32.4 New views of animal phylogeny are emerging from molecular data 
Points of Agreement 
Progress in Resolving Bilaterian Relationships
Future Directions in Animal Systematics 
33	Invertebrates 
OVERVIEW: Life Without a Backbone 
CONCEPT 33.1 Sponges are basal animals that lack true tissues
CONCEPT 33.2 Cnidarians are an ancient phylum of eumetazoans
CONCEPT 33.3 Lophotrochozoans, a clade identified by molecular data, have the 
widest range of animal body forms
Lophophorates: Ectoprocts and Brachiopods
CONCEPT 33.4 Ecdysozoans are the most species-rich animal group
CONCEPT 33.5 Echinoderms and chordates are deuterostomes 
Detailed Contents
34	Vertebrates 
OVERVIEW: Half a Billion Years of Backbones 
CONCEPT 34.1 Chordates have a notochord and a dorsal, hollow nerve cord 
Derived Characters of Chordates 
Early Chordate Evolution 
CONCEPT 34.2 Craniates are chordates that have a head 
Derived Characters of Craniates 
The Origin of Craniates 
CONCEPT 34.3 Vertebrates are craniates that have a backbone 
Derived Characters of Vertebrates 
Fossils of Early Vertebrates 
Origins of Bones and Teeth 
CONCEPT 34.4 Gnathostomes are vertebrates that have jaws 
Derived Characters of Gnathostomes 
Fossil Gnathostomes 
Chondricthyans (Sharks, Rays, and Their 
Ray-Finned Fishes and Lobe-Fins 
CONCEPT 34.5 Tetrapods are gnathostomes that have limbs 
Derived Characters of Tetrapods 
The Origin of Tetrapods 
CONCEPT 34.6 Amniotes are tetrapods that have a terrestrially adapted egg 
Derived Characters of Amniotes 
Early Amniotes 
CONCEPT 34.7 Mammals are amniotes that have hair and produce milk 
Derived Characters of Mammals 
Early Evolution of Mammals 
Eutherians (Placental Mammals) 
CONCEPT 34.8 Humans are mammals that have a large brain and bipedal 
Derived Characters of Humans 
The Earliest Hominins 
Tool Use 
Early Homo 
Homo sapiens 
Chapter 35
35 Plant Structure, Growth, and Development xxx
Overview: Plastic Plants?
Concept 35.1 The plant body has a hierarchy of organs, tissues, and cells xxx
The Three Basic Plant Organs: Roots, Stems, and Leaves xxx
Dermal, Vascular, and Ground Tissues xxx
Common Types of Plant Cells xxx
Concept 35.2 Meristems generate cells for new organs xxx
Concept 35.3 Primary growth lengthens roots and shoots xxx
Primary Growth of Roots xxx
Primary Growth of Shoots xxx
Concept 35.4 Secondary growth adds girth to stems and roots in woody plants xxx
The Vascular Cambium and Secondary Vascular Tissue xxx
Cork Cambia and the Production of Periderm xxx
Concept 35.5 Growth, morphogenesis, and differentiation produce the plant 
body xxx
Molecular Biology: Revolutionizing the Study of Plants xxx
Growth: Cell Division and Cell Expansion xxx
Morphogenesis and Pattern Formation xxx
Gene Expression and Control of Cellular Differentiation xxx
Location and a Cell?s Developmental Fate xxx
Shifts in Development: Phase Changes xxx
Genetic Control of Flowering xxx
Chapter 36
Chapter 36 Resource Acquisition and Transport in Vascular Plants xxx
Overview: Underground Plants xxx
Concept 36.1 Land plants acquire resources from both above and below ground 
Shoot Architecture and Light Capture xxx
Root Architecture and Acquisition of Water and Minerals xxx
Effects of Differences in Water Potential 740
Three Major Compartments of Vacuolated Plant Cells 743
Functions of the Symplast and Apoplast in Transport 743
Bulk Flow in Long-Distance Transport 743
Concept 36.2 Transport occurs by short-distance diffusion or active transport and by 
long-distance bulk flow xxx
Diffusion and Active Transport of Solutes xxx
Diffusion of Water (Osmosis) xxx
Three Major Pathways of Transport xxx
Bulk Flow in Long-Distance Transport xxx
Concept 36.3 Water and minerals are transported from roots to shoots xxx
Absorption of Water and Minerals by Root Cells xxx
Transport of Water and Minerals into the Xylem xxx
Bulk Flow Driven by Negative Pressure in the Xylem xxx
