Table of contents for Fundamentals of electric circuits / Charles K. Alexander, Matthew N. O. Sadiku.

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Preface xii 
Acknowledgments xvi 
Guided Tour xx 
A Note to the Student xxv 
About the Authors xxvii 
PART 1 DC Circuits 2 
Chapter 1 Basic Concepts 3 
1.1	Introduction 4 
1.2	Systems of Units 4 
1.3	Charge and Current 6 
1.4	Voltage 9 
1.5	Power and Energy 10 
1.6	Circuit Elements 15 
1.7	Applications 17 
 1.7.1 TV Picture Tube 
 1.7.2 Electricity Bills 
1.8	Problem Solving 20 
1.9	Summary 23 
Review Questions 24 
Problems 24 
Comprehensive Problems 27 
Chapter 2 Basic Laws 29 
2.1	Introduction 30 
2.2	Ohm’s Law 30 
2.3	Nodes, Branches, and Loops 35 
2.4	Kirchhoff’s Laws 37 
2.5	Series Resistors and Voltage Division 43 
2.6	Parallel Resistors and Current Division 45 
2.7	Wye-Delta Transformations 52 
2.8	Applications 58 
 2.8.1 Lighting Systems 
 2.8.2 Design of DC Meters 
2.9	Summary 64 
Review Questions 66 
Problems 67 
Comprehensive Problems 78 
Chapter 3 Methods of Analysis 81 
3.1 	 Introduction 82 
3.2 	 Nodal Analysis 82 
3.3 	 Nodal Analysis with Voltage Sources 88 
3.4 	 Mesh Analysis 93 
3.5 	 Mesh Analysis with Current Sources 98 
3.6 	 Nodal and Mesh Analyses by Inspection 100 
3.7 	 Nodal Versus Mesh Analysis 104 
3.8	 Circuit Analysis with PSpice 105 
3.9	 Applications: DC Transistor Circuits 107 
3.10 Summary 112 
Review Questions 113 
Problems 114 
Comprehensive Problems 126 
Chapter 4 Circuit Theorems 127 
4.1	Introduction 128 
4.2	Linearity Property 128 
4.3	Superposition 130 
4.4	Source Transformation 135 
4.5	Thevenin’s Theorem 139 
4.6	Norton’s Theorem 145 
4.7	Derivations of Thevenin’s and Norton’s Theorems 149 
4.8	Maximum Power Transfer 150 
4.9	Verifying Circuit Theorems with PSpice 152 
4.10	Applications 155 
 4.10.1	Source Modeling 
 4.10.2	Resistance Measurement 
4.11	Summary 160 
Review Questions 161 
Problems 162 
Comprehensive Problems 173 
Chapter 5 Operational Amplifi;ers 175 
5.1	Introduction 176 
5.2	Operational Amplifiers 176 
5.3	Ideal Op Amp 179 
5.4	Inverting Amplifier 181 
5.5	Noninverting Amplifier 183 
5.6	Summing Amplifier 185 
5.7	Difference Amplifier 187 
5.8	Cascaded Op Amp Circuits 191 
5.9	Op Amp Circuit Analysis with PSpice 
5.10	Applications 196 
 5.10.1	Digital-to-Analog Converter 
 5.10.2 Instrumentation Amplifiers 
5.11 	Summary 199 
Review Questions 201 
Problems 202 
Comprehensive Problems 213 
Chapter 6	Capacitors and Inductors 215 
6.1	Introduction 216 
6.2	Capacitors 216 
6.3	Series and Parallel Capacitors 220
6.4	Inductors 226 
6.5	Series and Parallel Inductors 229
6.6	†Applications 233 
 6.6.1 Integrator 
 6.6.2 Differentiator 
 6.6.3 Analog Computer 
6.7	Summary 240 
Review Questions 241 
Problems 242 
Comprehensive Problems 251 
Chapter 7	First-Order Circuits 
7.1	Introduction 254 
7.2 	The Source-Free RC Circuit 254 
7.3 	The Source-Free RL Circuit 259 
7.4 	Singularity Functions 265 
7.5 	Step Response of an RC Circuit 273 
7.6 	Step Response of an RL Circuit 276
7.7	First-Order Op Amp Circuits 280 
7.8 	Transient Analysis with PSpice 298
7.9	Applications 293 
 7.9.1 Delay Circuits 
 7.9.2 Photoflash Unit 
 7.9.3 Relay Circuits 
 7.9.4 Automobile Ignition Circuit 
7.10 	Summary 299 
Review Questions 300 
Problems 301 
