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Detailed Table of Contents Chapter 1 1 Introduction: Themes in the Study of Life 1 Overview: Inquiring About the World of Life 1 Concept 1.1 Themes help connect the concepts of biology 3 Evolution, the Overarching Theme of Biology 3 Theme: New properties emerge at each level in the biological hierarchy 3 Theme: Organisms interact with their environments, exchanging matter and energy 6 Theme: Structure and function are correlated at all levels of biological organization 7 Theme: Cells are an organism?s basic units of structure and function 7 Theme: The continuity of life is based on heritable information in the form of DNA 8 Theme: Feedback mechanisms regulate biological systems 11 Concept 1.2 The Core Theme: Evolution accounts for the unity and diversity of life 12 Organizing the Diversity of Life 12 Charles Darwin and the Theory of Natural Selection 14 The Tree of Life 16 Concept 1.3 Scientists use two main forms of inquiry in their study of nature 18 Discovery Science 18 Hypothesis-Based Science 19 A Case Study in Scientific Inquiry: Investigating Mimicry in Snake Populations 20 Limitations of Science 22 Theories in Science 23 Model Building in Science 23 The Culture of Science 23 Science, Technology, and Society 24 Chapter 2 2 The Chemical Context of Life 30 Overview: Chemical Connection to Biology 30 Concept 2.1 Matter consists of chemical elements in pure form and in combinations called compounds 31 _Elements and Compounds 31 _Essential Elements of Life 32 Concept 2.2 An element?s properties depend on the structure of its atoms 32 _Subatomic Particles_32 _Atomic Number and Atomic Mass_33 _Isotopes 33 _The Energy Levels of Electrons_35 _Electron Distribution and Chemical Properties 35 _Electron Orbitals__36 Concept 2.3 The formation and function of molecules depend on chemical bonding between atoms 38 _Covalent Bonds 38 _Ionic Bonds 39 _Weak Chemical Bonds 40 _Molecular Shape and Function 41 Concept 2.4 Chemical reactions make and break chemical bonds 42 Chapter 3 3 Water and the Fitness of the Environment 46 Overview: The Molecule That Supports All of Life 46 Concept 3.1 The polarity of water molecules results in hydrogen bonding 46 Concept 3.2 Four emergent properties of water contribute to Earth?s fitness for life 47 Cohesion 47 Moderation of Temperature 48 Insulation of Bodies of Water by Floating Ice 49 The Solvent of Life 50 Concept 3.3 Acidic and basic conditions affect living organisms 52 Effects of Changes in pH 52 Threats to Water Quality on the Earth 54 Chapter 4 4 Carbon and the Molecular Diversity of Life 58 Overview: Carbon: The Backbone of Life 58 Concept 4.1 Organic chemistry is the study of carbon compounds 58 Concept 4.2 Carbon atoms can form diverse molecules by bonding to four other atoms 60 The Formation of Bonds with Carbon 60 Molecular Diversity Arising from Carbon Skeleton Variation 61 Concept 4.3 Characteristic chemical groups help control how biological molecules function 63 The Chemical Groups Most Important in the Process of Life 63 ATP: An Important Source of Energy for Cellular Processes 66 The Chemical Elements of Life: A Review 66 Chapter 5 5 The Structure and Function of Macromolecules 68 Overview: The Molecules of Life 68 Concept 5.1 Most macromolecules are polymers, built from monomers 68 The Synthesis and Breakdown of Polymers 68 The Diversity of Polymers 69 Concept 5.2 Carbohydrates serve as fuel and building material 69 Sugars 69 Polysaccharides 71 Concept 5.3 Lipids are a diverse group of hydrophobic molecules 74 Fats 75 Phospholipids 76 Steroids 77 Concept 5.4 Proteins have many structures, resulting in a wide range of functions 77 Polypeptides 78 Protein Structure and Function 80 Concept 5.5 Nucleic acids store and transmit hereditary information 86 The Roles of Nucleic Acids 86 The Structure of Nucleic Acids 87 The DNA Double Helix 88 DNA and Proteins as Tape Measures of ?Evolution 89 The Theme of Emergent Properties in the Chemistry of Life: A Review 89 Chapter 6 A Tour of the Cell 00 Overview: The Fundamental Units of Life 00 Concept 6.1 To study cells, biologists use microscopes and the tools of biochemistry 00 Microscopy 00 Cell Fractionation 00 Concept 6.2 Eukaryotic cells have internal membranes that compartmentalize functions 00 Comparing Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells 00 A Panoramic View of the Eukaryotic Cell 00 Concept 6.3 The eukaryotic cell?s genetic instructions are housed in the nucleus and carried out by the ribosomes The Nucleus: Information Central 00 Ribosomes: Protein Factories 00 Concept 6.4 The endomembrane system regulates protein traffic and performs metabolic functions in the cell 00 The Endoplasmic Reticulum: Biosynthetic Factory 00 The Golgi Apparatus: Shipping and Receiving Center 00 Lysosomes: Digestive Compartments 00 Vacuoles: Diverse Maintenance Compartments 00 The Endomembrane System: A Review 00 Concept 6.5 Mitochondria and chloroplasts change energy from one form to another 00 Mitochondria: Chemical Energy Conversion 00 Chloroplasts: Capture of Light Energy 00 Peroxisomes: Oxidation 00 Concept 6.6 The cytoskeleton is a network of fibers that organizes structures and activities in the cell 00 Roles of the Cytoskeleton: Support, Motility, and Regulation 00 Components of the Cytoskeleton 00 Concept 6.7 Extracellular components and connections between cells help coordinate cellular activities 00 Cell Walls of Plants 00 The Extracellular Matrix (ECM) of Animal Cells 00 Intercellular Junctions 00 The Cell: A Living Unit Greater Than the Sum of Its Parts 00 Chapter 7 Membrane Structure and Function 000 Overview: Life at the Edge 000 Concept 7.1 Cellular membranes are fluid mosaics of lipids and proteins 000 Membrane Models: Scientific Inquiry 000 The Fluidity of Membranes 000 Membrane Proteins and Their Functions 000 The Role of Membrane Carbohydrates in Cell-Cell Recognition 000 Synthesis and Sidedness of Membranes 000 Concept 7.2 Membrane structure results in selective permeability 000 The Permeability of the Lipid Bilayer 000 Transport Proteins 000 Concept 7.3 Passive transport is diffusion of a substance across a membrane with no energy investment 000 Effects of Osmosis on Water Balance 000 Facilitated Diffusion: Passive Transport Aided by Proteins 000 Concept 7.4 Active transport uses energy to move solutes against their gradients 000 The Need for Energy in Active Transport 000 Membrane Potential Maintenance by Ion Pumps 000 Cotransport: Coupled Transport by a Membrane