Xylem Sap Ascent by Bulk Flow: A Review xxx
Concept 36.4 Stomata help regulate the rate of transpiration xxx
Stomata: Major Pathways for Water Loss xxx
Mechanisms of Stomatal Opening and Closing xxx
Stimuli for Stomatal Opening and Closing xxx
Effects of Transpiration on Wilting and Leaf Temperature xxx
Adaptations that Reduce Evaporative Water Loss xxx
Concept 36.5 Sugars are transported from leaves and other sources to sites of use or 
storage xxx
Movement from Sugar Sources to Sugar Sinks xxx
Bulk Flow by Positive Pressure: The Mechanism of Translocation in 
Angiosperms xxx
Concept 36.6 The symplasm is highly dynamic xxx
Plasmodesmata: Changing Structures xxx
Electrical Signaling in the Phloem xxx
Phloem: An Information Superhighway xxx
Chapter 37
Overview: ?The nation that destroys its soil destroys itself? 000
Concept 37.1 Soil is a living, finite resource 000
Soil Texture 000
Topsoil Composition 000
Soil Conservation and Sustainable Agriculture 000
Concept 37.2 Plants require essential elements to complete their life cycles 000
Macronutrients and Micronutrients 000
Symptoms of Mineral Deficiency 000
Improving Plant Nutrition by Genetic Modification: Some Examples 000
Concept 37.3 Plant nutrition often involves relationships with other organisms
Rhizobacteria 000
Soil Bacteria and the Nitrogen Cycle 000
Nitrogen-Fixing Bacteria 000
Nitrogen Fixation and Agriculture 000
Fungi and Plant Nutrition 000
Epiphytes, Parasitic Plants, and Carnivorous ?Plants 000
Chapter 38
38	Angiosperm Reproduction and Biotechnology 000
Overview: Flowers of Deceit 000
Concept 38.1 Flowers, double fertilization, and fruits are unique features of the 
angiosperm life cycle 000
Flower Structure and Function 000
Double Fertilization 000
Seed Development, Form, and Function 000
Fruit Form and Function 000
Concept 38.2 Plants reproduce sexually, asexually, or both 000
Mechanisms of Asexual Reproduction 000
Mechanisms That Prevent Self-Fertilization 000
Vegetative Propagation and Agriculture 000
Concept 38.3 Humans modify crops by breeding and genetic engineering
Plant Breeding 000
Plant Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering 000
The Debate over Plant Biotechnology 000
Chapter 39
39	Plant Responses to Internal and External Signals 000
Overview: Stimuli and a Stationary Life 000
Concept 39.1 Signal transduction pathways link signal reception to response 000
Reception 000
Transduction 000
Response 000
Concept 39.2 Plant hormones help coordinate growth, development, and responses 
to stimuli 000
The Discovery of Plant Hormones 000
A Survey of Plant Hormones 000
Systems Biology and Hormone Interactions 000
Concept 39.3 Responses to light are critical for plant success 000
Blue-Light Photoreceptors 000
Phytochromes as Photoreceptors 000
Biological Clocks and Circadian Rhythms 000
The Effect of Light on the Biological Clock 000
Photoperiodism and Responses to Seasons 000
Concept 39.4 Plants respond to a wide variety of stimuli other than light 000
Gravity 000
Mechanical Stimuli 000
Environmental Stresses 000
Concept 39.5 Plants respond to attacks by herbivores and pathogens 000
Defenses Against Herbivores 000
Defenses Against Pathogens 000
Chapter 40
40	Basic Principles of Animal Form and Function XXX
Overview: Diverse Forms, Common Challenges XXX
Concept 40.1 Animal form and function are correlated at all levels of 
organization XXX
Physical Constraints on Animal Size and Shape XXX
Exchange with the Environment XXX
Hierarchical Organization of Body Plans XXX
Tissue Structure and Function XXX
Coordination and Control XXX
Concept 40.2 Feedback control loops maintain the internal environment in many 
animals XXX
Regulating and Conforming XXX
Homeostasis XXX
Concept 40.3 Homeostatic processes for thermoregulation involve form, function, 
and behavior XXX
Endothermy and Ectothermy XXX