Comprehensive Problems 311 
Chapter 8 Second-Order Circuits 313 
8.1	Introduction 314 
8.2	Finding Initial and Final Values 314 
8.3	The Source-Free Series RLC Circuit 319 
8.4	The Source-Free Parallel RLC Circuit 326 
8.5	Step Response of a Series RLC Circuit 331 
8.6	Step Response of a Parallel RLC Circuit 336 
8.7	General Second-Order Circuits 339 
8.8	Second-Order Op Amp Circuits 344 
8.9	PSpice Analysis of RLC Circuits 346 
8.10	Duality 350 
8.11	Applications 353 
 8.11.1	Automobile Ignition System 
 8.11.2	Smoothing Circuits 
8.12	Summary 356 
Review Questions 357 
Problems 358 
Comprehensive Problems 367 
PART 2 AC Circuits 368 
Chapter 9 Sinusoids and Phasors 369
9.1	Introduction 370 
9.2	Sinusoids 371 
9.3	Phasors 376 
9.4	Phasor Relationships for Circuit Elements 385 
9.5	Impedance and Admittance 387 
9.6	Kirchhoff’s Laws in the Frequency Domain 389 
9.7	Impedance Combinations 390 
9.8	Applications	396 
 9.8.1 Phase-Shifters 
 9.8.2 AC Bridges 
9.9	Summary 402 
Review Questions 403 
Problems 403 
Comprehensive Problems 411 
Chapter 10 Sinusoidal Steady-State Analysis 413 
10.1 	Introduction 414 
10.2 	Nodal Analysis 414 
10.3 	Mesh Analysis 417 
10.4 	Superposition Theorem 421 
10.5 	Source Transformation 424 
10.6 	Thevenin and Norton Equivalent Circuits 426 
10.7 	Op amp AC Circuits 431 
10.8 	AC Analysis Using PSpice 433 
10.9	Applications 437 
 10.9.1 Capacitance Multiplier 
 10.9.2 Oscillators 
10.10 Summary 441 
Review Questions 441 
Problems 443 
Chapter 11 AC Power Analysis 
11.1	Introduction 458 
11.2	Instantaneous and Average Power 458 
11.3	Maximum Average Power Transfer 464 
11.4	Effective or RMS Value 467 
11.5	Apparent Power and Power Factor 470 
11.6	Complex Power 473 
11.7 	Conservation of AC Power 477 
11.8 	 Power Factor Correction 481 
11.9 	Applications 483 
 11.9.1 Power Measurement 
 11.9.2 Electricity Consumption Cost 
11.10 Summary 488 
Review Questions 490 
Problems 490 
Comprehensive Problems 500 
Chapter 12 Three-Phase Circuits 503 
12.1	Introduction 504 
12.2	Balanced Three-Phase Voltages 505 
12.3	Balanced Wye-Wye Connection 509 
12.4	Balanced Wye-Delta Connection 512 
12.5	Balanced Delta-Delta Connection 514 
12.6	Balanced Delta-Wye Connection 516 
12.7	Power in a Balanced System 519 
12.8	Unbalanced Three-Phase Systems 525 
12.9	PSpice for Three-Phase Circuits 529 
12.10	Applications 534 
 12.10.1 Three-Phase Power Measurement 
 12.10.2 Residential Wiring 
12.11	Summary 543 
Review Questions 543 
Problems 544 
Comprehensive Problems 553 
Chapter 13 Magnetically Coupled Circuits 555 
13.1 	Introduction 556 
13.2 	 Mutual Inductance 557 
13.3 	 Energy in a Coupled Circuit 564 
13.4 	 Linear Transformers 567 
13.5 	 Ideal Transformers 573 
13.6 	 Ideal Autotransformers 581 
13.7 	 Three-Phase Transformers 584 
13.8	 PSpice Analysis of Magnetically 
13.9 	 Coupled Circuits 586 †Applications 591 
 13.9.1 Transformer as an Isolation Device 
 13.9.2 Transformer as a Matching Device 
 13.9.3 Power Distribution 
13.10 Summary 597 
Review Questions 598 
Problems 599 
Comprehensive Problems 611 
Chapter 14 Frequency Response 613 
14.1	Introduction 614 
14.2	Transfer Function 614 
14.3	The Decibel Scale 617 
14.4	Bode Plots 619 
14.5	Series Resonance 629 
14.6	Parallel Resonance 634 
14.7	Passive Filters 637 