Protein 000 Concept 7.5 Bulk transport across the plasma membrane occurs by exocytosis and endocytosis 000 Exocytosis 000 Endocytosis 000 Chapter 8 An Introduction to Metabolism Concept 8.1 An organism?s metabolism transforms matter and energy, subject to the laws of thermodynamics Organization of the Chemistry of Life into Metabolic Pathways Forms of Energy The Laws of Energy Transformation Concept 8.2 The free-energy change of a reaction tells us whether or not the reaction occurs spontaneously Free-Energy Change, ?G Free Energy, Stability, and Equilibrium Free Energy and Metabolism Concept 8.3 ATP powers cellular work by coupling exergonic reactions to endergonic reactions The Structure and Hydrolysis of ATP How ATP Performs Work The Regeneration of ATP Concept 8.4 Enzymes speed up metabolic reactions by lowering energy barriers The Activation Energy Barrier How Enzymes Lower the EA Barrier Substrate Specificity of Enzymes Catalysis in the Enzyme?s Active Site Effects of Local Conditions on Enzyme Activity Concept 8.5 Regulation of enzyme activity helps control metabolism Allosteric Regulation of Enzymes Specific Localization of Enzymes Within the Cell Campbell/Reece BIOLOGY 8e Chapter 9 Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy Overview: Life Is Work Concept 9.1 Catabolic pathways yield energy by oxidizing organic fuels Catabolic Pathways and Production of ATP Redox Reactions: Oxidation and Reduction The Principle of Redox Oxidation of Organic Fuel Molecules During Cellular Respiration Stepwise Energy Harvest via NAD+ and the Electron Transport Chain The Stages of Cellular Respiration: A Preview Concept 9.2 Glycolysis harvests chemical energy by oxidizing glucose to pyruvate Concept 9.3 The citric acid cycle completes the energy-yielding oxidation of organic molecules Concept 9.4 During oxidative phosphorylation, chemiosmosis couples electron transport to ATP synthesis The Pathway of Electron Transport Chemiosmosis: The Energy-Coupling Mechanism An Accounting of ATP Production by Cellular Respiration Concept 9.5 Fermentation and anaerobic respiration enable cells to produce ATP without the use of oxygen Types of Fermentation Fermentation and Aerobic Respiration Compared The Evolutionary Significance of Glycolysis Concept 9.6 Glycolysis and the citric acid cycle connect to many other metabolic pathways The Versatility of Catabolism Biosynthesis (Anabolic Pathways) Regulation of Cellular Respiration via Feedback Mechanisms Campbell/Reece Biology 8e Detailed Table of Contents Chapter 11: Cell Communication Overview: The Cellular Internet Concept 11.1 External signals are converted into responses within the cell Evolution of Cell Signaling Local and Long-Distance Signaling The Three Stages of Cell Signaling: A Preview Concept 11.2 Reception: A signal molecule binds to a receptor protein, causing it to change shape Receptors in the Plasma Membrane Intracellular Receptors Concept 11.3 Transduction: Cascades of molecular interactions relay signals from receptors to target molecules in the cell Signal Transduction Pathways Protein Phosphorylation and Dephosphorylation Small Molecules and Ions as Second Messengers Concept 11.4 Response: Cell signaling leads to regulation of transcription or cytoplasmic activities Nuclear and Cytoplasmic Responses Fine-Tuning of the Response Concept 11.5 Apoptosis (programmed cell death) integrates multiple cell signaling pathways Apoptosis in the Soil Worm Caenorhabditis elegans Apoptotic Pathways and the Signals that Trigger Them Chapter 12 The Cell Cycle Overview: The Key Roles of Cell Division Concept 12.1 Cell division results in genetically identical daughter cells Cellular Organization of the Genetic Material Distribution of Chromosomes During Eukaryotic Cell Division Concept 12.2 The mitotic phase alternates with interphase in the cell cycle Phases of the Cell Cycle The Mitotic Spindle: A Closer Look Cytokinesis: A Closer Look Binary Fission The Evolution of Mitosis Concept 12.3 The eukaryotic cell cycle is regulated by a molecular control system Evidence for Cytoplasmic Signals The Cell Cycle Control System Loss of Cell Cycle Controls in Cancer Cells Chapter 13 Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles Concept 13.1 Offspring acquire genes from parents by inheriting chromosomes Inheritance of Genes Comparison of Asexual and Sexual Reproduction Concept 13.2 Fertilization and meiosis alternate in sexual life cycles Sets of Chromosomes in Human Cells Behavior of Chromosome Sets in the Human Life Cycle The Variety of Sexual Life Cycles Concept 13.3 Meiosis reduces the number of chromosome sets from diploid to haploid The Stages of Meiosis A Comparison of Mitosis and Meiosis Concept 13.4 Genetic variation produced in sexual life cycles contributes to evolution Origins of Genetic Variation Among Offspring Evolutionary Significance of Genetic Variation Within Populations Chapter 14 Mendel and the Gene Idea Concept 14.1 Mendel used the scientific approach to identify two laws of inheritance Mendel?s Experimental, Quantitative Approach The Law of Segregation The Law of Independent Assortment Concept 14.2 The laws of probability govern Mendelian inheritance The Multiplication and Addition Rules Applied to Monohybrid Crosses Solving Complex Genetics Problems with the Rules of Probability Concept 14.3 Inheritance patterns are often more complex than predicted by simple Mendelian genetics Extending Mendelian Genetics for a Single Gene Extending Mendelian Genetics for Two or More Genes Nature and Nurture: The Environmental Impact on Phenotype Integrating a Mendelian View of Heredity and Variation Concept 14.4 Many human traits follow Mendelian patterns of inheritance Pedigree Analysis Recessively Inherited Disorders Dominantly Inherited Disorders Multifactorial Disorders Genetic Testing and Counseling Chapter 15 The Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance Concept 15.1 Mendelian inheritance has its physical basis in the behavior of chromosomes Morgan?s Experimental Evidence: Scientific Inquiry Concept 15.2 Sex-linked genes exhibit unique patterns of inheritance The Chromosomal Basis of Sex Inheritance of Sex-Linked Genes X Inactivation in Female Mammals Concept 15.3 Linked genes tend to be inherited together because they are located near each other on the same chromosome How Linkage Affects Inheritance Genetic Recombination and Linkage Mapping the Distance Between Genes Using Recombination Data: Scientific Inquiry Concept 15.4 Alterations of chromosome