Variation in Body Temperature XXX
Balancing Heat Loss and Gain XXX
Acclimatization in Thermoregulation XXX
Physiological Thermostats and Fever XXX
Concept 40.4 Energy requirements are related to animal size, activity, and 
environment XXX
Energy Allocation and Use XXX
Quantifying Energy Use XXX
Minimum Metabolic Rate and Thermoregulation XXX
Influences on Metabolic Rate XXX
Energy Budgets XXX
Torpor and Energy Conservation XXX
Chapter 41
41	Animal Nutrition XXX
Overview: The Need to Feed XXX
Concept 41.1 An animal?s diet must supply chemical energy, organic molecules, and 
essential nutrients XXX
Essential Nutrients XXX
Dietary Deficiencies XXX
Assessing Nutritional Needs XXX
Concept 41.2 The main stages of food processing are ingestion, digestion, 
absorption, and elimination XXX
Digestive Compartments XXX
Concept 41.3 Organs specialized for successive stages of food processing form the 
mammalian digestive system XXX
The Oral Cavity, Pharynx, and Esophagus XXX
Digestion in the Stomach XXX
Digestion in the Small Intestine XXX
Absorption in the Small Intestine XXX
Absorption in the Large Intestine XXX
Concept 41.4 Evolutionary adaptations of vertebrate digestive systems correlate with 
diet XXX
Some Dental Adaptations XXX
Stomach and Intestinal Adaptations XXX
Symbiotic Adaptations XXX
Concept 41.5 Homeostatic mechanisms contribute to an animal?s energy 
balance XXX
Energy Sources and Stores XXX
Overnourishment and Obesity XXX
Obesity and Evolution XXX
Chapter 42
Circulation and Gas Exchange
Overview: Promoting Free Exchange
Concept 42.1 Circulatory systems enable exchange at a distance
Gastrovascular Cavities
Open and Closed Circulatory Systems
Organization of Vertebrate Circulatory Systems
Concept 42.2 Coordinated cycles of heart contraction drive double circulation in 
Mammalian Circulation: The Pathway
The Mammalian Heart: A Closer Look
Maintaining the Heart?s Rhythmic Beat
Concept 42.3 Blood pressure and flow reflect the structure and arrangement of blood 
Blood Vessel Structure and Function
Blood Flow Velocity
Blood Pressure
Capillary Function
Fluid Return by the Lymphatic System
Concept 42.4 Blood components mediate exchange, transport, and defense
Blood Composition and Function
Cardiovascular Disease
Concept 42.5 Gas exchange occurs across specialized respiratory surfaces
Partial Pressure Gradients in Gas Exchange
Respiratory Media
Respiratory Surfaces
Gills in Aquatic Animals
Tracheal Systems in Insects
Concept 42.6 Breathing ventilates the lungs
How an Amphibian Breathes
How a Mammal Breathes
How a Bird Breathes
Control of Breathing in Humans
Concept 42.7 Adaptations for gas exchange include pigments that bind and transport 
Coordination of Circulation and Gas Exchange
Respiratory Pigments
Elite Animal Athletes
Chapter 43
43	The Immune System 000
Overview: Reconnaissance, Recognition, and Response 000
Concept 43.1 In innate immunity, recognition and response rely on shared pathogen 
traits 000
Invertebrate Innate Immunity 000
Vertebrate Innate Immunity 000
Innate Immune System Evasion by Pathogens 000
Concept 43.2 In acquired immunity, lymphocyte receptors provide pathogen-
specific recognition 000
Acquired Immunity: An Overview
Antigen Recognition by Lymphocytes 000
Lymphocyte Development 000
Concept 43.3 Acquired immunity defends against infection of body cells and 
fluids 000
Helper T Cells: A Response to Nearly All ?Antigens 000
Cytotoxic T Cells: A Response to Infected Cells 000
B Cells: A Response to Extracellular ?Pathogens 000
Active and Passive Immunization 000
Immune Rejection 000
Concept 43.4 Disruptions in immune system function can elicit or exacerbate 
disease 000
Exaggerated, Self-Directed, and Diminished Immune Responses 000
Acquired Immune System Evasion by Pathogens 000
Cancer and Immunity 000
Chapter 44
Concept 44.1 Osmoregulation balances the uptake and loss of water and solutes
