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Contents Foreword xi Preface xii Acknowledgments xv PART I LOGIC AND LANGUAGE 3 SECTION A REASONING 3 CHAPTER 1 Basic Logical Concepts 4 1.1 What Logic Is 4 1.2 Propositions and Arguments 4 1.3 Recognizing Arguments 12 1.4 Arguments and Explanations 19 1.5 Deductive and Inductive Arguments 26 1.6 Validity and Truth 30 CHAPTER 2 Analyzing Arguments 37 2.1 Paraphrasing Arguments 37 2.2 Diagramming Arguments 41 2.3 Complex Argumentative Passages 53 2.4 Problems in Reasoning 60 SECTION B INFORMAL LOGIC 3 CHAPTER 3 Language and Definitions 71 3.1 Language Functions 71 3.2 Emotive Language, Neutral Language, and Disputes 79 3.3 Disputes and Ambiguity 84 3.4 Definitions and Their Uses 88 3.5 The Structure of Definitions: Extension and Intension 96 3.6 Definition by Genus and Difference 105 CHAPTER 4 Fallacies 118 4.1 What Is a Fallacy? 118 4.2 Classification of Fallacies 119 4.3 Fallacies of Relevance 121 4.4 Fallacies of Defective Induction 141 4.5 Fallacies of Presumption 149 4.6 Fallacies of Ambiguity 157 PART II DEDUCTION 179 SECTION A CLASSIC LOGIC 179 CHAPTER 5 Categorical Propositions 180 5.1 The Theory of Deduction 180 5.2 Classes and Categorical Propositions 181 5.3 The Four Kinds of Categorical Propositions 182 5.4 Quality, Quantity, and Distribution 187 5.5 The Traditional Square of Opposition 192 5.6 Further Immediate Inferences 196 5.7 -Existential Import and the Interpretation of Categorical Propositions 205 5.8 Symbolism and Diagrams for Categorical Propositions 213 CHAPTER 6 Categorical Syllogisms 224 6.1 Standard-Form Categorical Syllogisms 224 6.2 The Formal Nature of Syllogistic Argument 230 6.3 Venn Diagram Technique for Testing Syllogisms 233 6.4 Syllogistic Rules and Syllogistic Fallacies 244 6.5 Exposition of the Fifteen Valid Forms of the Categorical Syllogism 255 -Appendix: Deduction of the Fifteen Valid Forms of the Categorical Syllogism CHAPTER 7 Syllogisms in Ordinary Language 267 7.1 Syllogistic Arguments 267 7.2 Reducing the Number of Terms to Three 268 7.3 Translating Categorical Propositions into Standard Form 272 7.4 Uniform Translation 281 7.5 Enthymemes 287 7.6 Sorites 293 7.7 Disjunctive and Hypothetical Syllogisms 298 7.8 The Dilemma 305 SECTION B MODERN LOGIC 179 CHAPTER 8 Symbolic Logic 315 8.1 Modern Logic and Its Symbolic Language 315 8.2 The Symbols for Conjunction, Negation, and Disjunction 317 8.3 Conditional Statements and Material Implication 331 8.4 Argument Forms and Refutation by Logical Analogy 342 8.5 The Precise Meaning of "Invalid" and "Valid" 346 8.6 Testing Argument Validity Using Truth Tables 347 8.7 Some Common Argument Forms 349 8.8 Statement Forms and Material Equivalence 357 8.9 Logical Equivalence 363 8.10 The Three "Laws of Thought" 367 CHAPTER 9 Methods of Deduction 372 9.1 Formal Proof of Validity 372 9.2 The Elementary Valid Argument Forms 375 9.3 Formal Proofs of Validity Exhibited 380 9.4 Constructing Formal Proofs of Validity 383 9.5 Constructing More Extended Formal Proofs 386 9.6 Expanding the Rules of Inference: Replacement Rules 393 9.7 The System of Natural Deduction 400 9.8 Constructing Formal Proofs Using the Nineteen Rules of Inference 405 9.9 Proof of Invalidity 421 9.10 Inconsistency 424 9.11 Indirect Proof of Validity 431 9.12 Shorter Truth-Table Technique 434 CHAPTER 10 Quantification Theory 437 10.1 The Need for Quantification 437 10.2 Singular Propositions 438 10.3 Universal and Existential Quantifiers 441 10.4 Traditional Subject-Predicate Propositions 445 10.5 Proving Validity 454 10.6 Proving Invalidity 463 10.7 Asyllogistic Inference 468 PART III INDUCTION 481 SECTION A ANALOGY AND CAUSATION 181 CHAPTER 11 Analogical Reasoning 482 11.1 Induction and Deduction Revisited 482 11.2 Argument by Analogy 483 11.3 Appraising Analogical Arguments 491 11.4 Refutation by Logical Analogy 503 CHAPTER 12 Causal Reasoning 512 12.1 Cause and Effect 512 12.2 Causal Laws and the Uniformity of Nature 512 12.3 Induction by Simple Enumeration 516 12.4 Methods of Causal Analysis 519 12.5 Limitations of Inductive Techniques 547 SECTION B SCIENCE AND PROBABILITY 181 CHAPTER 13 Science and Hypothesis 559 13.1 Scientific Explanation 559 13.2 Scientific Inquiry: Hypothesis and Confirmation 562 13.3 Evaluation Scientific Explanations 568 13.4 Classification as Hypothesis 577 Chapter 14 Probability 588 14.1 Alternative Conceptions of Probability 588 14.2 The Probability Calculus 591 14.3 Probability in Everyday Life 603 Solutions to Selected Exercises 000 Glossary/Index 000

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Logic -- Textbooks.