number or structure cause some genetic disorders Abnormal Chromosome Number Alterations of Chromosome Structure Human Disorders Due to Chromosomal Alterations Concept 15.5 Some inheritance patterns are exceptions to the standard chromosome theory Genomic Imprinting Inheritance of Organelle Genes Chapter 16 The Molecular Basis of Inheritance Overview: Life?s Operating Instructions Concept 16.1 DNA is the genetic material The Search for the Genetic Material: Scientific Inquiry Building a Structural Model of DNA: Scientific Inquiry Concept 16.2 Many proteins work together in DNA replication and repair The Basic Principle: Base Pairing to a Template Strand Proofreading and Repairing DNA Replicating the Ends of DNA Molecules Concept 16.3 A chromosome consists of a DNA molecule packed together with proteins Chapter 17 From Gene to Protein Overview: The Flow of Genetic Information Concept 17.1 Genes specify proteins via transcription and translation Evidence from the Study of Metabolic Defects Basic Principles of Transcription and Translation The Genetic Code Concept 17.2 Transcription is the DNA-directed synthesis of RNA: a closer look Molecular Components of Transcription Synthesis of an RNA Transcript Concept 17.3 Eukaryotic cells modify RNA after transcription Alteration of mRNA Ends Split Genes and RNA Splicing Concept 17.4 Translation is the RNA-directed synthesis of a polypeptide: a closer look Molecular Components of Translation Building a Polypeptide Completing and Targeting the Functional Protein Concept 17.5 Point mutations can affect protein structure and function Types of Point Mutations Mutagens Concept 17.6 While gene expression differs among the domains of life, the concept of a gene is universal Comparing Gene Expression in Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya What is a gene? Revisiting the Question Chapter 18 Regulation of Gene Expression Overview: Conducting the Genetic Orchestra Concept 18.1 Bacteria often respond to environmental change by regulating transcription Operons: The Basic Concept Repressible and Inducible Operons: Two Types of Negative Gene Regulation Positive Gene Regulation Concept 18.2 Eukaryotic gene expression can be regulated at any stage Differential Gene Expression Regulation of Chromatin Structure Regulation of Transcription Initiation Mechanisms of Post-Transcriptional Regulation Concept 18.3 Noncoding RNAs play multiple roles in controlling gene expression Effects on mRNAs by MicroRNAs and Small Interfering RNAs Chromatin Remodeling and Silencing of Transcription by Small RNAs Concept 18.4 A program of differential gene expression leads to the different cell types in a multicellular organism A Genetic Program for Embryonic Development Cytoplasmic Determinants and Cell-Cell Signals Sequential Regulation of Gene Expression During Cellular Differentiation Pattern Formation: Setting Up the Body Plan Concept 18.5 Cancer results from genetic changes that affect cell cycle control Types of Genes Associated with Cancer Interference with Normal Cell-Signaling Pathways The Multistep Model of Cancer Development Inherited Predisposition and Other Factors Contributing to Cancer Chapter 19 Viruses Overview: A Borrowed Life Concept 19.1 A virus consists of a nucleic acid surrounded by a protein coat The Discovery of Viruses: Scientific Inquiry Structure of Viruses Concept 19.2 Viruses reproduce only in host cells General Features of Viral Reproductive Cycles Reproductive Cycles of Phages Reproductive Cycles of Animal Viruses Evolution of Viruses Concept 19.3 Viruses, viroids, and prions are formidable pathogens in animals and plants Viral Diseases in Animals Emerging Viruses Viral Diseases in Plants Viroids and Prions: The Simplest Infectious Agents Chapter 20 Biotechnology Overview: The DNA Toolbox Concept 20.1 DNA cloning yields multiple copies of a gene or other DNA segment DNA Cloning and Its Applications: A Preview Using Restriction Enzymes to Make Recombinant DNA Cloning a Eukaryotic Gene in a Bacterial Plasmid Expressing Cloned Eukaryotic Genes Amplifying DNA in Vitro: The Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Concept 20.2 DNA technology allows us to study the sequence, expression, and function of a gene Gel Electrophoresis and Southern Blotting DNA Sequencing Analyzing Expression of Genes Determining Gene Function Concept 20.3 Cloning organisms may lead to production of stem cells for research and other applications Cloning of Plants: Single Cell Cultures Cloning of Animals: Nuclear Transplantation Stem Cells of Animals Concept 20.4 The practical applications of DNA technology affect our lives in many ways Medical Applications Forensic Evidence and Genetic Profiles Environmental Cleanup Agricultural Applications Safety and Ethical Questions Raised by DNA Technology Chapter 21 Genomes and Their Evolution Overview: Reading the Leaves from the Tree of Life Concept 21.1 New approaches have accelerated the pace of genome sequencing Three-Stage Approach to Genome Sequencing Whole-Genome Shotgun Approach to Genome Sequencing Concept 21.2 Scientists use bioinformatics to analyze genomes and their functions Centralized Resources for Analyzing Genome Sequences Identifying Protein-Coding Genes within DNA Sequences Understanding Genes and Their Products at the Systems Level Concept 21.3 Genomes vary in size, number of genes, and gene density Genome Size Number of Genes Gene Density and Noncoding DNA Concept 21.4 Multicellular eukaryotes have much noncoding DNA and many multigene families Transposable Elements and Related Sequences Other Repetitive DNA, Including Simple Sequence DNA Genes and Multigene Families Concept 21.5 Duplication, rearrangement, and mutation of DNA contribute to genome evolution Duplication of Chromosome Sets Alterations of Chromosome Structure Duplication and Divergence of Gene-Sized Regions of DNA Rearrangements of Parts of Genes: Exon Duplication and Exon Shuffling How Transposable Elements Contribute to Genome Evolution Concept 21.6 Comparing genome sequences provides clues to evolution and development Comparing Genomes Comparing Developmental Processes Campbell/Reece BIOLOGY 8th edition Chapter 22 22 Descent with Modification: A Darwinian View of Life Overview: Endless Forms Most Beautiful Concept 22.1 The Darwinian revolution challenged traditional views of a young Earth inhabited by unchanging species Scala Naturae <ital intentional> and Classification of Species Ideas About Change Over Time Lamarck?s Hypothesis of Evolution Concept 22.2: Descent with modification by natural selection explains the adaptations of organisms and the unity and diversity of life Darwin?s Research The Origin of Species <ital intentional> Concept 22.3 Evolution is supported by an overwhelming amount of scientific evidence Direct Observations of Evolutionary Change The Fossil Record Homology and Convergent Evolution Biogeography What Is Theoretical about Darwin?s View of Life? 23 The Evolution of Populations OVERVIEW: The Smallest Unit of Evolution CONCEPT 23.1 Mutation and sexual reproduction produce the genetic variation that makes evolution possible Genetic Variation Mutation Sexual Reproduction CONCEPT 23.2 The Hardy-Weinberg equation can be used to test whether a population is evolving Gene Pools and Allele Frequencies The Hardy-Weinberg Principle CONCEPT 23.3 Natural selection, genetic drift, and gene flow can alter allele frequencies in a population Natural Selection Genetic Drift Gene Flow CONCEPT 23.4 Natural selection is the only mechanism that consistently causes adaptive evolution A Closer Look at Natural Selection The Key Role of Natural Selection in Adaptive Evolution Sexual Selection The Preservation of Genetic Variation Why Natural Selection Cannot Fashion Perfect Organisms Chapter 24 24 The Origin of Species OVERVIEW: That ?Mystery of Mysteries? CONCEPT 24.1 The biological species concept emphasizes reproductive isolation The Biological Species Concept Other Definitions of Species CONCEPT 24.2 Speciation can take place with or without geographic separation Allopatric (?Other Country?) Speciation Sympatric (?Same Country?) Speciation Allopatric and Sympatric Speciation: A Summary CONCEPT 24.3 Hybrid zones provide opportunities to study factors that cause reproductive isolation Structure of Hybrid Zones Hybrid Zones Over Time CONCEPT 24.4 Speciation can occur rapidly or slowly, and it can result from changes in few or many genes The Time Course of Speciation Studying the Genetics of Speciation From Speciation to Macroevolution Chapter 25 25 The History of Life on Earth OVERVIEW: Lost Worlds CONCEPT 25.1 Conditions on early Earth made the origin of life possible Synthesis of Organic Compounds on Early Earth Abiotic Synthesis of Macromolecules Protobionts Self-Replicating RNA and the Dawn of Natural Selection CONCEPT 25.2 The fossil record documents the history of life The Fossil Record How Rocks and Fossils Are Dated The Origin of New Groups of Organisms CONCEPT 25.3 Key events in life?s history include the origins of single- celled and multicelled organisms, and the colonization of land The First Single-Celled Organisms The Origin of Multicellularity The Colonization of Land CONCEPT 25.4 The rise and fall of dominant groups reflect continental drift, mass extinctions, and adaptive radiations Continental Drift Mass Extinctions Adaptive Radiations CONCEPT 25.5 Major changes in body form can result form changes in the sequence and regulation of developmental genes Evolutionary Effects of Developmental Genes The Evolution of Development CONCEPT 25.6 Evolution is not goal oriented Evolutionary Novelties Evolutionary Trends 25 Phylogeny and the Tree of Life OVERVIEW: Investigating the Tree of Life CONCEPT 26.1 Phylogenies show evolutionary relationships Binomial Nomenclature Hierarchical Classification Linking Classification and Phylogeny What We Can and Cannot Learn from Phylogenetic Trees Applying Phylogenies CONCEPT 26.2 Phylogenies are inferred from morphological and molecular data Morphological and Molecular Homologies Sorting Homology from Analogy Evaluating Molecular Homologies CONCEPT 26.3 Shared characters are used to construct phylogenetic trees Cladistics Phylogenetic Trees with Proportional Branch Lengths Maximum Parsimony and Maximum Likelihood Phylogenetic Trees as Hypotheses CONCEPT 26.4 An organism?s evolutionary history is documented in its genome Gene Duplications and Gene Families Genome Evolution CONCEPT 26.5 Molecular clocks track evolutionary time Molecular Clocks Applying a Molecular Clock: The Origin of HIV CONCEPT 26.6 New information continues to revise our understanding of the tree of life From Two Kingdoms to Three Domains A Simple Tree of All Life Is the Tree of Life Really a Ring? 27 Bacteria and Archaea OVERVIEW: Masters of Adaptation CONCEPT 27.1 Structural and functional adaptations contribute to prokaryotic success Cell-Surface Structures Motility Internal and Genomic Organization Reproduction and Adaptation CONCEPT 27.2 Rapid reproduction, mutation, and genetic recombination promote genetic diversity in prokaryotes Rapid Reproduction and Mutation Genetic Recombination CONCEPT 27.3 A great diversity of nutritional and metabolic adaptations have evolved in prokaryotes Metabolic Relationships to Oxygen Nitrogen Metabolism Metabolic Cooperation CONCEPT 27.4 Molecular systematics is illuminating prokaryote phylogeny Lessons from Molecular Systematics Archaea Bacteria CONCEPT 27.5 Prokaryotes play crucial roles in the biosphere Chemical Recycling Ecological Interactions CONCEPT 27.6 Prokaryotes have both harmful and beneficial impacts on humans Pathogenic Prokaryotes Prokaryotes in Research and Technology 28 Protists OVERVIEW: Living Small CONCEPT 28.1 Most eukaryotes are single-celled organisms Structural and Functional Diversity in Protists Endosymbiosis in Eukaryotic Evolution Five ?Supergroups? of Eukaryotes CONCEPT 28.2 Excavates include protists with modified mitochondria and protists with unique flagella Diplomonads and Parabasalids Euglenozoans CONCEPT 28.3 Chromalveolates may have originated by secondary endosymbiosis Alveolates Stramenopiles CONCEPT 28.4 Rhizaria are a diverse group of protists defined by DNA similarites Forams Radiolarians CONCEPT 28.5 Red algae and green algae are the closest relatives of land plants Red Algae Green Algae CONCEPT 28.6 Unikonts include protists that are closely related to fungi and animals Amoebozoans Opisthokonts CONCEPT 28.7 Protists play key roles in ecological relationships Symbiotic Protists Photosynthetic Protists 29 Plant Diversity I: How Plants Colonized Land OVERVIEW: The Greening of Earth CONCEPT 29.1 Land plants evolved from green algae Morphological and Molecular Evidence Adaptations Enabling the Move to Land Derived Traits of Plants The Origin and Diversification of Plants CONCEPT 29.3 Mosses and other bryophytes have life cycles dominated by gametophytes Bryophyte Gametophytes Bryophyte Sporophytes Ecological and Economic Importance of Mosses CONCEPT 29.4 Ferns and other seedless vascular