Osmotic Challenges
Transport Epithelia
Concept 44.2 An animal?s nitrogenous wastes reflect its phylogeny and habitat 
Forms of Nitrogenous Waste
The Influence of Evolution and Environment on Nitrogenous Wastes
Concept 44.3 Diverse excretory systems are variations on a tubular theme
Excretory Processes
Survey of Excretory Systems
Structure of the Mammalian Excretory System
Concept 44.4 The nephron is organized for stepwise processing of blood filtrate
From Blood Filtrate to Urine: A Closer Look 
Solute Gradients and Water Conservation
Adaptations of the Vertebrate Kidney to Diverse Environments
Concept 44.5 Hormonal circuits link kidney function, water balance, and blood 
Antidiuretic Hormone
The Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System
Homeostatic Regulation of the Kidney
Chapter 45
Concept 45.1	Hormones and other chemical signals bind to target receptors, 
triggering specific response pathways
Types of Secreted Chemical Signals 
Chemical Nature of Hormones
Hormone Receptor Localization
Cellular Response Pathways
Multiple Effects of Hormones
Signaling by Local Regulators
Concept 45.2	Negative feedback and antagonistic hormone pairs are common 
features of the endocrine system
Simple Hormone Pathways 
Insulin and Glucagon: Control of Blood Glucose
Concept 45.3	The endocrine and nervous systems act individually and together to 
regulate an animal?s physiology
Coordination of Endocrine and Nervous Systems in Invertebrates
Coordination of Endocrine and Nervous Systems in Vertebrates
Posterior Pituitary Hormones
Anterior Pituitary Hormones
Concept 45.4	Endocrine glands respond to diverse stimuli in regulating metabolism, 
homeostasis, development, and behavior
Thyroid Hormone: Control of Metabolism and Development
Parathyroid Hormone and Vitamin D: Control of Blood Calcium
Adrenal Hormones: Response to Stress
Gonadal Sex Hormones
Melatonin and Biorhythms
Chapter 46
Concept 46.1 Both asexual and sexual reproduction occur in the animal kingdom
Mechanisms of Asexual Reproduction
Sexual Reproduction: An Evolutionary Enigma
Reproductive Cycles and Patterns
Concept 46.2	Mechanisms for fertilization bring together sperm and eggs of the 
same species
Ensuring the Survival of Offspring
Gamete Production and Delivery
Concept 46.3	Reproductive organs produce and transport gametes
Female Reproductive Anatomy
Male Reproductive Anatomy
Human Sexual Response
Concept 46.4	The timing and pattern of meiosis in mammals differ for males and 
Concept 46.5	The interplay of tropic and sex hormones regulates mammalian 
Hormonal Control of the Male Reproductive System
The Reproductive Cycles of Females
Menstrual Versus Estrous Cycles
Concept 46.6	In placental mammals, an embryo develops fully within the mother?s 
Conception, Embryonic Development, and Birth
The Mother?s Immune Tolerance of the Embryo and Fetus
Contraception and Abortion
Modern Reproductive Technologies
Chapter 47
Animal Development
Overview: A Body-Building Plan for Animals
Concept 47.1 After fertilization, embryonic development proceeds through cleavage, 
gastrulation, and organogenesis
Developmental Adaptations of Amniotes
Mammalian Development
Concept 47.2 Morphogenesis in animals involves specific changes in cell shape, position, 
and adhesion
The Cytoskeleton, Cell Motility, and Convergent Extension
Roles of Cell Adhesion Molecules and the Extracellular Matrix
Concept 47.3 The developmental fate of cells depends on their history and on inductive 
Fate Mapping
Establishing Cellular Asymmetries
Cell Fate Determination and Pattern Formation by Inductive Signals
Chapter 48
48.1	Neuron organization and structure reflect function in information transfer
Information Processing
Neuron Structure and Function
48.2	Ion pumps and ion channels maintain the resting potential of a neuron
Formation of the Resting Potential 
Modeling the Resting Potential 