 14.7.1	Lowpass Filter 
 14.7.2	Highpass Filter 
 14.7.3	Bandpass Filter 
1	4.7.4	Bandstop Filter 
14.8	Active Filters 642 
 14.8.1	First-Order Lowpass Filter 
 14.8.2	First-Order Highpass Filter 
 14.8.3	Bandpass Filter 
 14.8.4	Bandreject (or Notch) Filter 
14.9	Scaling 648 
 14.9.1	Magnitude Scaling 
 14.9.2	Frequency Scaling 
 14.9.3	Magnitude and Frequency Scaling 
14.10	Frequency Response Using PSpice 652 
14.11	Computation Using MATLAB 655 
14.12 	Applications 65717.3 Symmetry Considerations 764 
 14.12.1 Radio Receiver17.3.1 Even Symmetry 
 14.12.2 Touch-Tone Telephone17.3.2 Odd Symmetry 
 14.12.3 Crossover Network17.3.3 Half-Wave Symmetry 
14.13	Summary 663 
Review Questions 664 
Problems 665
Comprehensive Problems 673
PART 3 Advanced Circuit Analysis 674
Chapter 15 Introduction to Laplace Transforms 675
15.1	Introduction 676 
15.2	Definition of the Laplace Transform 677 
15.3	Properties of the Laplace Transform 679 
15.4	The Inverse Laplace Transform 690 
 15.4.1 Simple Poles 
 15.4.2 Repeated Poles 
 15.4.3 Complex Poles 
15.5	The Convolution Integral 697 
15.6	Application to Integrodifferential Equations 705
Summary 708
Review Questions 708
Problems 709
Chapter 16 Applications of the Laplace Transform 715
16.1	 Introduction 716
16.2	Circuit Element Models 716 
16.3	Circuit Analysis 722 
16.4	Transfer Functions 726 
16.5	State Variables 730 
16.6	Applications 737
 16.6.1Network Stability
 16.6.2Network Synthesis
16.7 	Summary 745
Review Questions 746
Problems 747
Comprehensive Problems 754
Chapter 17 The Fourier Series 755
17.1	Introduction 756 
17.2	Trigonometric Fourier Series 756 
17.4 	Circuit Applications 774 
17.5 	Average Power and RMS Values 778 
17.6 	Exponential Fourier Series 781 
17.7 	Fourier Analysis with PSpice 787 
 17.7.1	Discrete Fourier Transform 
 17.7.2	Fast Fourier Transform 
17.8	Applications 793 
 17.8.1 Spectrum Analyzers 
 17.8.2	Filters
17.9	Summary 796 
Review Questions 798 
Problems 798 
Comprehensive Problems 807 
Chapter 18 Fourier Transform 809
18.1	 Introduction 810
18.2	 Definition of the Fourier Transform 810
18.3 	 Properties of the Fourier Transform 816
18.4	 Circuit Applications 829 
18.5	 Parseval’s Theorem 832 
18.6	 Comparing the Fourier and Laplace Transforms 835 
18.7	 Applications 836 
 18.7.1	Amplitude Modulation 
 18.7.2	Sampling 
18.8 	Summary 839 
Review Questions 840 
Problems 841 
Comprehensive Problems 847 
Chapter 19 Two-Port Networks 849
19.1 	Introduction 850 
19.2	 Impedance Parameters 850 
19.3 	Admittance Parameters 855 
19.4 	Hybrid Parameters 858 
19.5 	Transmission Parameters 863 
19.6 	Relationships Between Parameters 868 
19.7	Interconnection of Networks 871 
19.8	Computing Two-Port Parameters Using PSpice 877 
19.9	Applications 880 
 19.9.1 Transistor Circuits
 19.9.2 Ladder Network Synthesis
19.10 	Summary 889
Review Questions 890 
Problems 890 
Comprehensive Problems 901
Appendix A 	Simultaneous Equations and Matrix Inversion A-1
Appendix B 	Complex Numbers A-9
Appendix C 	Mathematical Formulas A-16
Appendix D	PSpice for Windows A-21 
Appendix E	MATLAB A-46
Appendix F 	KCIDE for Circuits A-65 
Appendix G	Answers to Odd-Numbered Problems A-75
A Selected Bibliography B-1 
Index I-1 

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Electric circuits.