plants were the first plants to grow tall Origins and Traits of Vascular Plants Classification of Seedless Vascular Plants The Significance of Seedless Vascular Plants 30 Plant Diversity II: The Evolution of Seed Plants 000 OVERVIEW: Transforming the World 000 CONCEPT 30.1 Seeds and pollen grains are key adaptations for life on land 000 Advantages of Reduced Gametophytes 000 Heterospory: The Rule Among Seed Plants 000 Ovules and Production of Eggs 000 Pollen and Production of Sperm 000 The Evolutionary Advantage of Seeds 000 CONCEPT 30.2 Gymnosperms bear ?naked? seeds, typically on cones 000 Gymnosperm Evolution 000 The Life Cycle of a Pine: A Closer Look 000 CONCEPT 30.3 The reproductive adaptations of angiosperms include flowers and fruits 000 Characteristics of Angiosperms 000 Angiosperm Evolution 000 Angiosperm Diversity 000 Evolutionary Links Between Angiosperms and Animals 000 CONCEPT 30.4 Human welfare depends greatly on seed plants 000 Products from Seed Plants 000 Threats to Plant Diversity 000 31 Fungi OVERVIEW: Mighty Mushrooms CONCEPT 31.1 Fungi are heterotrophs that feed by absorption Nutrition and Ecology Body Structure CONCEPT 31.2 Fungi produce spores through sexual or asexual life cycles Sexual Reproduction Asexual Reproduction CONCEPT 31.3 Fungi descended from an aquatic, single-celled, flagellated protist The Origin of Fungi Are Microsporidia Closely Related to Fungi? The Move to Land CONCEPT 31.4 Fungi have radiated into a diverse set of lineages Chytrids Zygomycetes Glomeromycetes Ascomycetes Basidiomycetes CONCEPT 31.5 Fungi play key roles in nutrient cycling, ecological interactions, and human welfare Fungi as Decomposers Fungi as Mutualists Fungi as Pathogens Practical Uses of Fungi 32 An Introduction to Animal Diversity OVERVIEW: Welcome to Your Kingdom CONCEPT 32.1 Animals are multicellular, heterotrophic eukaryotes with tissues that develop from embryonic layers Nutritional Mode Cell Structure and Specialization Reproduction and Development CONCEPT 32.2 The history of animals spans more than half a billion years Neoproterozoic Era (1 Billion?542 Million Years Ago) Paleozoic Era (542?251 Million Years Ago) Mesozoic Era (251?65.5 Million Years Ago) Cenozoic Era (65.5 Million Years Ago to the Present) CONCEPT 32.3 Animals can be characterized by ?body plans? Symmetry Tissues Body Cavities Protostome and Deuterostome Development CONCEPT 32.4 New views of animal phylogeny are emerging from molecular data Points of Agreement Progress in Resolving Bilaterian Relationships Future Directions in Animal Systematics 33 Invertebrates OVERVIEW: Life Without a Backbone CONCEPT 33.1 Sponges are basal animals that lack true tissues CONCEPT 33.2 Cnidarians are an ancient phylum of eumetazoans Hydrozoans Scyphozoans Cubozoans Anthozoans CONCEPT 33.3 Lophotrochozoans, a clade identified by molecular data, have the widest range of animal body forms Flatworms Rotifers Lophophorates: Ectoprocts and Brachiopods Molluscs Annelids CONCEPT 33.4 Ecdysozoans are the most species-rich animal group Nematodes Arthropods CONCEPT 33.5 Echinoderms and chordates are deuterostomes Echinoderms Chordates Detailed Contents 34 Vertebrates OVERVIEW: Half a Billion Years of Backbones CONCEPT 34.1 Chordates have a notochord and a dorsal, hollow nerve cord Derived Characters of Chordates Lancelets Tunicates Early Chordate Evolution CONCEPT 34.2 Craniates are chordates that have a head Derived Characters of Craniates The Origin of Craniates Hagfishes CONCEPT 34.3 Vertebrates are craniates that have a backbone Derived Characters of Vertebrates Lampreys Fossils of Early Vertebrates Origins of Bones and Teeth CONCEPT 34.4 Gnathostomes are vertebrates that have jaws Derived Characters of Gnathostomes Fossil Gnathostomes Chondricthyans (Sharks, Rays, and Their Relatives) Ray-Finned Fishes and Lobe-Fins CONCEPT 34.5 Tetrapods are gnathostomes that have limbs Derived Characters of Tetrapods The Origin of Tetrapods Amphibians CONCEPT 34.6 Amniotes are tetrapods that have a terrestrially adapted egg Derived Characters of Amniotes Early Amniotes Reptiles CONCEPT 34.7 Mammals are amniotes that have hair and produce milk Derived Characters of Mammals Early Evolution of Mammals Monotremes Marsupials Eutherians (Placental Mammals) CONCEPT 34.8 Humans are mammals that have a large brain and bipedal locomotion Derived Characters of Humans The Earliest Hominins Australopiths Bipedalism Tool Use Early Homo Neanderthals Homo sapiens Chapter 35 35 Plant Structure, Growth, and Development xxx Overview: Plastic Plants? Concept 35.1 The plant body has a hierarchy of organs, tissues, and cells xxx The Three Basic Plant Organs: Roots, Stems, and Leaves xxx Dermal, Vascular, and Ground Tissues xxx Common Types of Plant Cells xxx Concept 35.2 Meristems generate cells for new organs xxx Concept 35.3 Primary growth lengthens roots and shoots xxx Primary Growth of Roots xxx Primary Growth of Shoots xxx Concept 35.4 Secondary growth adds girth to stems and roots in woody plants xxx The Vascular Cambium and Secondary Vascular Tissue xxx Cork Cambia and the Production of Periderm xxx Concept 35.5 Growth, morphogenesis, and differentiation produce the plant body xxx Molecular Biology: Revolutionizing the Study of Plants xxx Growth: Cell Division and Cell Expansion xxx Morphogenesis and Pattern Formation xxx Gene Expression and Control of Cellular Differentiation xxx Location and a Cell?s Developmental Fate xxx Shifts in Development: Phase Changes xxx Genetic Control of Flowering xxx Chapter 36 Chapter 36 Resource Acquisition and Transport in Vascular Plants xxx Overview: Underground Plants xxx Concept 36.1 Land plants acquire resources from both above and below ground xxx Shoot Architecture and Light Capture xxx Root Architecture and Acquisition of Water and Minerals xxx Effects of Differences in Water Potential 740 Three Major Compartments of Vacuolated Plant Cells 743 Functions of the Symplast and Apoplast in Transport 743 Bulk Flow in Long-Distance Transport 743 Concept 36.2 Transport occurs by short-distance diffusion or active transport and by long-distance bulk flow xxx Diffusion and Active Transport of Solutes xxx Diffusion of Water (Osmosis) xxx Three Major Pathways of Transport xxx Bulk Flow in Long-Distance Transport xxx Concept 36.3 Water and minerals are transported from roots to shoots xxx Absorption of Water and Minerals by Root Cells xxx Transport of Water and Minerals into the Xylem xxx Bulk Flow Driven by Negative Pressure in the Xylem xxx Xylem Sap Ascent by Bulk Flow: A Review xxx Concept 36.4 Stomata help regulate the rate of transpiration xxx Stomata: Major Pathways for Water Loss xxx Mechanisms of Stomatal Opening and Closing xxx Stimuli for Stomatal Opening and Closing xxx Effects of Transpiration on Wilting and Leaf Temperature xxx Adaptations that Reduce Evaporative Water Loss xxx Concept 36.5 Sugars are transported from leaves and other sources to sites of use or storage xxx Movement from Sugar Sources to Sugar Sinks xxx Bulk Flow by Positive Pressure: The Mechanism of Translocation in Angiosperms xxx Concept 36.6 The symplasm is highly dynamic xxx Plasmodesmata: Changing Structures xxx Electrical Signaling in the Phloem xxx Phloem: An Information Superhighway xxx Chapter 37 Overview: ?The nation that destroys its soil destroys itself? 