48.3	Action potentials are the signals conducted by axons
Production of Action Potentials
Time Course of Action Potentials
Conduction of Action Potentials
48.4	Neurons communicate with other cells at synapses
Generation of Postsynaptic Potentials
Summation of Postsynaptic Potentials
Modulated Synaptic Transmission
Chapter 49
Concept 49.1 Nervous systems consist of circuits of neurons and supporting cells
Organization of the Vertebrate Nervous System
The Peripheral Nervous System
Concept 49.2	The vertebrate brain is regionally specialized
The Brainstem
The Cerebellum
The Diencephalon
The Cerebrum
Evolution of Cognition in Vertebrates 
Concept 49.3	The cerebral cortex controls voluntary movement and cognitive 
Information Processing in the Cerebral Cortex
Language and Speech
Lateralization of Cortical Function
Concept 49.4	Changes in synaptic connections underlie memory and learning
Neural Plasticity 
Memory and Learning
Long-Term Potentiation
Concept 49.5	Nervous system disorders can be understood in molecular terms
Drug Addiction and the Brain Reward System
Alzheimer?s Disease
Parkinson?s Disease
Neural Stem Cells
Chapter 50
Concept 50.1	Sensory receptors transduce stimulus energy and transmit signals to 
the central nervous system
Sensory Pathways
Types of Sensory Receptors
Concept 50.2	The mechanoreceptors responsible for hearing and equilibrium detect 
moving fluid or settling particles 
Sensing Gravity and Sound in Invertebrates
Hearing and Equilibrium in Mammals
Hearing and Equilibrium in Other Vertebrates
Concept 50.3	The senses of taste and smell rely on similar sets of sensory receptors
Taste in Mammals
Smell in Humans
Concept 50.4	Similar mechanisms underlie vision throughout the animal kingdom
Vision in Invertebrates
The Vertebrate Visual System
Concept 50.5	The physical interaction of protein filaments is required for muscle 
Vertebrate Skeletal Muscle
Other Types of Muscle
Concept 50.6	Skeletal systems transform muscle contraction into locomotion
Types of Skeletal Systems 
Types of Locomotion 
Energy Costs of Locomotion
Chapter 51
51	Animal Behavior 000
Overview: Shall We Dance? 000
Concept 51.1 Discrete sensory inputs can stimulate both simple and complex 
behaviors 000
Fixed Action Patterns 000
Oriented Movement 000
Behavioral Rhythms 000
Animal Signals and Communication 000
Concept 51.2 Learning establishes specific links between experience and behavior 
Habituation 000
Imprinting 000
Spatial Learning 000
Cognitive Maps 000
Associative Learning 000
Cognition and Problem Solving 000
Development of Learned Behaviors 000
Concept 51.3 Genetic makeup and environment both contribute to the development 
of behaviors 000
Experience and Behavior 000
Regulatory Genes and Behavior 000
Genetically Based Behavioral Variation in Natural Populations 000
Influence of Single-Locus Variation 000
Concept 51.4 Selection for individual survival and reproductive success can explain 
most behaviors 000
Foraging Behavior 000
Mating Behavior and Mate Choice 000
Concept 51.5 Inclusive fitness can account for the evolution of altruistic social 
behavior 000
Altruism 000
Inclusive Fitness 000
Social Learning 000
Evolution and Human Culture 000
Chapter 52
An Introduction to Ecology and the Biosphere
Overview: The Scope of Ecology
Concept 52.1 Ecology integrates all areas of biological research and informs 
environmental decision making
Linking Ecology and Evolutionary Biology
Ecology and Environmental Issues
Concept 52.2 Interactions between organisms and the environment limit the distribution 
of species
Dispersal and Distribution
Behavior and Habitat Selection
Biotic Factors
Abiotic Factors
Concept 52.3 Aquatic biomes are diverse and dynamic systems that cover most of Earth
Stratification of Aquatic Biomes
Concept 52.4 The structure and distribution of terrestrial biomes are controlled by climate 
and disturbance
