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TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION CHAPTER 1: HISTORY AND OVERVIEW OF CAPITAL PUNISHMENT In General Religious View of Capital Punishment History of Capital Punishment in America Ban on the Death Penalty in the United States Reintroduction of the Death Penalty in the United States Chronology of the Death Penalty in the United States Present Application of the Death Penalty Death Penalty Jurisdictions Statistics Capital Offenses The Abolitionist Movement Public Opinion In General Financial Concerns: Weighing the Costs Life Imprisonment: A Less Costly Alternative Deterrence Suicide-By-Execution Syndrome The International Status of Capital Punishment In General The Trend Towards Abolishing the Death Penalty Countries that Have Abolished the Death Penalty "Exceptional Crimes" Death Penalty Countries "De Facto" Abolitionist Countries Countries that Practice the Death Penalty (Retentionist Countries) International Death Sentences and Executions International Agreements to Abolish the Death Penalty Juvenile Offenders and the Death Penalty The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child CHAPTER 2: METHODS OF EXECUTION Early Methods of Execution Ling Chi: Death By A Thousand Cuts Hanging, Drawing and Quartering Breaking on the Wheel Present Day Methods of Execution In General Hanging Firing Squad Electrocution Lethal Gas Lethal Injection Baze v. Rees The Role of the Executioner Viewing the Execution In General Victim Witnesses CHAPTER 3: THE FEDERAL DEATH PENALTY In General Methods of Execution The Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1988 (The "Drug Kingpin" Statute) The Federal Death Penalty Act of 1994 (The "Crime Bill Expansion") Race and the Federal Death Penalty Procedure Authorization Right to Legal Representation Appeal Clemency Costs Prosecution Defense Native Americans U.S. Military History Demographics Prosecution The U.S. Disciplinary Barracks Execution Procedure Authorized Witnesses CHAPTER 4: LEGAL REPRESENTATION In General Statistics State Prisoners Federal Prisoners Local Prisoners Qualifications and Competency U.S. Supreme Court Cases The Adoption of Standards Indigent Defense Programs Public Defender Programs Assigned Counsel Programs The Ad Hoc Assigned Counsel Program The Coordinated Assigned Counsel Program Contract Attorney Programs The Federal Indigent Defense Program CHAPTER 5: INNOCENCE In General Wrongful Conviction and Execution Contributing Factors Expansion of Capital Crimes Juror Bias Laboratory Mistakes Lack of Defense Funding Narrowing of Appellate Rights in Capital Cases Politics Unreliable Evidence Mistaken Eyewitness Testimony Unreliable Witnesses Unreliable Confessions DNA Access Laws The Justice For All Act of 2004 Post-Conviction DNA Exonerations Recent Death Row Exoneration Cases Compensation for Wrongful Incarceration Model Penal Code Recommendations CHAPTER 6: DEMOGRAPHICS Race and the Death Penalty Statistics The Race of the Victim Women and the Death Penalty Statistics Executions Age and the Death Penalty Juvenile Offenders Thompson v. Oklahoma Stanford v. Kentucky Roper v. Simmons The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child Execution of the Elderly Statistics Causes Clarence Ray Allen John B. Nixon Sr. CHAPTER 7: MENTAL DISABILITIES AND THE DEATH PENALTY In General Mental Retardation Mental Retardation Defined The Ban on Execution of the Mentally Retarded Atkins v. Virginia Retribution Deterrence Wrongful Execution The IQ Factor Mental Illness Mental Illness Defined Mental Disorders Bipolar Disorder Borderline Personality Disorder Brain Damage Depression Dissociative Disorder Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Schizophrenia Extending the Atkins Ruling to the Mentally Ill Recent Executions Involving the Mentally Ill False Confessions and the Mentally Impaired CHAPTER 8: SENTENCE REVIEW In General Automatic Review Federal Habeas Corpus Review of State Court Criminal Convictions In General Jurisdiction Case Processing Time Representation Types of Issues Raised in Habeas Corpus Petitions Dismissal of the Petition Clemency Authority to Grant Clemency Recent Cases Broad Clemencies APPENDICES APPENDIX 1 - THE FLORIDA DEATH PENALTY STATUTE APPENDIX 2 - TABLE OF NUMBER OF PRISONERS EXECUTED in 2007, BY STATE APPENDIX 3 - TABLE OF NUMBER OF PRISONERS UNDER SENTENCE OF DEATH (FEDERAL/STATE) AS OF DECEMBER 31, 2006 APPENDIX 4 - TABLE OF NUMBER OF PRISONERS UNDER SENTENCE OF DEATH (1953-2006) APPENDIX 5 - TABLE OF NUMBER OF EXECUTIONS CONDUCTED (1930-2007) APPENDIX 6 - TABLE OF CAPITAL OFFENSES CATEGORIZED BY STATE APPENDIX 7 - TABLE OF FEDERAL DEATH PENALTY OFFENSES CATEGORIZED BY STATUTE APPENDIX 8 - DIRECTORY OF DEATH PENALTY ABOLITIONIST ORGANIZATIONS APPENDIX 9 - TABLE OF MURDER RATES IN DEATH PENALTY STATES COMPARED TO MURDER RATES IN NON-DEATH PENALTY STATES (1990-2006) APPENDIX 10 - TABLE OF EXECUTION METHODS CATEGORIZED BY STATE APPENDIX 11 - TABLE OF TOTAL NUMBER OF EXECUTIONS, CATEGORIZED BY STATE, AND METHODS OF EXECUTION (1976-2007) APPENDIX 12 - TABLE OF STATES THAT HAVE ADOPTED STANDARDS OF QUALIFICATION FOR ATTORNEYS HANDLING CAPITAL CASES ON BEHALF OF INDIGENT DEFENDANTS APPENDIX 13 - TABLE OF NUMBER OF DEATH ROW PRISONERS EXONERATED, BY STATE APPENDIX 14 - TABLE OF NUMBER OF DEATH ROW PRISONERS EXONERATED, BY YEAR APPENDIX 15 - TABLE OF NUMBER OF PRISONERS UNDER SENTENCE OF DEATH CATEGORIZED BY RACE (1968-2006) APPENDIX 16 - TABLE OF NUMBER OF WOMEN PRISONERS UNDER SENTENCE OF DEATH CATEGORIZED BY RACE (FEDERAL/STATE) AS OF DECEMBER 31, 2006 APPENDIX 17 - TABLE OF NUMBER OF PRISONERS UNDER SENTENCE OF DEATH AS OF DECEMBER 31, 2006 CATEGORIZED BY AGE APPENDIX 18 - STATUTES DEFINING MENTAL RETARDATION FOR THE PURPOSE OF THE IMPOSITION OF THE DEATH PENALTY APPENDIX 19 - DEFENDANTS WITH MENTAL RETARDATION EXECUTED IN THE UNITED STATES APPENDIX 20 - DIRECTORY OF STATE GOVERNORS' OFFICES GLOSSARY BIBLIOGRAPHY AND ADDITIONAL READING
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:
Capital punishment -- United States.