000 Concept 37.1 Soil is a living, finite resource 000 Soil Texture 000 Topsoil Composition 000 Soil Conservation and Sustainable Agriculture 000 Concept 37.2 Plants require essential elements to complete their life cycles 000 Macronutrients and Micronutrients 000 Symptoms of Mineral Deficiency 000 Improving Plant Nutrition by Genetic Modification: Some Examples 000 Concept 37.3 Plant nutrition often involves relationships with other organisms Rhizobacteria 000 Soil Bacteria and the Nitrogen Cycle 000 Nitrogen-Fixing Bacteria 000 Nitrogen Fixation and Agriculture 000 Fungi and Plant Nutrition 000 Epiphytes, Parasitic Plants, and Carnivorous ?Plants 000 Chapter 38 38 Angiosperm Reproduction and Biotechnology 000 Overview: Flowers of Deceit 000 Concept 38.1 Flowers, double fertilization, and fruits are unique features of the angiosperm life cycle 000 Flower Structure and Function 000 Double Fertilization 000 Seed Development, Form, and Function 000 Fruit Form and Function 000 Concept 38.2 Plants reproduce sexually, asexually, or both 000 Mechanisms of Asexual Reproduction 000 Mechanisms That Prevent Self-Fertilization 000 Vegetative Propagation and Agriculture 000 Concept 38.3 Humans modify crops by breeding and genetic engineering Plant Breeding 000 Plant Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering 000 The Debate over Plant Biotechnology 000 Chapter 39 39 Plant Responses to Internal and External Signals 000 Overview: Stimuli and a Stationary Life 000 Concept 39.1 Signal transduction pathways link signal reception to response 000 Reception 000 Transduction 000 Response 000 Concept 39.2 Plant hormones help coordinate growth, development, and responses to stimuli 000 The Discovery of Plant Hormones 000 A Survey of Plant Hormones 000 Systems Biology and Hormone Interactions 000 Concept 39.3 Responses to light are critical for plant success 000 Blue-Light Photoreceptors 000 Phytochromes as Photoreceptors 000 Biological Clocks and Circadian Rhythms 000 The Effect of Light on the Biological Clock 000 Photoperiodism and Responses to Seasons 000 Concept 39.4 Plants respond to a wide variety of stimuli other than light 000 Gravity 000 Mechanical Stimuli 000 Environmental Stresses 000 Concept 39.5 Plants respond to attacks by herbivores and pathogens 000 Defenses Against Herbivores 000 Defenses Against Pathogens 000 Chapter 40 40 Basic Principles of Animal Form and Function XXX Overview: Diverse Forms, Common Challenges XXX Concept 40.1 Animal form and function are correlated at all levels of organization XXX Physical Constraints on Animal Size and Shape XXX Exchange with the Environment XXX Hierarchical Organization of Body Plans XXX Tissue Structure and Function XXX Coordination and Control XXX Concept 40.2 Feedback control loops maintain the internal environment in many animals XXX Regulating and Conforming XXX Homeostasis XXX Concept 40.3 Homeostatic processes for thermoregulation involve form, function, and behavior XXX Endothermy and Ectothermy XXX Variation in Body Temperature XXX Balancing Heat Loss and Gain XXX Acclimatization in Thermoregulation XXX Physiological Thermostats and Fever XXX Concept 40.4 Energy requirements are related to animal size, activity, and environment XXX Energy Allocation and Use XXX Quantifying Energy Use XXX Minimum Metabolic Rate and Thermoregulation XXX Influences on Metabolic Rate XXX Energy Budgets XXX Torpor and Energy Conservation XXX Chapter 41 41 Animal Nutrition XXX Overview: The Need to Feed XXX Concept 41.1 An animal?s diet must supply chemical energy, organic molecules, and essential nutrients XXX Essential Nutrients XXX Dietary Deficiencies XXX Assessing Nutritional Needs XXX Concept 41.2 The main stages of food processing are ingestion, digestion, absorption, and elimination XXX Digestive Compartments XXX Concept 41.3 Organs specialized for successive stages of food processing form the mammalian digestive system XXX The Oral Cavity, Pharynx, and Esophagus XXX Digestion in the Stomach XXX Digestion in the Small Intestine XXX Absorption in the Small Intestine XXX Absorption in the Large Intestine XXX Concept 41.4 Evolutionary adaptations of vertebrate digestive systems correlate with diet XXX Some Dental Adaptations XXX Stomach and Intestinal Adaptations XXX Symbiotic Adaptations XXX Concept 41.5 Homeostatic mechanisms contribute to an animal?s energy balance XXX Energy Sources and Stores XXX Overnourishment and Obesity XXX Obesity and Evolution XXX Chapter 42 Circulation and Gas Exchange Overview: Promoting Free Exchange Concept 42.1 Circulatory systems enable exchange at a distance Gastrovascular Cavities Open and Closed Circulatory Systems Organization of Vertebrate Circulatory Systems Concept 42.2 Coordinated cycles of heart contraction drive double circulation in mammals Mammalian Circulation: The Pathway The Mammalian Heart: A Closer Look Maintaining the Heart?s Rhythmic Beat Concept 42.3 Blood pressure and flow reflect the structure and arrangement of blood vessels Blood Vessel Structure and Function Blood Flow Velocity Blood Pressure Capillary Function Fluid Return by the Lymphatic System Concept 42.4 Blood components mediate exchange, transport, and defense Blood Composition and Function Cardiovascular Disease Concept 42.5 Gas exchange occurs across specialized respiratory surfaces Partial Pressure Gradients in Gas Exchange Respiratory Media Respiratory Surfaces Gills in Aquatic Animals Tracheal Systems in Insects Lungs Concept 42.6 Breathing ventilates the lungs How an Amphibian Breathes How a Mammal Breathes How a Bird Breathes Control of Breathing in Humans Concept 42.7 Adaptations for gas exchange include pigments that bind and transport gases Coordination of