Climate and Terrestrial Biomes
General Features of Terrestrial Biomes and the Role of Disturbance
Chapter 53
Population Ecology
Overview: Counting Sheep
Concept 53.1 Dynamic biological processes influence population density, dispersion, and 
Density and Dispersion
Concept 53.2 Life history traits are products of natural selection
Evolution and Life History Diversity
?Trade-offs? and Life Histories
Concept 53.3 The exponential model describes population growth in an idealized, 
unlimited environment
Per Capita Rate of Increase
Exponential Growth
Concept 53.4 The logistic model describes how a population grows more slowly as it 
nears its carrying capacity
The Logistic Growth Model
The Logistic Model and Real Populations
The Logistic Model and Life Histories
Concept 53.5 Many factors that regulate population growth are density dependent
Population Change and Population Density
Density-Dependent Population Regulation
Population Dynamics
Concept 53.6 The human population is no longer growing exponentially but is still 
increasing rapidly
The Global Human Population
Global Carrying Capacity
Chapter 54
Community Ecology
Overview: A Sense of Community
Concept 54.1 Community interactions are classified by whether they help, harm, or have 
no effect on the species involved
Concept 54.2 Dominant and keystone species exert strong controls on community 
Species Diversity
Trophic Structure
Species with a Large Impact
Bottom-Up and Top-Down Controls
Concept 54.3 Disturbance influences species diversity and composition
Characterizing Disturbance
Ecological Succession
Human Disturbance
Concept 54.4 Biogeographic factors affect community biodiversity
Latitudinal Gradients
Area Effects
Island Equilibrium Model
Concept 54.5 Community ecology is useful for understanding pathogen life cycles and 
controlling human disease
Pathogens and Community Structure
Community Ecology and Zoonotic Diseases
Chapter 55
Overview: Observing Ecosystems
Concept 55.1 Physical laws govern energy flow and chemical cycling in ecosystems
Conservation of Energy
Conservation of Mass
Energy, Mass, and Trophic Levels
Concept 55.2 Energy and other limiting factors control primary production in ecosystems
Ecosystem Energy Budgets
Primary Production in Aquatic Ecosystems
Primary Production in Terrestrial Ecosystems
Concept 55.3 Energy transfer between trophic levels is typically only 10% efficient
Production Efficiency
The Green World Hypothesis
Concept 55.4 Biological and geological processes cycle nutrients between organic and 
inorganic parts of an ecosystem
Biogeochemical Cycles
Decomposition and Nutrient Cycling Rates
Case Study: Vegetation and Nutrient Cycling in the Hubbard Brook Experimental 
Concept 55.5 Human activities now dominate most chemical cycles on Earth
Nutrient Enrichment
Acid Precipitation
Toxins in the Environment
Greenhouse Gases and Global Warming
Depletion of Atmospheric Ozone
Chapter 56
Conservation Biology and Restoration Ecology
Overview: Striking Gold
Concept 56.1 Human activities threaten Earth?s biodiversity
Three Levels of Biodiversity
Biodiversity and Human Welfare
Three Threats to Biodiversity
Concept 56.2 Population conservation focuses on population size, genetic diversity, and 
critical habitat
Small-Population Approach
Declining-Population Approach
Weighing Conflicting Demands
Concept 56.3 Landscape and regional conservation aim to sustain entire biotas
Landscape Structure and Biodiversity
Establishing Protected Areas
Concept 56.4 Restoration ecology attempts to restore degraded ecosystems to a more 
natural state
Exploring Restoration
Biological Augmentation
Concept 56.5 Sustainable development seeks to improve the human condition while 
conserving biodiversity
Sustainable Biosphere Initiative
Case Study: Sustainable Development in Costa Rica
The Future of the Biosphere

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