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CONTENTS Preface 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Definition of chemical engineering 1.2 Material and energy balances 1.3 Values, units and dimensions: 1.4 Unit Conversion 1.4.1 Time: 1.4.2 Mass: 1.4.3 Length 1.4.4 Volume 1.4.5 Density: 1.4.6 Force: 1.4.7 Pressure: 1.4.8 Energy: 1.4.9 Power: 1.4.10 Weight: 1.5 Dimensional Homogeneity 1.6 Significant Figures 1.7 Process and Process Variables 1.7.1 Density, Mass and Volume 1.7.2 Flow Rate 1.7.3 Moles and Molecular Weight 1.7.4 Mass Fraction and Mole Fractions 1.7.5 Concentration 1.7.6 Pressure 1.7.7 Temperature Measurement 1.7.8 Ideal Gas Law 1.8 Process Classification References Problems 2 PROCESS UNITS AND DEGREES OF FREEDOM ANALYSIS 2.1 Degree of Freedom Analysis 2.2 Sources of Equations 2.3 Process Units, Basic Functions 2.3.1. Divider/Splitter 2.3.2 Mixer (Blender) 2.3.3 Dryer (Direct Heating) 2.3.4 Filter 2.3.5 Distillation Column 2.3.6 Evaporator 2.3.7 Dehumidification 2.3.8. Humidifier 2.3.9 Leaching and Extraction 2.3.10 Absorption (Gas Absorption) Desorption 2.3.11 Partial Condenser 2.3.12 Flash Vaporizer, Flash Distillation 2.3.13 Crystallizer 2.3.14 Reactors (Chemical Reactor, combustor, furnace, reformer) 2.4 Summary of Degree of Freedom Analysis References Problems 3 MATERIAL BALANCE ON SINGLE UNIT PROCESS 3.1 General material balance equation 3.2 Flowcharts 3.3 Problems Involving Material Balances on a Single Unit 3.4 Material Balance Fundamentals 3.4.1 Classification of Processes 3.4.2 Types of Balances 3.4.3 Stream specifications 3.5 Scaling 3.6 Basis of Calculation 3.6.1 Basis of calculation 3.6.2 Method for Solving Material Balance Problems References Problems 4 MULTIPLE-UNIT PROCESS CALCULATIONS 4.1 Multiple-Unit Process Calculations 4.2 Recycle, Bypass, Makeup, and Purge 4.2.1 Recycle 4.2.2 Bypass 4.2.3 Purge 4.2.4 Makeup References Problems 5 MATERIAL BALANCES ON REACTIVE PROCESSES 5.1 Amount of substance in moles 5.2 General material balance 5.2.1 Differential balance 5.2.2 Integral balance 5.3 Stoichiometry Basics 5.3.1 Stoichiometric Equation 5.3.2 Stoichiometric Coefficients 5.3.3 Stoichiometric Ratio 5.4 Limiting and excess reactants 5.5 Fractional conversion 5.6 Methods of solving material balances involving chemical reactions 5.6.1 Extent of reaction method 5.6.2 Element or atomic balance method 5.6.3 Molecular or component balance approach 5.7 Multiple Reactions and Extent of Reaction 5.8 Degree of Freedom Analysis (DFA) for Reactive Processes 5.8.1. Molecular Species Balances and Extent of Reaction 5.8.2. Atomic Species Balances: 5.9 Independent Chemical Reactions 5.10 Independent Species Balances 5.11 Chemical Equilibrium 5.12 Combustion Reactions 5.12.1 Theoretical and Excess Air References Problems 6 MULTIPLE SYSTEMS INVOLVE REACTION, RECYCLE AND PURGE 6.1 Reaction with Product Separation and Recycle 6.2 Reaction with Recycle and Purge 6.2.1 Flowsheet for Reaction with Recycle 6.2.2 Flowsheet for Reaction with Recycle and Purge 6.3 Reaction and Multiple-Unit Steady-State Processes References Problems 7 ENERGY BALANCE WITHOUT REACTION 7.1 Enthalpy and Energy Balances 7.1.1 How does energy move across systems? 7.2 Forms of Energy 7.2.1 Kinetic energy ( KE) 7.2.2 Potential Energy (Ep) 7.3 Intensive versus Extensive Variables 7.4 Transfer of Energy 7.5 First Law of Thermodynamics 7.5.1 Energy Balances on Closed Systems 7.5.2 Possible Simplifications on Energy Balance on a Closed System 7.4.4 Possible Simplifications on Energy Balance on an Open System 7.5 Enthalpy Calculations 7.6 Reference States and State Properties 7.7 Use of Linear Interpolation in Steam Tables 7.8 Enthalpy Change in Non-Reactive Processes 7.8.1 Enthalpy change as a result of temperature change 7.8.2 Enthalpy change because of phase changes 7.9 Energy Balance on Bioprocesses 7.10 Psychrometric chart References Problems 8 ENERGY BALANCES WITH REACTION 8.1 Introduction 8.2 Heats of Reaction 8.3 Heats of Reaction using the Extent of Reaction 8.3.1 Notes on Heats of Reaction 8.4 Reactions in Closed Processes 8.5 Measurement of Heats of Reaction 8.6 Calculating heat of reaction ( ) from Heats of Formation 8.7 Energy Balances on Reactive Processes 8.10.1 Heat of Reaction Method 8.10.2 Heat of Formation Method ¿ Process Path 8.11 General Procedure for Energy Balances with Reaction 8.12 Processes with Unknown Outlet Conditions 8.13 Energy balances on bioprocess References Problems 9 COMBINED MATERIAL AND ENERGY BALANCES 9.1 Material Balances 9.1.1 Conversion 9.1.2 Yield 9.1.3 Selectivity 9.1.4 Extent of reaction ( ) 9.2 Energy Balances 9.2.1 Heat of Reaction Method: 9.2.2 Heat of Formation Method 9.2.3 The concept of atomic balances 9.2.4 Mathematical formulation of the atom balance 9.2.5 Degree of Freedom Analysis for the atom balance 9.2.6 Implementing Recycle on the Separation Process References Problems 10 UNSTEADY-STATE MATERIAL AND ENERGY BALANCE 10.1 Unsteady-state Material Balance 10.2 Unsteady state energy balance
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