Circulation and Gas Exchange Respiratory Pigments Elite Animal Athletes Chapter 43 43 The Immune System 000 Overview: Reconnaissance, Recognition, and Response 000 Concept 43.1 In innate immunity, recognition and response rely on shared pathogen traits 000 Invertebrate Innate Immunity 000 Vertebrate Innate Immunity 000 Innate Immune System Evasion by Pathogens 000 Concept 43.2 In acquired immunity, lymphocyte receptors provide pathogen- specific recognition 000 Acquired Immunity: An Overview Antigen Recognition by Lymphocytes 000 Lymphocyte Development 000 Concept 43.3 Acquired immunity defends against infection of body cells and fluids 000 Helper T Cells: A Response to Nearly All ?Antigens 000 Cytotoxic T Cells: A Response to Infected Cells 000 B Cells: A Response to Extracellular ?Pathogens 000 Active and Passive Immunization 000 Immune Rejection 000 Concept 43.4 Disruptions in immune system function can elicit or exacerbate disease 000 Exaggerated, Self-Directed, and Diminished Immune Responses 000 Acquired Immune System Evasion by Pathogens 000 Cancer and Immunity 000 Chapter 44 Concept 44.1 Osmoregulation balances the uptake and loss of water and solutes Osmosis Osmotic Challenges Transport Epithelia Concept 44.2 An animal?s nitrogenous wastes reflect its phylogeny and habitat Forms of Nitrogenous Waste The Influence of Evolution and Environment on Nitrogenous Wastes Concept 44.3 Diverse excretory systems are variations on a tubular theme Excretory Processes Survey of Excretory Systems Structure of the Mammalian Excretory System Concept 44.4 The nephron is organized for stepwise processing of blood filtrate From Blood Filtrate to Urine: A Closer Look Solute Gradients and Water Conservation Adaptations of the Vertebrate Kidney to Diverse Environments Concept 44.5 Hormonal circuits link kidney function, water balance, and blood pressure Antidiuretic Hormone The Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System Homeostatic Regulation of the Kidney Chapter 45 Concept 45.1 Hormones and other chemical signals bind to target receptors, triggering specific response pathways Types of Secreted Chemical Signals Chemical Nature of Hormones Hormone Receptor Localization Cellular Response Pathways Multiple Effects of Hormones Signaling by Local Regulators Concept 45.2 Negative feedback and antagonistic hormone pairs are common features of the endocrine system Simple Hormone Pathways Insulin and Glucagon: Control of Blood Glucose Concept 45.3 The endocrine and nervous systems act individually and together to regulate an animal?s physiology Coordination of Endocrine and Nervous Systems in Invertebrates Coordination of Endocrine and Nervous Systems in Vertebrates Posterior Pituitary Hormones Anterior Pituitary Hormones Concept 45.4 Endocrine glands respond to diverse stimuli in regulating metabolism, homeostasis, development, and behavior Thyroid Hormone: Control of Metabolism and Development Parathyroid Hormone and Vitamin D: Control of Blood Calcium Adrenal Hormones: Response to Stress Gonadal Sex Hormones Melatonin and Biorhythms Chapter 46 Concept 46.1 Both asexual and sexual reproduction occur in the animal kingdom Mechanisms of Asexual Reproduction Sexual Reproduction: An Evolutionary Enigma Reproductive Cycles and Patterns Concept 46.2 Mechanisms for fertilization bring together sperm and eggs of the same species Ensuring the Survival of Offspring Gamete Production and Delivery Concept 46.3 Reproductive organs produce and transport gametes Female Reproductive Anatomy Male Reproductive Anatomy Human Sexual Response Concept 46.4 The timing and pattern of meiosis in mammals differ for males and females Concept 46.5 The interplay of tropic and sex hormones regulates mammalian reproduction Hormonal Control of the Male Reproductive System The Reproductive Cycles of Females Menstrual Versus Estrous Cycles Concept 46.6 In placental mammals, an embryo develops fully within the mother?s uterus Conception, Embryonic Development, and Birth The Mother?s Immune Tolerance of the Embryo and Fetus Contraception and Abortion Modern Reproductive Technologies Chapter 47 Animal Development Overview: A Body-Building Plan for Animals Concept 47.1 After fertilization, embryonic development proceeds through cleavage, gastrulation, and organogenesis Fertilization Cleavage Gastrulation Organogenesis Developmental Adaptations of Amniotes Mammalian Development Concept 47.2 Morphogenesis in animals involves specific changes in cell shape, position, and adhesion The Cytoskeleton, Cell Motility, and Convergent Extension Roles of Cell Adhesion Molecules and the Extracellular Matrix Concept 47.3 The developmental fate of cells depends on their history and on inductive signals Fate Mapping Establishing Cellular Asymmetries Cell Fate Determination and Pattern Formation by Inductive Signals Chapter 48 48.1 Neuron organization and structure reflect function in information transfer Information Processing Neuron Structure and Function 48.2 Ion pumps and ion channels maintain the resting potential of a neuron Formation of the Resting Potential Modeling the Resting Potential 48.3 Action potentials are the signals conducted by axons Production of Action Potentials Time Course of Action Potentials Conduction of Action Potentials 48.4 Neurons communicate with other cells at synapses Generation of Postsynaptic Potentials Summation of Postsynaptic Potentials Modulated Synaptic Transmission Neurotransmitters Chapter 49 Concept 49.1 Nervous systems consist of circuits of neurons and supporting cells Organization of the Vertebrate Nervous System The Peripheral Nervous System Concept 49.2 The vertebrate brain is regionally specialized The Brainstem The Cerebellum The Diencephalon The Cerebrum Evolution of Cognition in Vertebrates Concept 49.3 The cerebral cortex controls voluntary movement and cognitive functions Information Processing in the Cerebral Cortex Language and Speech Lateralization of Cortical Function Emotions Consciousness Concept 49.4 Changes in synaptic connections underlie memory and learning Neural Plasticity Memory and Learning Long-Term Potentiation Concept 49.5 Nervous system disorders can be understood in molecular terms Schizophrenia Depression Drug Addiction and the Brain Reward System Alzheimer?s Disease Parkinson?s Disease Neural Stem Cells Chapter 50 Concept 50.1 Sensory receptors transduce stimulus energy and transmit signals to the central nervous system Sensory Pathways Types of Sensory Receptors Concept 50.2 The mechanoreceptors responsible for hearing and equilibrium detect moving fluid or settling particles Sensing Gravity and Sound in Invertebrates Hearing and Equilibrium in Mammals Hearing and Equilibrium in Other Vertebrates Concept 50.3 The senses of taste and smell rely on similar sets of sensory receptors Taste in Mammals Smell in Humans Concept 50.4 Similar mechanisms underlie vision throughout the animal kingdom Vision in Invertebrates The Vertebrate Visual System Concept 50.5 The physical interaction of protein filaments is required for muscle function Vertebrate Skeletal Muscle Other Types of Muscle Concept 50.6 Skeletal systems transform muscle contraction into locomotion Types of Skeletal Systems Types of Locomotion Energy Costs of Locomotion Chapter 51 51 Animal Behavior 000 Overview: Shall We Dance? 000 Concept 51.1 Discrete sensory inputs can stimulate both simple and complex behaviors 000 Fixed Action Patterns 000 Oriented Movement 000 Behavioral Rhythms 000 Animal Signals and Communication 000 Concept 51.2 Learning establishes specific links between experience and behavior 000 Habituation 000 Imprinting 000 Spatial Learning 000 Cognitive Maps 000 Associative Learning 000 Cognition and Problem Solving 000 Development of Learned Behaviors 000 Concept 51.3 Genetic makeup and environment both contribute to the development of behaviors 000 Experience and Behavior 000 Regulatory Genes and Behavior 000 Genetically Based Behavioral Variation in Natural Populations 000 Influence of Single-Locus Variation 000 Concept 51.4 Selection for individual survival and reproductive success can explain most behaviors 000 Foraging Behavior 000 Mating Behavior and Mate Choice 000 Concept 51.5 Inclusive fitness can account for the evolution of altruistic social behavior 000 Altruism 000 Inclusive Fitness 000 Social Learning 000 Evolution and Human Culture 000 Chapter 52 An Introduction to Ecology and the Biosphere Overview: The Scope of Ecology Concept 52.1 Ecology integrates all areas of biological research and informs environmental decision making Linking Ecology and Evolutionary Biology Ecology and Environmental Issues Concept 52.2 Interactions between organisms and the environment limit the distribution of species Dispersal and Distribution Behavior and Habitat Selection Biotic Factors Abiotic Factors Climate Concept 52.3 Aquatic biomes are diverse and dynamic systems that cover most of Earth Stratification of Aquatic Biomes Concept 52.4 The structure and distribution of terrestrial biomes are controlled by climate and disturbance Climate and Terrestrial Biomes General Features of Terrestrial Biomes and the Role of Disturbance Chapter 53 Population Ecology Overview: Counting Sheep Concept 53.1 Dynamic biological processes influence population density, dispersion, and demographics Density and Dispersion Demographics Concept 53.2 Life history traits are products of natural selection Evolution and Life History Diversity ?Trade-offs? and Life Histories Concept 53.3 The exponential model describes population growth in an idealized, unlimited environment Per Capita Rate of Increase Exponential Growth Concept 53.4 The logistic model describes how a population grows more slowly as it nears its carrying capacity The Logistic Growth Model The Logistic Model and Real Populations The Logistic Model and Life Histories Concept 53.5 Many factors that regulate population growth are density dependent Population Change and Population Density Density-Dependent Population Regulation Population Dynamics Concept 53.6 The human population is no longer growing exponentially but is still increasing rapidly The Global Human Population Global Carrying Capacity Chapter 54 Community Ecology Overview: A Sense of Community Concept 54.1 Community interactions are classified by whether they help, harm, or have no effect on the species involved Competition Predation Herbivory Symbiosis Concept 54.2 Dominant and keystone species exert strong controls on community structure Species Diversity Trophic Structure Species with a Large Impact Bottom-Up and Top-Down Controls Concept 54.3 Disturbance influences species diversity and composition Characterizing Disturbance Ecological Succession Human Disturbance Concept 54.4 Biogeographic factors affect community biodiversity Latitudinal Gradients Area Effects Island Equilibrium Model Concept 54.5 Community ecology is useful for understanding pathogen life cycles and controlling human disease Pathogens and Community Structure Community Ecology and Zoonotic Diseases Chapter 55 Ecosystems Overview: Observing Ecosystems Concept 55.1 Physical laws govern energy flow and chemical cycling in ecosystems Conservation of Energy Conservation of Mass Energy, Mass, and Trophic Levels Concept 55.2 Energy and other limiting factors control primary production in ecosystems Ecosystem Energy Budgets Primary Production in Aquatic Ecosystems Primary Production in Terrestrial Ecosystems Concept 55.3 Energy transfer between trophic levels is typically only 10% efficient Production Efficiency The Green World Hypothesis Concept 55.4 Biological and geological processes cycle nutrients between organic and inorganic parts of an ecosystem Biogeochemical Cycles Decomposition and Nutrient Cycling Rates Case Study: Vegetation and Nutrient Cycling in the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest Concept 55.5 Human activities now dominate most chemical cycles on Earth Nutrient Enrichment Acid Precipitation Toxins in the Environment Greenhouse Gases and Global Warming Depletion of Atmospheric Ozone Chapter 56 Conservation Biology and Restoration Ecology Overview: Striking Gold Concept 56.1 Human activities threaten Earth?s biodiversity Three Levels of Biodiversity Biodiversity and Human Welfare Three Threats to Biodiversity Concept 56.2 Population conservation focuses on population size, genetic diversity, and critical habitat Small-Population Approach Declining-Population Approach Weighing Conflicting Demands Concept 56.3 Landscape and regional conservation aim to sustain entire biotas Landscape Structure and Biodiversity Establishing Protected Areas Concept 56.4 Restoration ecology attempts to restore degraded ecosystems to a more natural state Exploring Restoration Bioremediation Biological Augmentation Concept 56.5 Sustainable development seeks to improve the human condition while conserving biodiversity Sustainable Biosphere Initiative Case Study: Sustainable Development in Costa Rica The Future of the Biosphere
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